Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: Ayesha Ashfaq

65 Metaphorical Devices in Political Cartoons with Reference to Political Confrontation in Pakistan after Panama Leaks

Authors: Ayesha Ashfaq, Muhammad Ajmal Ashfaq

Abstract:

It has been assumed that metaphorical and symbolic contests are waged with metaphors, captions, and signs in political cartoons that play a significant role in image construction of political actors, situations or events in the political arena. This paper is an effort to explore the metaphorical devices in political cartoons related to the political confrontation in Pakistan between the ruling party Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PMLN) and opposition parties especially after Panama leaks. For this purpose, political cartoons sketched by five renowned political cartoonists on the basis of their belongings to the most highly circulated mainstream English newspapers of Pakistan and their professional experiences in their genre, were selected. The cartoons were analyzed through the Barthes’s model of Semiotics under the umbrella of the first level of agenda setting theory ‘framing’. It was observed that metaphorical devices in political cartoons are one of the key weapons of cartoonists’ armory. These devices are used to attack the candidates and contribute to the image and character building. It was found that all the selected political cartoonists used different forms of metaphors including situational metaphors and embodying metaphors. Not only the physical stature but also the debates and their activities were depicted metaphorically in the cartoons that create the scenario of comparison between the cartoons and their real political confrontation. It was examined that both forms of metaphors shed light on cartoonist’s perception and newspaper’s policy about political candidates, political parties and particular events. In addition, it was found that zoomorphic metaphors and metaphors of diminishments were also predominantly used to depict the conflict between two said political actors.

Keywords: metaphor, Panama leaks, political cartoons, political communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
64 Controlling Excitons Complexes in Two Dimensional MoS₂ Monolayers

Authors: Arslan Usman, Abdul Sattar, Hamid Latif, Afshan Ashfaq, Muhammad Rafique, Martin Koch

Abstract:

Two-dimensional materials have promising applications in optoelectronic and photonics; MoS₂ is the pioneer 2D material in the family of transition metal dichalcogenides. Its optical, optoelectronic, and structural properties are of practical importance along with its exciton dynamics. Exciton, along with exciton complexes, plays a vital role in realizing quantum devices. MoS₂ monolayers were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique on SiO₂ and hBN substrates. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) was used to identify the monolayer, which also reflects the substrate based peak broadening due to screening effects. In-plane and out of plane characteristic vibrational modes E¹₂g and A₁g, respectively, were detected in a different configuration on the substrate. The B-excitons and trions showed a dominant feature at low temperatures due to electron-phonon coupling effects, whereas their energies are separated by 100 meV.

Keywords: 2D materials, photoluminescence, AFM, excitons

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
63 Numerical Solutions of Fractional Order Epidemic Model

Authors: Sadia Arshad, Ayesha Sohail, Sana Javed, Khadija Maqbool, Salma Kanwal

Abstract:

The dynamical study of the carriers play an essential role in the evolution and global transmission of infectious diseases and will be discussed in this study. To make this approach novel, we will consider the fractional order model which is generalization of integer order derivative to an arbitrary number. Since the integration involved is non local therefore this property of fractional operator is very useful to study epidemic model for infectious diseases. An extended numerical method (ODE solver) is implemented on the model equations and we will present the simulations of the model for different values of fractional order to study the effect of carriers on transmission dynamics. Global dynamics of fractional model are established by using the reproduction number.

Keywords: Fractional differential equation, Numerical simulations, epidemic model, transmission dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
62 A Photovoltaic Micro-Storage System for Residential Applications

Authors: Alia Al Nuaimi, Ayesha Al Aberi, Faiza Al Marzouqi, Shaikha Salem Ali Al Yahyaee, Ala Hussein

Abstract:

In this paper, a PV micro-storage system for residential applications is proposed. The term micro refers to the size of the PV storage system, which is in the range of few kilo-watts, compared to the grid size (~GWs). Usually, in a typical load profile of a residential unit, two peak demand periods exist: one at morning and the other at evening time. The morning peak can be partly covered by the PV energy directly, while the evening peak cannot be covered by the PV alone. Therefore, an energy storage system that stores solar energy during daytime and use this stored energy when the sun is absent is a must. A complete design procedure including theoretical analysis followed by simulation verification and economic feasibility evaluation is addressed in this paper.

