Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Judith O. Ehigie

36 A Systematic Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fish and Poultry – Health and Environmental Implications for Animal Source Food Production in Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa

Authors: Ekemini M. Okon, Reuben C. Okocha, Babatunde T. Adesina, Judith O. Ehigie, Babatunde M. Falana, Boluwape T. Okikiola

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has evolved to become a significant threat to global public health and food safety. The development of AMR in animals has been associated with antimicrobial overuse. In recent years, the number of antimicrobials used in food animals such as fish and poultry has escalated. It, therefore, becomes imperative to understand the patterns of AMR in fish and poultry and map out future directions for better surveillance efforts. This study used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses(PRISMA) to assess the trend, patterns, and spatial distribution for AMR research in Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa. A literature search was conducted through the Scopus and Web of Science databases in which published studies on AMR between 1989 and 2021 were assessed. A total of 172 articles were relevant for this study. The result showed progressive attention on AMR studies in fish and poultry from 2018 to 2021 across the selected countries. The period between 2018 (23 studies) and 2021 (25 studies) showed a significant increase in AMR publications with a peak in 2019 (28 studies). Egypt was the leading exponent of AMR research (43%, n=74) followed by Nigeria (40%, n=69), then South Africa (17%, n=29). AMR studies in fish received relatively little attention across countries. The majority of the AMR studies were on poultry in Egypt (82%, n=61), Nigeria (87%, n=60), and South Africa (83%, n=24). Further, most of the studies were on Escherichia and Salmonella species. Antimicrobials frequently researched were ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole groups. Multiple drug resistance was prevalent, as demonstrated by antimicrobial resistance patterns. In poultry, Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, oxytetracycline, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, erythromycin, and ampicillin. Salmonella enterica serovars were resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, cefotaxime, and ampicillin. Staphylococcusaureus showed high-level resistance to streptomycin, kanamycin, erythromycin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim, vancomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Campylobacter isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid at varying degrees. In fish, Enterococcus isolates showed resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin, and tetracycline but sensitive to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and rifampicin. Isolated strains of Vibrio species showed sensitivity to florfenicol and ciprofloxacin, butresistance to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and erythromycin. Isolates of Aeromonas and Pseudomonas species exhibited resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin. Specifically, Aeromonashydrophila isolates showed sensitivity to cephradine, doxycycline, erythromycin, and florfenicol. However, resistance was also exhibited against augmentinandtetracycline. The findings constitute public and environmental health threats and suggest the need to promote and advance AMR research in other countries, particularly those on the global hotspot for antimicrobial use.

Keywords: antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance, bacteria, environment, public health

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35 Data-Driven Decision Making: Justification of Not Leaving Class without It

Authors: Denise Hexom, Judith Menoher

Abstract:

Teachers and administrators across America are being asked to use data and hard evidence to inform practice as they begin the task of implementing Common Core State Standards. Yet, the courses they are taking in schools of education are not preparing teachers or principals to understand the data-driven decision making (DDDM) process nor to utilize data in a much more sophisticated fashion. DDDM has been around for quite some time, however, it has only recently become systematically and consistently applied in the field of education. This paper discusses the theoretical framework of DDDM; empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of DDDM; a process a department in a school of education has utilized to implement DDDM; and recommendations to other schools of education who attempt to implement DDDM in their decision-making processes and in their students’ coursework.

Keywords: data-driven decision making, institute of higher education, special education, continuous improvement

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34 Street Art Lenses: A Glimpse into the Street Artists’ Identity and Socio-Political Perspective in Brussels

Authors: José Francisco Urrutia Reyes, Judith Espinosa Real

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This paper is meant to re-examine the role of street art in the contemporary world. By studying this form of art in Brussels, it can be explained how murals show the socio-political reality of a given community and influence on its interaction. Through the definitions of street art, murals and street artists, and analysing their role in Brussels, it is possible to understand how this counter culture movement serves as an engine of social development, as it interacts with its surroundings sending a clear message to a wider audience. Street art impacts on its environment because it interacts with the people who occupies the day-to-day public space. This has proven to be effective in the arouse of social consciousness, up to the point of being adopted by the government of Brussels to promote social movements such as the AIDS-HIV campaign along with the Plate-Forme Prévention Sida. It can be concluded that street art has evolved since its vandalic beginnings, to become a form of art that has not lost it counter official status, but now has a critical vision that can promote social awakening. Street art is now a global trend that uses visual inputs to create a positive impact.

Keywords: street art, Brussels, social impact, political perspective

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33 Understanding Parental Style and Its Effect on the Wellbeing of Adolescents with Epilepsy

Authors: Arthy Vinayakam, Emilda Judith Ezhil Rajan

Abstract:

Adolescents with epilepsy living in developing country like India face many difficulties on stigma towards the disease. The psychological wellbeing of adolescents who are living with epilepsy has a varied influence on their daily activities and decision-making. Parental involvement with adolescents has always been a subject of caution. The dynamics in adolescents with epilepsy is much varied as their parental aspects has been known to have an impact on their education, socialization and wellbeing. The current study aims to identify the effect of parental styles, how they tend to effect the perception of self-concept that relate to the stigma in adolescents with epilepsy. A sample of 30 adolescents with epilepsy and their parents were taken; a control group of 30 adolescents and their parents were also taken. The General Health Questionnaire -12 was used as a screening for both groups to be included in the study. Parents were evaluated with Parenting Practices Questionnaire (PPQ). Adolescents were administered the Epilepsy Stigma Scale (ESS), Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSS) and Adolescent Wellbeing Scale (AWS). Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study highlight the challenges of both parent and their influence on adolescent’s wellbeing. The findings also establish the impact of parenting style on the stigma in adolescents having epilepsy and how this influences their self-concept whereby their emotional strength.

