Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Boluwape T. Okikiola

3 A Systematic Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in Fish and Poultry – Health and Environmental Implications for Animal Source Food Production in Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa

Authors: Ekemini M. Okon, Reuben C. Okocha, Babatunde T. Adesina, Judith O. Ehigie, Babatunde M. Falana, Boluwape T. Okikiola

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has evolved to become a significant threat to global public health and food safety. The development of AMR in animals has been associated with antimicrobial overuse. In recent years, the number of antimicrobials used in food animals such as fish and poultry has escalated. It, therefore, becomes imperative to understand the patterns of AMR in fish and poultry and map out future directions for better surveillance efforts. This study used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses(PRISMA) to assess the trend, patterns, and spatial distribution for AMR research in Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa. A literature search was conducted through the Scopus and Web of Science databases in which published studies on AMR between 1989 and 2021 were assessed. A total of 172 articles were relevant for this study. The result showed progressive attention on AMR studies in fish and poultry from 2018 to 2021 across the selected countries. The period between 2018 (23 studies) and 2021 (25 studies) showed a significant increase in AMR publications with a peak in 2019 (28 studies). Egypt was the leading exponent of AMR research (43%, n=74) followed by Nigeria (40%, n=69), then South Africa (17%, n=29). AMR studies in fish received relatively little attention across countries. The majority of the AMR studies were on poultry in Egypt (82%, n=61), Nigeria (87%, n=60), and South Africa (83%, n=24). Further, most of the studies were on Escherichia and Salmonella species. Antimicrobials frequently researched were ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole groups. Multiple drug resistance was prevalent, as demonstrated by antimicrobial resistance patterns. In poultry, Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, oxytetracycline, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, erythromycin, and ampicillin. Salmonella enterica serovars were resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, cefotaxime, and ampicillin. Staphylococcusaureus showed high-level resistance to streptomycin, kanamycin, erythromycin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim, vancomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Campylobacter isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid at varying degrees. In fish, Enterococcus isolates showed resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin, and tetracycline but sensitive to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and rifampicin. Isolated strains of Vibrio species showed sensitivity to florfenicol and ciprofloxacin, butresistance to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and erythromycin. Isolates of Aeromonas and Pseudomonas species exhibited resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin. Specifically, Aeromonashydrophila isolates showed sensitivity to cephradine, doxycycline, erythromycin, and florfenicol. However, resistance was also exhibited against augmentinandtetracycline. The findings constitute public and environmental health threats and suggest the need to promote and advance AMR research in other countries, particularly those on the global hotspot for antimicrobial use.

Keywords: antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance, bacteria, environment, public health

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
2 Web-Based Paperless Campus: An Approach to Reduce the Cost and Complexity of Education Administration

Authors: Yekini N. Asafe, Haastrup A. Victor, Lawal N. Olawale, Okikiola F. Mercy

Abstract:

Recent increase in access to personal computer and networking systems have made it feasible to perform much of cumbersome and costly paper-based administration in all organization. Desktop computers, networking systems, high capacity storage devices and telecommunications system is currently allowing the transfer of various format of data to be processed, stored and dissemination for the purpose of decision making. Going paperless is more of benefits compare to full paper-based office. This paper proposed a model for design and implementation of e-administration system (paperless campus) for an institution of learning. If this model is design and implemented it will reduced cost and complexity of educational administration also eliminate menaces and environmental hazards attributed to paper-based administration within schools and colleges.

Keywords: e-administration, educational administration, paperless campus, paper-based administration

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
1 Influence of Modified and Unmodified Cow Bone on the Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Polyester Composites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: I. O. Oladele, J. A. Omotoyinbo, A. M. Okoro, A. G. Okikiola, J. L. Olajide

Abstract:

This work was carried out to investigate comparatively the effects of modified and unmodified cow bone particles on the mechanical properties of polyester matrix composites in order to investigate the suitability of the materials as biomaterial. Cow bones were procured from an abattoir, sun dried for 4 weeks and crushed. The crushed bones were divided into two, where one part was turned to ash while the other part was pulverized with laboratory ball mill before the two grades were sieved using 75 µm sieve size. Bone ash and bone particle reinforced tensile and flexural composite samples were developed from pre-determined proportions of 2, 4, 6, and 8 %. The samples after curing were stripped from the moulds and were allowed to further cure for 3 weeks before tensile and flexural tests were performed on them. The tensile test result showed that, 8 wt % bone particle reinforced polyester composites has higher tensile properties except for modulus of elasticity where 8 wt % bone ash particle reinforced composites has higher value while for flexural test, bone ash particle reinforced composites demonstrate the best flexural properties. The results show that these materials are structurally compatible.

Keywords: biomedical, composites, cow bone, mechanical properties, polyester, reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 191