Keywords: battery, energy storage, photovoltaic, peak shaving, smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
61 Software Quality Assurance in Network Security using Cryptographic Techniques

Authors: Sidra Shabbir, Ayesha Manzoor, Mehreen Sirshar

Abstract:

The use of the network communication has imposed serious threats to the security of assets over the network. Network security is getting more prone to active and passive attacks which may result in serious consequences to data integrity, confidentiality and availability. Various cryptographic techniques have been proposed in the past few years to combat with the concerned problem by ensuring quality but in order to have a fully secured network; a framework of new cryptosystem was needed. This paper discusses certain cryptographic techniques which have shown far better improvement in the network security with enhanced quality assurance. The scope of this research paper is to cover the security pitfalls in the current systems and their possible solutions based on the new cryptosystems. The development of new cryptosystem framework has paved a new way to the widespread network communications with enhanced quality in network security.

Keywords: cryptography, network security, encryption, decryption, integrity, confidentiality, security algorithms, elliptic curve cryptography

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
60 Classification Rule Discovery by Using Parallel Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Waseem Shahzad, Ayesha Tahir Khan, Hamid Hussain Awan

Abstract:

Ant-Miner algorithm that lies under ACO algorithms is used to extract knowledge from data in the form of rules. A variant of Ant-Miner algorithm named as cAnt-MinerPB is used to generate list of rules using pittsburgh approach in order to maintain the rule interaction among the rules that are generated. In this paper, we propose a parallel Ant MinerPB in which Ant colony optimization algorithm runs parallel. In this technique, a data set is divided vertically (i-e attributes) into different subsets. These subsets are created based on the correlation among attributes using Mutual Information (MI). It generates rules in a parallel manner and then merged to form a final list of rules. The results have shown that the proposed technique achieved higher accuracy when compared with original cAnt-MinerPB and also the execution time has also reduced.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, parallel Ant-MinerPB, vertical partitioning, classification rule discovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
59 A Gender Sensitive Labour Policy for Gilgit Baltistan

Authors: Ayesha Obaid, Abdur Rehman Cheema

Abstract:

This study is about understanding the role of the gender division of work that has been assigned to men and women in different societies and cultures and its impact on labour force participation through economic development. Development in Gilgit Baltistan has been challenging due to its geographical conditions and the human development indicators are lower than the rest of the Pakistan. Various socioeconomic factors are identified that play an important role in determining the choices and roles men and women undertake for contributing towards the labour force. Our research highlights the areas lagging behind in gender equality in the labour market. The availability and access of gender over these socioeconomic resources determine gender mainstreaming in the labour market. It is a need of time that gender gaps should be addressed at the grass root level by the policy makers to enhance the growth and improve human development indicators.

Keywords: gender division of work, human development, indicators of socioeconomic factors, labour force

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
58 Impact of Workers’ Remittances on Poverty in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis by Ardl

Authors: Syed Aziz Rasool, Ayesha Zaman

Abstract:

Poverty is one of the most important problems for any developing nation. Workers’ remittances and investment plays a crucial role in development of any country by reducing the poverty level in Pakistan. This research studies the relationship between workers’ remittances and poverty alleviation. It also focused the significant effect on poverty reduction. This study uses time series data for the period of 1972-2013. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)Model and Error Correction (ECM)Model has been used in order to find out the long run and short run relationship between the worker’s remittances and poverty level respectively. Thus, inflow of remittances showed the significant and negative impact on poverty level. Moreover, coefficient of error correction model explains the adjustment towards convergence and it has highly significant and negative value. According to this research, Policy makers should strongly focus on positive and effective policies to attract more remittances. JELCODE: JEL: J61

Keywords: ECM, ARDL, AIC, SC

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
57 Numerical Modelling of Effective Diffusivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Anila Asif, Haroon Ahmad

Abstract:

The field of tissue engineering is an active area of research. Bone tissue engineering helps to resolve the clinical problems of critical size and non-healing defects by the creation of man-made bone tissue. We will design and validate an efficient numerical model, which will simulate the effective diffusivity in bone tissue engineering. Our numerical model will be based on the finite element analysis of the diffusion-reaction equations. It will have the ability to optimize the diffusivity, even at multi-scale, with the variation of time. It will also have a special feature, with which we will not only be able to predict the oxygen, glucose and cell density dynamics, more accurately, but will also sort the issues arising due to anisotropy. We will fix these problems with the help of modifying the governing equations, by selecting appropriate spatio-temporal finite element schemes, by adaptive grid refinement strategy and by transient analysis.