Keywords: epilepsy, parenting style, stigma, wellbeing

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32 Nutraceutical Potential of Mushroom Bioactive Metabolites and Their Food Functionality

Authors: Jackson Ishara, Ariel Buzera, Gustave N. Mushagalusa, Ahmed R. A. Hammam, Judith Munga, Paul Karanja, John Kinyuru

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Numerous mushroom bioactive metabolites, including polysaccharides, eritadenine, lignin, chitosan, mevinolin, and astrakurkurone have been studied in life-threatening conditions and diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular, hypertension, cancer, DNA damage, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity attempting to identify natural therapies. These bioactive metabolites have shown potential as antiviral and immune system strengthener natural agents through diverse cellular and physiological pathways modulation with no toxicity evidence, widely available, and affordable. In light of the emerging literature, this paper compiles the most recent information describing the molecular mechanisms that underlie the nutraceutical potentials of these mushroom metabolites suggesting their effectiveness if combined with existing drug therapies. The findings raise hope that these mushroom bioactive metabolites may be utilized as natural therapies considering their therapeutic potential while anticipating further research designing clinical trials and developing new drug therapies while encouraging their consumption as a natural adjuvant in preventing and controlling life-threatening conditions and diseases.

Keywords: bioactive metabolites, food functionality, health-threatening conditions, mushrooms, nutraceutical

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31 Parathyroid Hormone Receptor 1 as a Prognostic Indicator in Canine Osteosarcoma

Authors: Awf A. Al-Khan, Michael J. Day, Judith Nimmo, Mourad Tayebi, Stewart D. Ryan, Samantha J. Richardson, Janine A. Danks

Abstract:

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of malignant primary bone tumour in dogs. In addition to their critical roles in bone formation and remodeling, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor (PTHR1) are involved in progression and metastasis of many types of tumours in humans. The aims of this study were to determine the localisation and expression levels of PTHrP and PTHR1 in canine OS tissues using immunohistochemistry and to investigate if this expression is correlated with survival time. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 44 dogs with known survival time that had been diagnosed with primary osteosarcoma were analysed for localisation of PTHrP and PTHR1. Findings showed that both PTHrP and PTHR1 were present in all OS samples. The dogs with high level of PTHR1 protein (16%) had decreased survival time (P<0.05) compared to dogs with less PTHR1 protein. PTHrP levels did not correlate with survival time (P>0.05). The results of this study indicate that the PTHR1 is expressed differently in canine OS tissues and this may be correlated with poor prognosis. This may mean that PTHR1 may be useful as a prognostic indicator in canine OS and could represent a good therapeutic target in OS.

Keywords: dog, expression, osteosarcoma, parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), survival

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30 Video Object Segmentation for Automatic Image Annotation of Ethernet Connectors with Environment Mapping and 3D Projection

Authors: Marrone Silverio Melo Dantas Pedro Henrique Dreyer, Gabriel Fonseca Reis de Souza, Daniel Bezerra, Ricardo Souza, Silvia Lins, Judith Kelner, Djamel Fawzi Hadj Sadok

Abstract:

The creation of a dataset is time-consuming and often discourages researchers from pursuing their goals. To overcome this problem, we present and discuss two solutions adopted for the automation of this process. Both optimize valuable user time and resources and support video object segmentation with object tracking and 3D projection. In our scenario, we acquire images from a moving robotic arm and, for each approach, generate distinct annotated datasets. We evaluated the precision of the annotations by comparing these with a manually annotated dataset, as well as the efficiency in the context of detection and classification problems. For detection support, we used YOLO and obtained for the projection dataset an F1-Score, accuracy, and mAP values of 0.846, 0.924, and 0.875, respectively. Concerning the tracking dataset, we achieved an F1-Score of 0.861, an accuracy of 0.932, whereas mAP reached 0.894. In order to evaluate the quality of the annotated images used for classification problems, we employed deep learning architectures. We adopted metrics accuracy and F1-Score, for VGG, DenseNet, MobileNet, Inception, and ResNet. The VGG architecture outperformed the others for both projection and tracking datasets. It reached an accuracy and F1-score of 0.997 and 0.993, respectively. Similarly, for the tracking dataset, it achieved an accuracy of 0.991 and an F1-Score of 0.981.

Keywords: RJ45, automatic annotation, object tracking, 3D projection

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29 Reading the Memoirs of American Caregiving Daughters: A Care-Focused Feminist Approach

Authors: Su-Lin Yu

Abstract:

This paper will explore how gender and care discourse are intersected, reformulated and contested in American daughters’ caregiving memoirs. In particular, it will attempt to show how gender structure has worked to regulate a daughter’s response to her mother’s illness. In other words, how do certain cultural notions and class difference affect the ways in which the daughter enacts her caregiving response to her mother’s illness? What is the interrelation of female subjectivity and care practice? To understand care and gender politics in the memoirs, this paper will engage in close readings of five texts: Sandra Bullock Simith’s Trading Places: Becoming My Mother’s Mother: A Daughter’s Memoir (2015),Martha Stettinius’s Inside the Dementia Epidemic: A Daughter’s Memoir (2012), Patricia Thompson Collamer’s Grace on the Ledge: a Caregiver's Memoir, Judith Henry’s The Dutiful Daughter's Guide to Caregiving: A Practical Memoir (2015), and The Daughter's Dilemma: A Survival Guide to Caring for an Aging, Abusive Parent by Emily Wanderer Cohen (2018). By analyzing these texts, this paper will show why adult daughters become the primary caregivers, how gender norms and care practices influence a daughter’s thoughts and actions, and how it affects her self-understanding. Taken as a whole, then, the paper will provide an important examination not only of care and gender politics, but also a contribution to the intersecting discourses of illness, death, and mother-daughter relationship.

Keywords: care ethics, daughter-mother relationship, gender politics, memoirs

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28 Post-Structural Study of Gender in Shakespearean Othello from Butlerian Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Shakeel Rehman Hissam

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This study aims at analyzing gender in Othello by applying Judith Butler’s Post-Structural theory of gender and gender performance. The analysis of the play provides us context by which we can examine what kinds of effects the drama have on understanding of the researchers regarding gender identity. The study sets out to examine that, is there any evidence or ground in Shakespearean selected work which leads to challenge the patriarchal taken for granted prescribed roles of gender? This would be the focal point in study of Othello that actions and performances of characters determine their gender identity rather than their sexuality. It argues that gender of Shakespearean characters has no constant, fixed and structural impression. On the contrary, they undergo consistent variations in their behavior and performance which impart fluidity and volatility to them. The focal point of the present study is Butler’s prominent work; Gender Trouble: Feminism and subversion of Identity and her post structural theory of Gender performativity as the theoretical underpinning of the text. It analyzes the selected play in Post-Structural gender perspective. The gender-centric plot of the play is riddled with fluidity of gender. The most fascinating aspect of the play is the transformations of genders on the basis of performances by different characters and through these transformations; gender identity is revealed and determined. The study reconstructs the accepted gender norms by challenging the traditional concept of gender that is based on sexual differences of characters.

