Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: Panama leaks

47 Metaphorical Devices in Political Cartoons with Reference to Political Confrontation in Pakistan after Panama Leaks

Authors: Ayesha Ashfaq, Muhammad Ajmal Ashfaq

Abstract:

It has been assumed that metaphorical and symbolic contests are waged with metaphors, captions, and signs in political cartoons that play a significant role in image construction of political actors, situations or events in the political arena. This paper is an effort to explore the metaphorical devices in political cartoons related to the political confrontation in Pakistan between the ruling party Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PMLN) and opposition parties especially after Panama leaks. For this purpose, political cartoons sketched by five renowned political cartoonists on the basis of their belongings to the most highly circulated mainstream English newspapers of Pakistan and their professional experiences in their genre, were selected. The cartoons were analyzed through the Barthes’s model of Semiotics under the umbrella of the first level of agenda setting theory ‘framing’. It was observed that metaphorical devices in political cartoons are one of the key weapons of cartoonists’ armory. These devices are used to attack the candidates and contribute to the image and character building. It was found that all the selected political cartoonists used different forms of metaphors including situational metaphors and embodying metaphors. Not only the physical stature but also the debates and their activities were depicted metaphorically in the cartoons that create the scenario of comparison between the cartoons and their real political confrontation. It was examined that both forms of metaphors shed light on cartoonist’s perception and newspaper’s policy about political candidates, political parties and particular events. In addition, it was found that zoomorphic metaphors and metaphors of diminishments were also predominantly used to depict the conflict between two said political actors.

Keywords: metaphor, Panama leaks, political cartoons, political communication

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46 Assessment of Korea's Natural Gas Portfolio Considering Panama Canal Expansion

Authors: Juhan Kim, Jinsoo Kim

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South Korea cannot import natural gas in any form other than LNG because of the division of South and North Korea. Further, the high proportion of natural gas in the national energy mix makes this resource crucial for energy security in Korea. Expansion of Panama Canal will allow for reducing the cost of shipping between the Far East and U.S East. Panama Canal expansion can have significant impacts on South Korea. Due to this situation, we review the natural gas optimal portfolio by considering the uniqueness of the Korean Natural gas market and expansion of Panama Canal. In order to assess Korea’s natural gas optimal portfolio, we developed natural gas portfolio model. The model comprises two steps. First, to obtain the optimal long-term spot contract ratio, the study examines the price level and the correlation between spot and long-term contracts by using the Markowitz, portfolio model. The optimal long-term spot contract ratio follows the efficient frontier of the cost/risk level related to this price level and degree of correlation. Second, by applying the obtained long-term contract purchase ratio as the constraint in the linear programming portfolio model, we determined the natural gas optimal import portfolio that minimizes total intangible and tangible costs. Using this model, we derived the optimal natural gas portfolio considering the expansion of Panama Canal. Based on these results, we assess the portfolio for natural gas import to Korea from the perspective of energy security and present some relevant policy proposals.

Keywords: natural gas, Panama Canal, portfolio analysis, South Korea

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
45 Migration Law in Republic of Panama

Authors: Ronel Solis, Leonardo Collado

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Migration law in the Republic of Panama has been regulated mainly by the executive branch. This has created a crisis not only institutional but also social because the evolution of these norms has rested greatly from the discretion of the government in office. This has created instability in immigration regulation and more now, with the migration crisis of which Panama is also part. Different migration policies have been established. The most recent is that of the controlled migration flow, in which, for humanitarian reasons, migrants move from the border with Colombia to the border with Costa Rica. Unfortunately, such control is not enough, and in some cases, unprotected migrants have been confined for months, their passports have been withheld, and no recognition of their rights is offered. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has condemned Panama for the unfair detention of an irregular migrant, who was detained for two years in Panamanian prisons, without having committed a crime and without accessing a just defense. This is the case Vélez Loor vs. the Republic of Panama. Uncontrollable migration has been putting pressure on Panamanian public health services. The recent denunciation of HIV-related NGOs that warns that there are hundreds of foreigners who receive expensive antiretroviral therapy in Panama is serious, and several of them are irregular migrants. On the other hand, there are no border control posts with the Republic of Colombia, because it is a jungle area and migrants are exposed to arms and drug trafficking, and unfortunately, also to prostitution. Government entities such as the border police service have provided humanitarian support to migrants on the border with Colombia, although it is not their administrative function, and various entities discuss who should address this crisis. However, few economic resources are allocated by the government to solve this problem, especially with the recent mass migration of Venezuelans who have fled their country. The establishment of a migratory normative code is necessary to establish uniformity in the recognition and application of migratory rights. In this way, dependence on the changing migration policies of the different Panamanian governments would be eliminated, and the rights of migrants and nationals would be guaranteed.