Keywords: scaffolds, porosity, diffusion, transient analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
56 Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on the Quality Parameters of Yogurt during Storage

Authors: Hafiz Arbab Sakandar, Sabahat Yaqub, Ayesha Sameen, Muhammad Imran, Sarfraz Ahmad

Abstract:

Yoghurt is one of the famous nutritious fermented milk products which have myriad of positive health effects on human beings and curable against different intestinal diseases. This research was conducted to observe effects of different artificial sweeteners on the quality parameters of yoghurt with relation to storage. Some people are allergic to natural sweeteners so artificial sweetener will be helpful for them. Physical-chemical, Microbiology and various sensory evaluation tests were carried out with the interval of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. It was outcome from this study that addition of artificial sweeteners in yoghurt has shown much harmful effects on the yoghurt microorganisms and other physicochemical parameters from quality point of view. Best results for acceptance were obtained when aspartame was added in yoghurt at level of 0.022 percent. In addition, growth of beneficial microorganisms in yoghurt was also improved as well as other sensory attributes were enhanced by the addition of aspartame.

Keywords: yoghurt, artificial sweetener, storage, quality parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
55 Indoor Temperature, Relative Humidity and CO₂ Level Assessment in a Publically Managed Hospital Building

Authors: Ayesha Asif, Muhammad Zeeshan

Abstract:

The sensitivity of hospital-microenvironments for all types of pollutants, due to the presence of patients with immune deficiencies, makes them complex indoor spaces. Keeping in view, this study investigated indoor air quality (IAQ) of two most sensitive places, i.e., operation theater (OT) and intensive care unit (ICU), of a publically managed hospital. Taking CO₂ concentration as air quality indicator and temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) as thermal comfort parameters, continuous monitoring of the three variables was carried out. Measurements were recorded at an interval of 1 min for weekdays and weekends, including occupational and non-occupational hours. Outdoor T and RH measurements were also used in the analysis. Results show significant variation (p < 0.05) in CO₂, T and RH values over the day during weekdays while no significant variation (p > 0.05) have been observed during weekends of both the monitored sites. Maximum observed values of CO₂ in OT and ICU were found to be 2430 and 624 ppm, T as 24.7ºC and 28.9ºC and RH as 29.6% and 32.2% respectively.

Keywords: indoor air quality, CO₂ concentration, hospital building, comfort assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
54 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter

Authors: Ayesha Irum, Sadia Mumtaz, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Safia Ahmed

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was the ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.

Keywords: biodegradation, textile dyes, waste water, trickling filters

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
53 Social Entrepreneurship through an Institutional Perspective: A Case Study of Women Social Entrepreneurs from Peshawar, Pakistan

Authors: Madiha Gohar, Ayesha Abrar

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship has gained currency in the field of entrepreneurship, however, the theoretical underpinning and the contextual influences on the creation and operations of social enterprises are still in infancy. Contextual influences on entrepreneurial endeavors of women have been researched, and it is assumed that like commercial entrepreneurship, some socio-cultural factors are most suitable for the creation of women social enterprises. This research is an effort to explore the contextual influences on women social enterprises using institutional theory as the main conceptual framework. A case study analysis was used to assess the formal and informal institutional influences on women social entrepreneurs and their enterprises. The personal accounts of women social entrepreneurs reveal the importance of formal and informal institutions; however, they advocate greater consideration of informal institutions for their entrepreneurial endeavors.