Keywords: post structural, gender, performativity, socio-cultural gender norms, binaries, Othello, Butler, identity

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27 An EU Legal Framework for Short-Term Exit Strategies from Gas Suppliers’ Violation of Public International Law Viewed from a Legal Perspective

Authors: Judith Kärn

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The war of aggression launched by Russia on Ukraine on February 24 has caused horror around the world. While economic energy relations have long been seen as a guarantor of peace, this position must now be reconsidered. While Putin is building up an “energy withdrawal threat” to prevent third countries in the Russia-Ukraine war from taking countermeasures, those same third countries are thinking about reactions in the context of the energy sector (Germany: suspension of the Nord Stream 2 certification process, demands for energy import embargo, e.g., by Poland) to deprive the war of aggression of possible sources of financing. So far, an EU-wide (gas) energy import embargo as a sanction has been deliberately refrained from. If individual member states of the EU or the EU as a whole wanted to strategically use its energy relations in order to combat such violations, EU legislation would pose some difficulties, especially since the EU solidarity mechanism cannot be activated in such a case. This paper analyzes the possibilities for the creation of a legal framework in which violations of international law, such as a war of aggression, can be punished in the context of energy relations. The paper addresses three particularly relevant aspects: a) Possibilities of suspending certification procedures of energy infrastructure projects in EU law, b) Possibilities of contractual design of sanctioning options in case of violations of public international law (European soft law guidelines/recommendations for contracts), c) an adjustment of EU solidarity mechanism legislation.

Keywords: EU legal framework, short term exit strategies, suppliers' violation of public international law, energy sanctions

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26 Using Deep Learning for the Detection of Faulty RJ45 Connectors on a Radio Base Station

Authors: Djamel Fawzi Hadj Sadok, Marrone Silvério Melo Dantas Pedro Henrique Dreyer, Gabriel Fonseca Reis de Souza, Daniel Bezerra, Ricardo Souza, Silvia Lins, Judith Kelner

Abstract:

A radio base station (RBS), part of the radio access network, is a particular type of equipment that supports the connection between a wide range of cellular user devices and an operator network access infrastructure. Nowadays, most of the RBS maintenance is carried out manually, resulting in a time consuming and costly task. A suitable candidate for RBS maintenance automation is repairing faulty links between devices caused by missing or unplugged connectors. A suitable candidate for RBS maintenance automation is repairing faulty links between devices caused by missing or unplugged connectors. This paper proposes and compares two deep learning solutions to identify attached RJ45 connectors on network ports. We named connector detection, the solution based on object detection, and connector classification, the one based on object classification. With the connector detection, we get an accuracy of 0:934, mean average precision 0:903. Connector classification, get a maximum accuracy of 0:981 and an AUC of 0:989. Although connector detection was outperformed in this study, this should not be viewed as an overall result as connector detection is more flexible for scenarios where there is no precise information about the environment and the possible devices. At the same time, the connector classification requires that information to be well-defined.

Keywords: radio base station, maintenance, classification, detection, deep learning, automation

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25 Novel Recombinant Betasatellite Associated with Vein Thickening Symptoms on Okra Plants in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Adel M. Zakri, Mohammed A. Al-Saleh, Judith. K. Brown, Ali M. Idris

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Betasatellites are small circular single stranded DNA molecules found associated with begomoviruses on field symptomatic plants. Their genome size is about half that of the helper begomovirus, ranging between 1.3 and 1.4 kb. The helper begomoviruses are usually members of the family Geminiviridae. Okra leaves showing vein thickening were collected from okra plants growing in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Total DNA was extracted from leaves and used as a template to amplify circular DNA using rolling circle amplification (RCA) technology. Products were digested with PstI to linearize the helper viral genome(s), and associated DNA satellite(s), yielding a 2.8kbp and 1.4kbp fragment, respectively. The linearized fragments were cloned into the pGEM-5Zf (+) vector and subjected to DNA sequencing. The 2.8 kb fragment was identified as Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus genome, at 2780bp, an isolate closely related to strains reported previously from Saudi Arabia. A clone obtained from the 1.4 kb fragments he 1.4kb was blasted to GeneBank database found to be a betasatellite. The genome of betasatellite was 1357-bp in size. It was found to be a recombinant containing one fragment (877-bp) that shared 91% nt identity with Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite [KM279620], and a smaller fragment [133--bp) that shared 86% nt identity with Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus [JX483708]. This satellite is thus a recombinant between a malvaceous-infecting satellite and a solanaceous-infecting begomovirus.

Keywords: begomovirus, betasatellites, cotton leaf curl Gezira virus, okra plants

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24 Ibadan-Nigeria Citizenship Behavior Scale: Development and Validation

Authors: Benjamin O. Ehigie, Aderemi Alarape, Nyitor Shenge, Sylvester A. Okhakhume, Timileyin Fashola, Fiyinfunjah Dosumu

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Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is a construct in industrial and organisational behaviour that explains a person's voluntary commitment within an organisation, which is outside the scope of his or her contractual tasks. To attain organisational effectiveness the human factor of production is inevitable, hence the importance of employee behaviour. While the concept of organisational citizenship behavior is mostly discussed in the context of the workplace, it is reasoned that the idea could be reflective in relation to national commitment. Many developing countries in Africa, including Nigeria, suffer economic hardship today not necessarily due to poor resources but bad management of the resources. The mangers of their economies are not committed to the tenets of economic growth but engrossed in fraud, corruption, bribery, and other economic vices. It is this backdrop that necessitated the development and validation of the Ibadan-Nigeria Citizenship Behaviour (I-NCB) Scale. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey (online) research design, using 2404 postgraduate students in the Premier University of the country, with 99.2% being Nigerians and 0.8% non-Nigerians. Gender composition was 1,439 (60%) males and 965 (40%) females, 1201 (50%) were employed while 1203 50% unemployed, 74.2% of the employed were in public paid employment, 19.5% in private sector, and 6.3% were self-employed. Through literature review, 78 items were generated. Using 10 lecturers and 21 students, content and face validity were established respectively. Data collected were subjected to reliability and factor analytic statistics at p < .05 level of significance. Results of the content and face validity at 80% level of item acceptance resulted to 60 items; this was further reduced to 50 after item-total correlation using r=.30 criterion. Divergent validity of r= -.28 and convergent validity of r= .44 were obtained by correlating the I-NCB scale with standardized Counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) scale and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) scale among the workers. The reliability coefficients obtained were; Cronbach alpha of internal consistency (α = 0.941) and split-half reliability of r = 0.728. Factor analyses of the I-NCB scale with principal component and varimax rotation yielded five factors when Eigenvalue above 1 were extracted. The factors which accounted for larger proportions of the total variance were given factor names as; Altruistic, Attachment, Affective, Civic responsibility and Allegiance. As much as there are vast journals on citizenship behaviour in organisations, there exists no standardized tool to measure citizenship behaviour of a country. The Ibadan-Nigeria Citizenship Behaviour (I-NCB) scale was consequently developed. The scale could be used to select personnel into political positions and senior administrative positions among career workers in Nigeria, with the aim of determining national commitment to service.

Keywords: counterproductive work behaviour, CWB, Nigeria Citizenship Behaviour, organisational citizenship behaviour, OCB, Ibadan

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23 Tracing Digital Traces of Phatic Communion in #Mooc

Authors: Judith Enriquez-Gibson

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This paper meddles with the notion of phatic communion introduced 90 years ago by Malinowski, who was a Polish-born British anthropologist. It explores the phatic in Twitter within the contents of tweets related to moocs (massive online open courses) as a topic or trend. It is not about moocs though. It is about practices that could easily be hidden or neglected if we let big or massive topics take the lead or if we simply follow the computational or secret codes behind Twitter itself and third party software analytics. It draws from media and cultural studies. Though at first it appears data-driven as I submitted data collection and analytics into the hands of a third party software, Twitonomy, the aim is to follow how phatic communion might be practised in a social media site, such as Twitter. Lurking becomes its research method to analyse mooc-related tweets. A total of 3,000 tweets were collected on 11 October 2013 (UK timezone). The emphasis of lurking is to engage with Twitter as a system of connectivity. One interesting finding is that a click is in fact a phatic practice. A click breaks the silence. A click in one of the mooc website is actually a tweet. A tweet was posted on behalf of a user who simply chose to click without formulating the text and perhaps without knowing that it contains #mooc. Surely, this mechanism is not about reciprocity. To break the silence, users did not use words. They just clicked the ‘tweet button’ on a mooc website. A click performs and maintains connectivity – and Twitter as the medium in attendance in our everyday, available when needed to be of service. In conclusion, the phatic culture of breaking silence in Twitter does not have to submit to the power of code and analytics. It is a matter of human code.

Keywords: click, Twitter, phatic communion, social media data, mooc

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22 Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic, Alkaloids Contents and Inhibited Properties against α-Amylase and Invertase Enzymes of Stem Bark Extracts Coula edulis B

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

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Background: It is clearly that phytochemical constituents of plants in relation exhibit free radical scavenging, antioxidant and glycosylation properties. This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging, inhibited activities against α-amylase and invertase enzymes of stem bark extracts C. edulis (Olacaceae). Methods: Four extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and aqueous) from the barks of C. edulis were used in this study. Colorimetric in vitro methods were using for evaluate free radical scavenging activity DPPH, ABTS, NO, OH, antioxidant capacity, glycosylation activity, inhibition of α-amylase and invertase activities, phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid contents. Results: C. edulis extracts (CEE) had a higher scavenging potential on the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), nitrite oxide (NO), 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals and glucose scavenging with the IC50 varied between 41.95 and 36694.43 µg/ml depending on the solvent of extraction. The ethanol extract of C. edulis stem bark (CE EtOH) showed the highest polyphenolic (289.10 + 30.32), flavonoid (1.12 + 0.09) and alkaloids (18.47 + 0.16) content. All the tested extracts demonstrated a relative high inhibition potential against α-amylase and invertase digestive enzymes activities. Conclusion: This study suggests that CEE exhibited higher antioxidant potential and significant inhibition potential against digestive enzymes.

Keywords: Coula edulis, antioxidant, scavenging activity, amylase, invertase

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21 Developing Stability Monitoring Parameters for NIPRIMAL®: A Monoherbal Formulation for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria

Authors: Ekere E. Kokonne, Isimi C. Yetunde, Okoh E. Judith, Okafor E. Ijeoma, Ajeh J. Isaac, Olobayo O. Kunle, Emeje O. Martins

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NIPRIMAL® is a mono herbal formulation of Nauclea latifolia used in the treatment of malaria. The stability of extracts made from plant material is essential to ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of the finished product. This study assessed the stability of the formulation under three different storage conditions; normal room temperature, infrared and under refrigeration. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) were used to monitor the formulations. The DSC analysis was done from 0oC to 350oC under the three storage conditions. Results obtained indicate that NIPRIMAL® was stable at all the storage conditions investigated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) after 6 months showed there was no significant difference between retention factor (RF) values for the various storage conditions. The reference sample had four spots with RF values of 0.47, 0.68, 0.76, 0.82 respectively and these spots were retained in the test formulations with corresponding RF values were after 6 months at room temperature and refrigerated temperature been 0.56, 0.73, 0.80, 0.92 and 0.47, 0.68, 0.76, 0.82 respectively. On the other hand, the RF values (0.55, 0.74, 0.77, 0.93) obtained under infrared after 1 month varied slightly from the reference. The sample exposed to infrared had a lower heat capacity compared to that stored under room temperature or refrigeration. A combination of TLC and DSC measurements has been applied for assessing the stability of NIPRIMAL®. Both methods were found to be rapid, sensitive and reliable in determining its stability. It is concluded that NIPRIMAL® can be stored under any of the tested conditions without degradation. This study is a major contribution towards developing appropriate stability monitoring parameters for herbal products.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, formulation, NIPRIMAL®, stability, thin layer hromatography