Keywords: case study, institutional theory, women social entrepreneurship, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
52 Analyzing the Effect of Remittances Transfer on the Socio-Economic Well-Being of Left behind Parents: A Study of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Asia Ashfaq, Muhammad Saud

Abstract:

The present study aims to highlight the socio-economic aspect of international migration by analyzing the effect of remittances sent by adult male children on the well-being of left behind parents. Well-being of left behind parents was operationalized through two indicators as financial security and health-care facilities. For this purpose, quantitative research design was employed and a survey was conducted in three cities i.e. Gujrat, Jhelum and Mirpur. The data was collected from 94 respondents chosen--purposively--on the basis of certain characteristics including demographic profile of the respondents and their male children who must be living abroad. The findings of the study revealed that parents were getting money from their sons regularly. Parents were getting financial assistance from their children for managing their household expenditures, visiting good hospitals and the specialist doctors in case of illness. Lastly, the study concluded that the economic aspect of migration of male children has a significant impact on the health status of left behind parents with the value of correlation (r) =0.241 and level of significance as 0.019. The research study also gives some suggestions and provides future directions for research.

Keywords: international migration, left behind parents, Pakistan, remittances, well-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
51 Word of Mouth and Its Impact on Marketing

Authors: Fatima Naz, Ayesha Tariq

Abstract:

In view of growing of the internet users for e-commerce and taking into account, the emergent impact of word of mouth phenomenon this research has different aims. The aims of this study were built following dissimilar discussion with teachers and colleagues enlightening that word of mouth information for online purchasing do not have the same effect for everybody. Then they were born following dissimilar researchers together with what was already done in previous researches and what was completed. As a result different aims were drawn; the initial aim of this research is to study the attention of the customers in the word of mouth to power their online purchasing activities. The next aim is to analyze the people influenced by the interest of word of mouth. The following aim is to examine the marketing behavior bearing in mind the internet progress and word of mouth, their consideration for word of mouth marketing. In the form of research questions the aims of the study are: 1) How community utilizes and multiplies word of mouth information about online purchasing experience? 2) How communities perceive the word of mouth marketing? 3) How marketers take the word of mouth phenomenon and how they handle it?

Keywords: belief, power, inspiration, self-expression, positive attitude to online marketing, forwarding of contents, purchasing decision, standard marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
50 Systematic Taxonomy and Phylogenetic of Commercial Fish Species of Family Nemipetridae from Malaysian Waters and Neighboring Seas

Authors: Ayesha Imtiaz, Darlina Md. Naim

Abstract:

Family Nemipteridae is among the most abundantly distributed family in Malaysian fish markets due to its high contribution to landing sites of Malaysia. Using an advanced molecular approach that used two mitochondrial (Cytochrome oxidase c I and Cytochrome oxidase b) and one nuclear gene (Recombination activating gene, RAGI) to expose cryptic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among commercially important species of family Nemipteridae. Our research covered all genera (including 31 species out total 45 species) of family Nemipteridae, distributed in Malaysia. We also found certain type of geographical barriers in the South China sea that reduces dispersal and stops a few species to intermix. Northside of the South China Sea (near Vietnam) does not allow genetic diversity to mix with the Southern side of the South China sea (Sarawak) and reduces dispersal. Straits of Malacca reduce the intermixing genetic diversity of South China Sea and the Indian Ocean.

Keywords: Nemipteridae, RAG I, south east Asia, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
49 Load Forecasting Using Neural Network Integrated with Economic Dispatch Problem

Authors: Mariyam Arif, Ye Liu, Israr Ul Haq, Ahsan Ashfaq

Abstract:

High cost of fossil fuels and intensifying installations of alternate energy generation sources are intimidating main challenges in power systems. Making accurate load forecasting an important and challenging task for optimal energy planning and management at both distribution and generation side. There are many techniques to forecast load but each technique comes with its own limitation and requires data to accurately predict the forecast load. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one such technique to efficiently forecast the load. Comparison between two different ranges of input datasets has been applied to dynamic ANN technique using MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. It has been observed that selection of input data on training of a network has significant effects on forecasted results. Day-wise input data forecasted the load accurately as compared to year-wise input data. The forecasted load is then distributed among the six generators by using the linear programming to get the optimal point of generation. The algorithm is then verified by comparing the results of each generator with their respective generation limits.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, demand-side management, economic dispatch, linear programming, power generation dispatch