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20 Dietary Supplementation with Coula edulis B. Walnuts Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Rats

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

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Background: Dietary supplement may potentially help to fight obesity and other metabolic disorders such as adipogenesis, insulin resistance, and inflammation. The present study aimed to test whether supplementation with African walnuts (Aw) could have an effect on adipogenesis and others dysfunctions associated with obesity in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were fed with standard diet (SD) or high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFS) and HFS with supplemented (HFS-Aw) for eight weeks. Results: HFS diet-induced body weight gain and increased fat mass compared to SD. In addition HFS-fed rats developed fasting hyperglycaemia and insulinaemia as well as insulin resistance. Aw supplementation in HFS rats had a protective effect against adipose tissues weigh gain but slightly against body weight gain and major study related disorders. This could be mainly due to decreased food intake dependently of effect in food intake in central nervous system, which decreased in HFS rats supplemented with African walnut compared to the HFS-diet group. Interestingly, African walnut supplementation induced a slight decrease of fasting glycaemia, insulinaemia and Nitric Oxide which could partially explain its minor protective effect against diet-induced insulin resistance. Additionally a decrease in hepatic TG and transaminases levels suggesting a protective effect against liver injury. Conclusion: Taken together these data suggested that supplementation of African walnut could be used to prevent adipose weight gain and related disorders on the other hand, minimally reduced insulin resistance.

Keywords: African walnut, dietary fiber, insulin resistance, oxidative stress

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19 Modeling of Drug Distribution in the Human Vitreous

Authors: Judith Stein, Elfriede Friedmann

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The injection of a drug into the vitreous body for the treatment of retinal diseases like wet aged-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common medical intervention worldwide. We develop mathematical models for drug transport in the vitreous body of a human eye to analyse the impact of different rheological models of the vitreous on drug distribution. In addition to the convection diffusion equation characterizing the drug spreading, we use porous media modeling for the healthy vitreous with a dense collagen network and include the steady permeating flow of the aqueous humor described by Darcy's law driven by a pressure drop. Additionally, the vitreous body in a healthy human eye behaves like a viscoelastic gel through the collagen fibers suspended in the network of hyaluronic acid and acts as a drug depot for the treatment of retinal diseases. In a completely liquefied vitreous, we couple the drug diffusion with the classical Navier-Stokes flow equations. We prove the global existence and uniqueness of the weak solution of the developed initial-boundary value problem describing the drug distribution in the healthy vitreous considering the permeating aqueous humor flow in the realistic three-dimensional setting. In particular, for the drug diffusion equation, results from the literature are extended from homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions to our mixed boundary conditions that describe the eye with the Galerkin's method using Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and trace theorem. Because there is only a small effective drug concentration range and higher concentrations may be toxic, the ability to model the drug transport could improve the therapy by considering patient individual differences and give a better understanding of the physiological and pathological processes in the vitreous.

Keywords: coupled PDE systems, drug diffusion, mixed boundary conditions, vitreous body

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18 Extraction, Synthesis, Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Oxidized Starch from an Abundant Source in Nigeria

Authors: Okafor E. Ijeoma, Isimi C. Yetunde, Okoh E. Judith, Kunle O. Olobayo, Emeje O. Martins

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Starch has gained interest as a renewable and environmentally compatible polymer due to the increase in its use. However, starch by itself could not be satisfactorily applied in industrial processes due to some inherent disadvantages such as its hydrophilic character, poor mechanical properties, its inability to withstand processing conditions such as extreme temperatures, diverse pH, high shear rate, freeze-thaw variation and dimensional stability. The range of physical properties of parent starch can be enlarged by chemical modification which invariably enhances their use in a number of applications found in industrial processes and food manufacture. In this study, Manihot esculentus starch was subjected to modification by oxidation. Fourier Transmittance Infra- Red (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies were used to confirm the synthesis while Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the new polymer. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) free radical assay was used to determine the antioxidant property of the oxidized starch. Our results show that the modification had no significant effect on the foaming capacity as well as on the emulsion capacity. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oxidation did not alter the predominantly circular-shaped starch granules, while the X-ray pattern of both starch, native and modified were similar. FTIR results revealed a new band at 3007 and 3283cm-1. Differential scanning calorimetry returned two new endothermic peaks in the oxidized starch with an improved gelation capacity and increased enthalpy of gelatinization. The IC50 of oxidized starch was notably higher than that of the reference standard, ascorbic acid.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, DPPH, M. esculentus, oxidation, starch

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17 Screening for Diabetes in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis: The Belfast Trust Experience

Authors: Riyas Peringattuthodiyil, Mark Taylor, Ian Wallace, Ailish Nugent, Mike Mitchell, Judith Thompson, Allison McKee, Philip C. Johnston

Abstract:

Aim of Study: The purpose of the study was to screen for diabetes through HbA1c in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) within the Belfast Trust. Background: Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at risk of developing diabetes, earlier diagnosis with subsequent multi-disciplinary input has the potential to improve clinical outcomes. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of patients with chronic pancreatitis were obtained through the Northern Ireland Electronic Healthcare Record (NIECR), specialist hepatobiliary, and gastrointestinal clinics. Patients were invited to have a blood test for HbA1c. Newly diagnosed patients with diabetes were then invited to attend a dedicated Belfast City Hospital (BCH) specialist chronic pancreatitis and diabetes clinic for follow up. Results: A total of 89 chronic pancreatitis patients were identified; Male54; Female:35, mean age 52 years, range 12-90 years. Aetiology of CP included alcohol 52/89 (58%), gallstones 18/89 (20%), idiopathic 10/89 11%, 2 were genetic, 1: post ECRP, 1: IgG autoimmune, 1: medication induced, 1: lipoprotein lipase deficiency 1: mumps, 1: IVDU and 1: pancreatic divisum. No patients had pancreatic carcinoma. Mean duration of CP was nine years, range 3-30 years. 15/89 (16%) of patients underwent previous pancreatic surgery/resections. Recent mean BMI was 25.1 range 14-40 kg/m². 62/89 (70%) patients had HbA1c performed. Mean HbA1c was 42 mmol/mol, range 27-97mmol/mol, 42/62 (68%) had normal HbA1c (< 42 mmol/mol) 13/62 (21%) had pre-diabetes (42-47mmol/mol) and 7/62 (11%) had diabetes (≥ 48 mmol/mol). Conclusions: Of those that participated in the screening program around one-third of patients with CP had glycaemic control in the pre and diabetic range. Potential opportunities for improving screening rates for diabetes in this cohort could include regular yearly testing at gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary clinics.