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
48 Causes and Implications of Obesity in Urban School Going Children

Authors: Mohammad Amjad, Muhammad Iqbal Zafar, Ashfaq Ahmed Maan, Muhammad Tayyab Kashif

Abstract:

Obesity is an abnormal physical condition where an increased and undesirable fat accumulates in the human body. Obesity is an international phenomenon. In the present study, 12 schools were randomly selected from each district considering the areas i.e. Elite Private Schools in the private sector, Government schools in urban areas and Government schools in rural areas. Interviews were conducted with male students studying in grade 5 to grade 9 in each school. The sample size was 600 students; 300 from Faisalabad district and 300 from Rawalpindi district in Pakistan. A well-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The calibrated scales were used to attain the heights and weights of the respondents. Obesity of school-going children depends on family types, family size, family history, junk food consumption, mother’s education, weekly time spent in walking, and sports facility at school levels. Academic performance, physical health and psychological health of school going children are affected with obesity. Concrete steps and policies could minimize the incidence of obesity in children in Pakistan.

Keywords: body mass index, cardiovascular disease, fast food, morbidity, overweight

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
47 Extraction of Colorant and Dyeing of Gamma Irradiated Viscose Using Cordyline terminalis Leaves Extract

Authors: Urvah-Til-Vusqa, Unsa Noreen, Ayesha Hussain, Abdul Hafeez, Rafia Asghar, Sidrat Nasir

Abstract:

Natural dyes offer an alternative better application in textiles than synthetic ones. The present study will be aimed to employ natural dye extracted from Cordyline terminalis plant and its application into viscose under the influence of gamma radiations. The colorant extraction will be done by boiling dracaena leaves powder in aqueous, alkaline and ethyl acetate mediums. Both dye powder and fabric will be treated with different doses (5-20 kGy) of gamma radiations. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of the extracts will also be determined. Different tests of fabric characterization (before and after radiations treatment) will be employed. Dyeing variables just as time, temperature and M: L will be applied for optimization. Standard methods for ISO to evaluate color fastness to light, washing and rubbing will be employed for improvement of color strength 1.5-15.5% of Al, Fe, Cr, and Cu as mordants will be employed through pre, post and meta mordanting. Color depth % & L*, a*, b* and L*, C*, h values will be recorded using spectra flash SF650.

Keywords: natural dyes, gamma radiations, Cordyline terminalis, ecofriendly dyes

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
46 Interpretation of Medical Negligence under Consumer Laws

Authors: Ashfaq M. Naikwadi

Abstract:

Decided cases of medical negligence, mostly are not settled in the lower courts. Majority of them reach up to the apex courts. This is mostly due to different interpretations of the term medical negligence. After studying various cases of medical negligence it is found that in most of the cases the doctors/hospitals are not held liable. There are different interpretations of law concerning medical services. Globally the principles deciding medical negligence are same, viz. Legal duty of care - breach of that duty - direct causation resulting in damages. Since ordinary negligence is not punishable by law, doctors/hospitals have defenses to save themselves from liability. Complaints of negligence come to the courts whose judges mostly are not oriented with medical services or health sciences. Matters of medical negligence are decided on the basic principles of reasonableness and prudence or by relying on the expert’s opinion. Deciding reasonableness or prudence is a complex issue in case of medical services. Again expert opinion is also questionable as an expert in case of medical negligence is appointed from the same field and same faculty. There is a chance of favoritism to the doctor/hospital. The concept of vicarious liability is not widely applied to in many of the medical negligence cases. Established cases used as precedents were studied to understand the basic principles in deciding medical negligence. This paper evaluates the present criteria in interpreting medical negligence and concludes with suggesting reforms required to be made in deciding matters of medical negligence under the consumer laws.

Keywords: consumer, doctors, laws, medical negligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
45 Arbitrarily Shaped Blur Kernel Estimation for Single Image Blind Deblurring

Authors: Aftab Khan, Ashfaq Khan

Abstract:

The research paper focuses on an interesting challenge faced in Blind Image Deblurring (BID). It relates to the estimation of arbitrarily shaped or non-parametric Point Spread Functions (PSFs) of motion blur caused by camera handshake. These PSFs exhibit much more complex shapes than their parametric counterparts and deblurring in this case requires intricate ways to estimate the blur and effectively remove it. This research work introduces a novel blind deblurring scheme visualized for deblurring images corrupted by arbitrarily shaped PSFs. It is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and utilises the Blind/Reference-less Image Spatial QUality Evaluator (BRISQUE) measure as the fitness function for arbitrarily shaped PSF estimation. The proposed BID scheme has been compared with other single image motion deblurring schemes as benchmark. Validation has been carried out on various blurred images. Results of both benchmark and real images are presented. Non-reference image quality measures were used to quantify the deblurring results. For benchmark images, the proposed BID scheme using BRISQUE converges in close vicinity of the original blurring functions.

Keywords: blind deconvolution, blind image deblurring, genetic algorithm, image restoration, image quality measures

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
44 Synthesis, Molecular-Docking, and Biological Evaluation of Thiazolopyrimidine Carboxylates as Potential Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Iram Batool, Aamer Saeed, Irfan Zia Qureshi, Ayesha Razzaq, Saima Kalsoom

Abstract:

Heterocyclic compounds analogues and their derivatives have attracted strong interest in medicinal chemistry due to their biological and pharmacological properties. A series of new thiazolopyrimidine carboxylates were conveniently synthesized by one-pot three-component reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, 2-aminothiazole and benzaldehyde substituted with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups in order to find some more potent antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs. The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy. An in vitro antidiabetic effect was evaluated in adult male BALB/c mice and antibacterial activities were tested against Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Escherichia coli. Some of the tested compounds proved to possess good to excellent activities more than the reference drugs. An in silico molecular docking was also performed on synthesized compounds. The current study is expected to provide useful insights into the design of antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs and understanding the mechanism by which such drugs interact with RNA and diabetes target and exert their biochemical action.

Keywords: antidiabetic, antibacterial, MOE docking, thiazolopyrimidine

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
43 Indigenous Conceptualization of School Readiness: Mother's Perspective in Pakistan

Authors: Ayesha Inam, R. Moazzam, Z. Akhtar

Abstract:

School readiness plays a significant role in helping a child deal with various school demands and expectations as well as in determining academic success outcomes. There is a scarcity of data concerning the condition of school readiness in Pakistan. This qualitative research seeks to examine the perspective of mothers about school readiness along with its four domains (self-care, socio-emotional, physical and cognitive) as well as about the appropriate age of entry into formal preschool. Fifteen interviews were conducted with mothers of pre-school children in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. It was found that mothers shared the common perception that children should be socially, emotionally, physically and cognitively prepared to be ready for pre-school. The results concluded that the mothers unanimously agreed in their perceptions that three to four years was the appropriate age range for children to begin pre-school and that early or late entry into pre-school had negative implications for children’s ability to learn and understand, and hence, their school readiness. Mental age was perceived as a more important criterion for deciding when to send children to pre-school. Mothers were found to send their children to school earlier, and children were found to be increasingly exposed to technology, both of which were found to influence children’s readiness for school. Both schools and mothers were found to play an instrumental role in preparing children for school and in school adjustment by nurturing their skills and abilities.

Keywords: perception of mothers, Pakistan, school readiness, entry to preschool

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
42 An Automated System for the Detection of Citrus Greening Disease Based on Visual Descriptors

Authors: Sidra Naeem, Ayesha Naeem, Sahar Rahim, Nadia Nawaz Qadri

Abstract:

Citrus greening is a bacterial disease that causes considerable damage to citrus fruits worldwide. Efficient method for this disease detection must be carried out to minimize the production loss. This paper presents a pattern recognition system that comprises three stages for the detection of citrus greening from Orange leaves: segmentation, feature extraction and classification. Image segmentation is accomplished by adaptive thresholding. The feature extraction stage comprises of three visual descriptors i.e. shape, color and texture. From shape feature we have used asymmetry index, from color feature we have used histogram of Cb component from YCbCr domain and from texture feature we have used local binary pattern. Classification was done using support vector machines and k nearest neighbors. The best performances of the system is Accuracy = 88.02% and AUROC = 90.1% was achieved by automatic segmented images. Our experiments validate that: (1). Segmentation is an imperative preprocessing step for computer assisted diagnosis of citrus greening, and (2). The combination of shape, color and texture features form a complementary set towards the identification of citrus greening disease.