Keywords: pancreatogenic diabetes, screening, chronic pancreatitis, trust experience

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16 Quality Assurance for the Climate Data Store

Authors: Judith Klostermann, Miguel Segura, Wilma Jans, Dragana Bojovic, Isadora Christel Jimenez, Francisco Doblas-Reyees, Judit Snethlage

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The Climate Data Store (CDS), developed by the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) implemented by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) on behalf of the European Union, is intended to become a key instrument for exploring climate data. The CDS contains both raw and processed data to provide information to the users about the past, present and future climate of the earth. It allows for easy and free access to climate data and indicators, presenting an important asset for scientists and stakeholders on the path for achieving a more sustainable future. The C3S Evaluation and Quality Control (EQC) is assessing the quality of the CDS by undertaking a comprehensive user requirement assessment to measure the users’ satisfaction. Recommendations will be developed for the improvement and expansion of the CDS datasets and products. User requirements will be identified on the fitness of the datasets, the toolbox, and the overall CDS service. The EQC function of the CDS will help C3S to make the service more robust: integrated by validated data that follows high-quality standards while being user-friendly. This function will be closely developed with the users of the service. Through their feedback, suggestions, and contributions, the CDS can become more accessible and meet the requirements for a diverse range of users. Stakeholders and their active engagement are thus an important aspect of CDS development. This will be achieved with direct interactions with users such as meetings, interviews or workshops as well as different feedback mechanisms like surveys or helpdesk services at the CDS. The results provided by the users will be categorized as a function of CDS products so that their specific interests will be monitored and linked to the right product. Through this procedure, we will identify the requirements and criteria for data and products in order to build the correspondent recommendations for the improvement and expansion of the CDS datasets and products.

Keywords: climate data store, Copernicus, quality, user engagement

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15 First Approximation to Congenital Anomalies in Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) in Veracruz, Mexico

Authors: Judith Correa-Gomez, Cristina Garcia-De la Pena, Veronica Avila-Rodriguez, David R. Aguillon-Gutierrez

Abstract:

Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) is the smallest species of sea turtle. It nests on the beaches of the Gulf of Mexico during summer. To date, there is no information about congenital anomalies in this species, which could be an important factor to be considered as a survival threat. The aim of this study was to determine congenital anomalies in dead embryos and hatchlings of Kemp's ridley sea turtle during 2020 nesting season. Fieldwork was conducted at the 'Campamento Tortugero Barra Norte', on the shores of Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico. A total of 95 nests were evaluated, from which 223 dead embryos and hatchlings were collected. Anomalies were detected by detailed physical examinations. Photographs of each anomaly were taken. From the 223 dead turtles, 213 (95%) showed a congenital anomaly. A total of 53 types of congenital anomalies were found: 22 types on the head region, 21 on the carapace region, 6 on the flipper region, and 4 regarding the entire body. The most prevalent anomaly in the head region was the presence of prefrontal supernumerary scales (42%, 93 occurrences). On the carapace region, the most common anomaly was the presence of supernumerary gular scales (59%, 131 occurrences). The two most common anomalies on the flipper region were amelia in fore flippers and rear bifurcation of flippers (0.9%, 2 occurrences each). The most common anomaly involving the entire body was hypomelanism (35%, 79 occurrences). These results agree with the recent studies on congenital malformations on sea turtles, being the head and the carapace regions the ones with the highest number of congenital anomalies. It is unknown whether the reported anomalies can be related to the death of these individuals. However, it is necessary to develop embryological studies in this species. To our best knowledge, this is the first worldwide report on Kemp’s ridley sea turtle anomalies.

Keywords: Amelia, hypomelanism, morphology, supernumerary scales

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14 Gender-Based Differences in the Social Judgment of Hungarian Politicians' Sex Scandals

Authors: Sara Dalma Galgoczi, Judith Gabriella Kengyel

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Sex scandals are quite an engaging topic to work with, especially with their judgment in society. Most people are interested in other people's lives, specifically in public figures' such as celebrities or politicians, because ordinary people feel like they have the right to know more things about the famous and notorious ones than they would probably willing to share. Intimacy and sexual acts aren't exceptions; moreover, sexuality is one of the central interests of humans ever since. Besides, knowing and having an opinion about any kind of scandal can change even whole social groups or classes estimation of anyone. This study aims to research the social judgment of some Hungarian politicians' sex scandals and asks important questions like diverse public opinions in the light of gender or delegates’ abuse of power. Considering that this study is about collecting and evaluating opinions from the public, and no one before researched and published this exact topic and cases, an online survey was created. In the survey were different sections. We collected data about party-preference, conservativism-liberalism scale; then we used the following questionnaires: from Zero-sum perspective with regard to gender equality (Ruthig, Kehn, Gamblin, Vanderzanden & Jones, 2017), Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996), Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999). Finally, 5 short summaries were presented about five Hungarian politicians' sex scandal cases (3 males, 2 females) from the recent past. These stories were followed by questions about their opinion of the party and attitudes towards the parties' reactions to the cases. We came to the conclusion that people are more permissive with the scandals of men, and benevolent sexism and ambivalence towards men mediate this relation. Men tend to see these cases as part of politicians' private lives more than women. Party preference had a significant effect - people tend to pass a sentence the delegates of the opposing parties, and they rather release the delegates of their preferred party.