Keywords: citrus greening, pattern recognition, feature extraction, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
41 Causes of Terrorism: Perceptions of University Students of Teacher Training Institutions

Authors: Saghir Ahmad, Abid Hussain Ch, Misbah Malik, Ayesha Batool

Abstract:

Terrorism is the marvel in which dreadful circumstance is made by a gathering of individuals who view themselves as abused by society. Terrorism is the unlawful utilization of power or viciousness by a man or a sorted out gathering by the general population or property with the aim of intimidation or compulsion of social orders or governments frequently for ideological or political reasons. Terrorism is as old as people. The main aim of the study was to find out the causes of terrorism through the perceptions of the universities students of teacher training institutions. This study was quantitative in nature. Survey method was used to collect data. A sample of two hundred and sixty seven students was selected from public universities. A five point Likert scale was used to collect data. Mean, Standard deviation, independent sample t-test, and One Way ANOVA were applied to analyze the data. The major findings of the study indicated that students perceived the main causes of terrorism are poverty, foreign interference, wrong concept of Islamization, and social injustice. It is also concluded that mostly, students think that drone attacks are promoting the terrorist activities. The education is key to eliminate the terrorism. There is need to educate the people and specially youngsters to bring the peace in the world.

Keywords: dreadful circumstance, governments, power, students, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
40 Pre and Post Mordant Effect of Alum on Gamma Rays Assisted Cotton Fabric by Using Ipomoea indica Leaves Extract

Authors: Abdul Hafeez, Shahid Adeel, Ayesha Hussain

Abstract:

There are number of plants species in the universe which give the protections from different diseases and give colour for the foods and textiles. The environmental condition of the universe suggested toward the ecofriendly textiles. The aim of the paper is to analyze the influence of pre & post mordanting of alum on radiated cotton fabric with Gamma Radiation of different doses by using Ipomoea indica leaves extract. Alum used as mordant with the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% as pre and post mordanting to observe the effect of light and colour fastness of radiated cotton. 6% of alum concentration in pre mordanting gave good colour strength 117.82 with darker in shade toward the greenish tone and in post mordanting 6% concentration gave good colour strength 102.19. The lab values show that the colour is darker in tone and gave bluish effect. Further results showed that alum gave good light and rubbing fastness on gamma radiated cotton fabric.

Keywords: Ipomoea indica, gamma radiation, alum, light fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
39 Texturing of Tool Insert Using Femtosecond Laser

Authors: Ashfaq Khan, Aftab Khan, Mushtaq Khan, Sarem Sattar, Mohammad A Sheikh, Lin Li

Abstract:

Chip removal processes are one of key processes of the manufacturing industry where chip removal is conducted by tool inserts of exceptionally hard materials. Tungsten carbide has been extensively used as tool insert for machining processes involving chip removal processes. These hard materials are generally fabricated by single step sintering process as further modification after fabrication in these materials cannot be done easily. Advances in tool surface modification have revealed that advantages such as improved tribological properties and extended tool life can be harnessed from the same tool by texturing the tool rake surface. Moreover, it has been observed that the shape and location of the texture also influences the behavior. Although texturing offers plentiful advantages the challenge lies in the generation of textures on the tool surface. Extremely hard material such as diamond is required to process tungsten carbide. Laser is unique processing tool that does not have a physical contact with the material and thus does not wear. In this research the potential of utilizing laser for texturing of tungsten carbide to develop custom features would be studied. A parametric study of texturing of Tungsten Carbide with a femtosecond laser would be conducted to investigate the process parameters and establish the feasible processing window. The effect of fluence, scan speed and number of repetition would be viewed in detail. Moreover, the mechanism for the generation of features would also be reviewed.