Keywords: sex scandal, sexism, social judgement, politician

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13 Dynamic of an Invasive Insect Gut Microbiome When Facing to Abiotic Stress

Authors: Judith Mogouong, Philippe Constant, Robert Lavallee, Claude Guertin

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The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic wood borer insect native from China, which is associated with important environmental and economic damages in North America. Beetles are known to be vectors of microbial communities related to their adaptive capacities. It is now established that environmental stress factors may induce physiological events on the host trees, such as phytochemical changes. Consequently, that may affect the establishment comportment of herbivorous insect. Considering the number of insects collected on ash trees (insects’ density) as an abiotic factor related to stress damage, the aim of our study was to explore the dynamic of EAB gut microbial community genome (microbiome) when facing that factor and to monitor its diversity. Insects were trapped using specific green Lindgren© traps. A gradient of the captured insect population along the St. Lawrence River was used to create three levels of insects’ density (low, intermediate, and high). After dissection, total DNA extracted from insect guts of each level has been sent for amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS2 region. The composition of microbial communities among sample appeared largely diversified with the Simpson index significantly different across the three levels of density for bacteria. Add to that; bacteria were represented by seven phyla and twelve classes, whereas fungi were represented by two phyla and seven known classes. Using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on Bray Curtis distances of 16S rRNA sequences, we observed a significant variation between the structure of the bacterial communities depending on insects’ density. Moreover, the analysis showed significant correlations between some bacterial taxa and the three classes of insects’ density. This study is the first to present a complete overview of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with the gut of EAB base on culture-independent methods, and to correlate those communities with a potential stress factor of the host trees.

Keywords: gut microbiome, DNA, 16S rRNA sequences, emerald ash borer

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12 Preventive Effect of Stem Back Extracts of Coula edulis Baill. against High-Fat / High Sucrose Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Rats

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

Abstract:

Background: Insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress are associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and other cardio metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Coula edulis extracts (CEE) on insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers in high-fat/high sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each fed, received daily oral administration of CE extracts for 8 weeks as follows: Group 1 or negative control group, fed with standard diet (SD); Group 2 fed with high-fat/high sucrose diet (HFHS) only; Group3 fed with HFHS + CEAq 200; Group 4 fed with HFHS + CEAq 400; Group 5 fed with HFHS + CEEt 200; Group 6 fed with HFHS + CEEt 400. At the end of the experiment (8 weeks), animals were sacrificed plasma lipid profile, glucose, insulin, oxidative marker and digestive enzyme activities were measured. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. Results: Feedings with HFHS significantly (p < 0.01) induced plasma hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein levels, alterations of α amylase, and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, and oxidative stress. Daily oral administration with CEE for eight weeks after insulin resistance induction had a hypolipidaemic action, antioxidative activities and modulated metabolic markers. Ethanolic extract at the higher dose had the best effect on body weight gain and insulin resistance, whereas aqueous extract showed the better activity on hyperlipidemia. Conclusion: These results suggest that CEAq and CEEt at 400mg/kg are promising complementary supplements that can be used to protect better from metabolic disorders associated with HFHS.

Keywords: Coula edulis Baill, high-fat / high sucrose diet, insulin resistance, oxidative stress

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11 Analysis of Cultural Influences on Quality Management by Comparison of Japanese and German Enterprises

Authors: Hermann Luecken, Young Won Park, Judith M. Puetter

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Quality is known to be the accordance of product characteristics and customer requirements. Both the customer requirements and the assessment of the characteristics of the product with regard to the fulfillment of customer requirements are subject to cultural influences. Of course, the processes itself which lead to product manufacturing is also subject to cultural influences. In the first point, the cultural background of the customer influences the quality, in the second point, it is the cultural background of the employees and the company that influences the process itself. In times of globalization products are manufactured at different locations around the world, but typically the quality management system of the country in which the mother company is based is used. This leads to significantly different results in terms of productivity, product quality and process efficiency at the different locations, although the same quality management system is in use. The aim of an efficient and effective quality management system is therefore not doing the same at all locations, but to have the same result at all locations. In the past, standardization was used to achieve the same results. Recent investigations show that this is not the best way to achieve the same characteristics of product quality and production performance. In the present work, it is shown that the consideration of cultural aspects in the design of processes, production systems, and quality management systems results in a significantly higher efficiency and a quality improvement. Both Japanese and German companies were investigated with comparative interviews. The background of this selection is that in most cases the cultural difference regarding industrial processes between Germany and Japan is high. At the same time, however, the customer expectations regarding the product quality are very similar. Interviews were conducted with experts from German and Japanese companies; in particular, companies were selected that operate production facilities both in Germany and in Japan. The comparison shows that the cultural influence on the respective production performance is significant. Companies that adapt the design of their quality management and production systems to the country where the production site is located have a significantly higher productivity and a significantly higher quality of the product than companies that work with a centralized system.

Keywords: comparison of German and Japanese production systems, cultural influence on quality management, expert interviews, process efficiency

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10 The Fidget Widget Toolkit: A Positive Intervention Designed and Evaluated to Enhance Wellbeing for People in the Later Stage of Dementia

Authors: Jane E. Souyave, Judith Bower

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This study is an ongoing collaborative project between the University of Central Lancashire and the Alzheimer’s Society to design and test the idea of using interactive tools for a person living with dementia and their carers. It is hoped that the tools will fulfill the possible needs of engagement and interaction as dementia progresses, therefore enhancing wellbeing and improving quality of life for the person with dementia and their carers. The project was informed by Kitwood’s five psychological needs for producing wellbeing and explored evidence that fidgeting is often seen as a form of agitation and a negative symptom of dementia. Although therapy for agitation may be well established, there is a lack of appropriate items aimed at people in the later stage of dementia, that are not childlike or medical in their aesthetic. Individuals may fidget in a particular way and the tools in the Fidget Widget Toolkit have been designed to encourage repetitive movements of the hand, specifically to address the abilities of people with relatively advanced dementia. As an intervention, these tools provided a new approach that had not been tested in dementia care. Prototypes were created through an iterative design process and tested with a number of people with dementia and their carers, using quantitative and qualitative methods. Dementia Care Mapping was used to evaluate the impact of the intervention in group settings. Cohen Mansfield’s Agitation Inventory was used to record the daily use and interest of the intervention for people in their usual place of residence. The results informed the design of a new set of devices to promote safe, stigma free fidgeting as a positive experience, meaningful activity and enhance wellbeing for people in the later stage of dementia. The outcomes addressed the needs of individuals by reducing agitation and restlessness through helping them to connect, engage and act independently, providing the means of doing something for themselves that they were able to do. The next stage will be to explore the commercial feasibility of the Fidget Widget Toolkit so that it can be introduced as good practice and innovation in dementia care. It could be used by care homes, with carers and their families to support wellbeing and lead the way in providing some positive experiences and person-centred approaches that are lacking in the later stage of dementia.