Keywords: laser, texturing, femtosecond, tungsten carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 492
38 Rethinking Peace Journalism in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis of News Discourse on the Afghan Refugee Repatriation Conflict

Authors: Ayesha Hasan

Abstract:

This study offers unique perspectives and analyses of peace and conflict journalism through interpretative repertoire, media frames, and critical discourse analyses. Two major English publications in Pakistan, representing both long and short-form journalism, are investigated to uncover how the Afghan refugee repatriation from Pakistan in 2016-17 has been framed in Pakistani English media. Peace journalism focuses on concepts such as peace initiatives and peace building, finding common ground, and preventing further conflict. This study applies Jake Lynch’s Coding Criteria to guide the critical discourse analysis and Lee and Maslog’s Peace Journalism Quotient to examine the extent of peace journalism in each text. This study finds that peace journalism is missing in Pakistani English press, but represented, to an extent, in long-form print and online coverage. Two new alternative frames are also proposed. This study gives an in-depth understanding of if and how journalists in Pakistan are covering conflicts and framing stories that can be identified as peace journalism. This study represents significant contributions to the remarkably limited scholarship on peace and conflict journalism in Pakistan and extends Shabbir Hussain’s work on critical pragmatic perspectives on peace journalism in Pakistan.

Keywords: Afghan refugee repatriation, Critical discourse analysis, Media framing , Peace and conflict journalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
37 Classification of Land Cover Usage from Satellite Images Using Deep Learning Algorithms

Authors: Shaik Ayesha Fathima, Shaik Noor Jahan, Duvvada Rajeswara Rao

Abstract:

Earth's environment and its evolution can be seen through satellite images in near real-time. Through satellite imagery, remote sensing data provide crucial information that can be used for a variety of applications, including image fusion, change detection, land cover classification, agriculture, mining, disaster mitigation, and monitoring climate change. The objective of this project is to propose a method for classifying satellite images according to multiple predefined land cover classes. The proposed approach involves collecting data in image format. The data is then pre-processed using data pre-processing techniques. The processed data is fed into the proposed algorithm and the obtained result is analyzed. Some of the algorithms used in satellite imagery classification are U-Net, Random Forest, Deep Labv3, CNN, ANN, Resnet etc. In this project, we are using the DeepLabv3 (Atrous convolution) algorithm for land cover classification. The dataset used is the deep globe land cover classification dataset. DeepLabv3 is a semantic segmentation system that uses atrous convolution to capture multi-scale context by adopting multiple atrous rates in cascade or in parallel to determine the scale of segments.

Keywords: area calculation, atrous convolution, deep globe land cover classification, deepLabv3, land cover classification, resnet 50

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
36 First Record of Eotragus noyei from the Middle Siwalik Dhok Pathan Formation of Pakistan

Authors: Abdul M. Khan, Hafiza I. Naz, Ayesha Iqbal, Muhammad Akhtar

Abstract:

The fossil remains described in this study have been recovered during fieldwork by the authors from the Dhok Pathan Formation of Middle Siwaliks Pakistan in December, 2015. The sample comprises maxillary and mandibular fragments along with isolated upper and lower teeth. The morphometric analysis of the specimens led us to recognize the sample as belonging to Eotragus noyei, which has been considered as the smallest and the oldest bovid in the Siwaliks. Eotragus noyei is characterized by brachydont teeth, finely rugose enamel, more inclined buccal walls of the molars and small lingual cingula. The inclination of the metaconal area has caused rotation of the metastyle in relation to the antero-posterior tooth axis and thus situated more lingually. The protocone in second upper premolar is well developed and situated posteriorly and also has an anterior lingual constriction. The metaconule in the third upper molar is smaller than the protocone. The dentition in Eotragus noyei is smaller in size as compared to Eotragus sansaniensis and Eotragus lampangensis. In Eotragus noyei the buccal walls in molars are more inclined while in Eotragus sansaniensis they are less inclined. The genus Eotragus has been reported previously in the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan; however, the recognition of the present sample as Eotragus noyei has extended the range of this species from Lower to the Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan.

Keywords: Boselaphini, Chakwal, Dhok Pathan, late miocene

Procedia PDF Downloads 213