Keywords: dementia, design, fidgeting, healthcare, positive moments, quality of life, wellbeing

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9 Enhancing Skills of Mothers of Asthmatic Children in Techniques of Drug Administration

Authors: Erna Judith Roach, Nalini Bhaskaranand

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Background & Significance: Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children. Education is the cornerstone of management of asthma to help the affected children. In India there are about 1.5- 3.0 million asthmatic children in the age group of 5-11 years. Many parents face management dilemmas in administration of medications to their children. Mothers being primary caregivers of children are often responsible for administering medications to them. The purpose of the study was to develop an educational package on techniques of drug administration for mothers of asthmatic children and determine its effectiveness in terms of improvement in skill in drug administration. Methodology: A quasi- experimental time series pre-test post -test control group design was used. Mothers of asthmatic children attending paediatric outpatient departments of selected hospitals along with their children between 5 and 12 years were included. Sample size consisted of 40 mothers in the experimental and 40 mothers in the control groups. Block randomization was used to assign samples to both the groups. The data collection instruments used were Baseline Proforma, Clinical Proforma, Daily asthma drug intake and symptoms diary and Observation Rating Scales on technique of using a metered dose inhaler with spacer; metered dose inhaler with facemask; metered dose inhaler alone and dry powder inhaler. The educational package consisted of a video and booklet on techniques of drug administration. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Findings: The mean post-test scores in techniques of drug administration were higher than the mean pre-test scores in the experimental group in all techniques. The Friedman test (p < 0.01), Wilcoxon Signed Rank test (p < 0.008) and Mann Whitney U (p < 0.01) showed statistically significant difference in the experimental group than the control group. There was significant decrease in the average number of symptom days (11 Vs. 4 days/ month) and hospital visits (5 to 1 per month) in the experimental group when compared to the control group. Conclusion: The educational package was found to be effective in improving the skill of mothers in drug administration in all the techniques, especially with using the metered dose inhaler with spacer.

Keywords: childhood asthma, drug administration, mothers of children, inhaler

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8 Comparing Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Primary Public and Private Health Care Facilities in Ethiopia

Authors: Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Judith Streak Gomersall, Caroline O. Laurence

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Introduction: Improving access to quality family planning services is the key to improving health of women and children. However, there is currently little evidence on the quality and scope of family planning services provided by private facilities, and this compares to the services provided in public facilities in Ethiopia. This is important, particularly in determining whether the government should further expand the roles of the private sector in the delivery of family planning facility. Methods: This study used the 2014 Ethiopian Services Provision Assessment Plus (ESPA+) survey dataset for comparing the structural aspects of quality of care in family planning services. The present analysis used a weighted sample of 1093 primary health care facilities (955 public and 138 private). This study employed logistic regression analysis to compare key structural variables between public and private facilities. While taking the structural variables as an outcome for comparison, the facility type (public vs private) were used as the key exposure of interest. Results: When comparing availability of basic amenities (infrastructure), public facilities were less likely to have functional cell phones (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), and water supply (AOR=0.29; 95% CI: 0.15-0.58) than private facilities. However, public facilities were more likely to have staff available 24 hours in the facility (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), providers having family planning related training in the past 24 months (AOR=4.4; 95% CI: 2.51, 7.64) and possessing guidelines/protocols (AOR= 3.1 95% CI: 1.87, 5.24) than private facilities. Moreover, comparing the availability of equipment, public facilities had higher odds of having pelvic model for IUD demonstration (AOR=2.60; 95% CI: 1.35, 5.01) and penile model for condom demonstration (AOR=2.51; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.78) than private facilities. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Ethiopian government needs to provide emphasis towards the private sector in terms of providing family planning guidelines and training on family planning services for their staff. It is also worthwhile for the public health facilities to allocate funding for improving the availability of basic amenities. Implications for policy and/ or practice: This study calls policy makers to design appropriate strategies in providing opportunities for training a health care providers working in private health facility.

Keywords: quality of care, family planning, public-private, Ethiopia

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7 Evaluation to Assess the Impact of Newcastle Infant Partnership Approach

Authors: Samantha Burns, Melissa Brown, Judith Rankin

Abstract:

Background: As a specialised intervention, NEWPIP provides a service which supports both parents and their babies from conception to two years, who are experiencing issues which may affect the quality of their relationship and development of the infant. This evaluation of the NEWPIP approach was undertaken in response to the need for rich, in-depth data to understand the lived experiences of the parents who experienced the service to improve the service. NEWPIP is currently one of 34 specialised parent–infant relationship teams across England. This evaluation contributes to increasing understanding of the impact and effectiveness of this specialised service to inform future practice. Aim: The aim of this evaluation was to explore the perspectives and experiences of parents or caregivers (service users), to assess the impact of the NEWPIP service on the parents themselves and the relationship with their baby. Methods: The exploratory nature of the aim and focus on service users’ experience and perspectives provided scope for a qualitative approach for this evaluation. This consisted of 10 semi-structured interviews with parents who had received the service within the last two years. Recruitment involved both purposive and convenience sampling. The interviews took place between February 2021 – March 2021, lasting between 30-90 minutes and were guided by open-ended questions from a topic guide. The interviews adopted a narrative approach to enable the parents to share their lived experiences. The researchers transcribed the interviews and analysed the data thematically by using a coding method which is grounded in the data. Results: The analysis and findings from the data gathered illuminated an approach which supports parents to build a better bond with their baby and provides a safe space for parents to heal through their relationships. While the parents shared their experiences, the interviews were intended to receive feedback, so questions were asked about what could be improved and what recommendations could be offered to Children North East. Guided by the voice of the parents, this evaluation provides recommendations to support the future of the NEWPIP approach. Conclusions: The NEWPIP approach appears to successfully provide early and flexible support for new parents, increasing a parent’s confidence in their ability to not only cope but thrive as a new parent.

Keywords: maternal health, mental health, parent infant relationship, therapy

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