Keywords: executive branch, irregular migration, migration code, Republic of Panama

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
44 Managing City Pipe Leaks through Community Participation Using a Web and Mobile Application in South Africa

Authors: Mpai Mokoena, Nsenda Lukumwena

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South Africa is one of the driest countries in the world and is facing a water crisis. In addition to inadequate infrastructure and poor planning, the country is experiencing high rates of water wastage due to pipe leaks. This study outlines the level of water wastage and develops a smart solution to efficiently manage and reduce the effects of pipe leaks, while monitoring the situation before and after fixing the pipe leaks. To understand the issue in depth, a literature review of journal papers and government reports was conducted. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to the general public. Additionally, the municipality office was contacted from a managerial perspective. The analysis from the study indicated that the majority of the citizens are aware of the water crisis and are willing to participate positively to decrease the level of water wasted. Furthermore, the response from the municipality acknowledged that more practical solutions are needed to reduce water wastage, and resources to attend to pipe leaks swiftly. Therefore, this paper proposes a specific solution for municipalities, local plumbers and citizens to minimize the effects of pipe leaks. The solution provides web and mobile application platforms to report and manage leaks swiftly. The solution is beneficial to the country in achieving water security and would promote a culture of responsibility toward water usage.

Keywords: urban distribution networks, leak management, mobile application, responsible citizens, water crisis, water security

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
43 Effect of Leaks in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Tested for Durability under Co-Electrolysis Conditions

Authors: Megha Rao, Søren H. Jensen, Xiufu Sun, Anke Hagen, Mogens B. Mogensen

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Solid oxide electrolysis cells have an immense potential in converting CO2 and H2O into syngas during co-electrolysis operation. The produced syngas can be further converted into hydrocarbons. This kind of technology is called power-to-gas or power-to-liquid. To produce hydrocarbons via this route, durability of the cells is still a challenge, which needs to be further investigated in order to improve the cells. In this work, various nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) fuel electrode supported or YSZ electrolyte supported cells, cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) barrier layer, and an oxygen electrode are investigated for durability under co-electrolysis conditions in both galvanostatic and potentiostatic conditions. While changing the gas on the oxygen electrode, keeping the fuel electrode gas composition constant, a change in the gas concentration arc was observed by impedance spectroscopy. Measurements of open circuit potential revealed the presence of leaks in the setup. It is speculated that the change in concentration impedance may be related to the leaks. Furthermore, the cells were also tested under pressurized conditions to find an inter-play between the leak rate and the pressure. A mathematical modeling together with electrochemical and microscopy analysis is presented.

Keywords: co-electrolysis, durability, leaks, gas concentration arc

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42 Modeling of Leaks Effects on Transient Dispersed Bubbly Flow

Authors: Mohand Kessal, Rachid Boucetta, Mourad Tikobaini, Mohammed Zamoum

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Leakage problem of two-component fluids flow is modeled for a transient one-dimensional homogeneous bubbly flow and developed by taking into account the effect of a leak located at the middle point of the pipeline. The corresponding three conservation equations are numerically resolved by an improved characteristic method. The obtained results are explained and commented in terms of physical impact on the flow parameters.

Keywords: fluid transients, pipelines leaks, method of characteristics, leakage problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
41 A Study on Abnormal Behavior Detection in BYOD Environment

Authors: Dongwan Kang, Joohyung Oh, Chaetae Im

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Advancement of communication technologies and smart devices in the recent times is leading to changes into the integrated wired and wireless communication environments. Since early days, businesses had started introducing environments for mobile device application to their operations in order to improve productivity (efficiency) and the closed corporate environment gradually shifted to an open structure. Recently, individual user's interest in working environment using mobile devices has increased and a new corporate working environment under the concept of BYOD is drawing attention. BYOD (bring your own device) is a concept where individuals bring in and use their own devices in business activities. Through BYOD, businesses can anticipate improved productivity (efficiency) and also a reduction in the cost of purchasing devices. However, as a result of security threats caused by frequent loss and theft of personal devices and corporate data leaks due to low security, companies are reluctant about adopting BYOD system. In addition, without considerations to diverse devices and connection environments, there are limitations in detecting abnormal behaviors such as information leaks which use the existing network-based security equipment. This study suggests a method to detect abnormal behaviors according to individual behavioral patterns, rather than the existing signature-based malicious behavior detection and discusses applications of this method in BYOD environment.

Keywords: BYOD, security, anomaly behavior detection, security equipment, communication technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
40 Risk Analysis of Leaks from a Subsea Oil Facility Based on Fuzzy Logic Techniques

Authors: Belén Vinaixa Kinnear, Arturo Hidalgo López, Bernardo Elembo Wilasi, Pablo Fernández Pérez, Cecilia Hernández Fuentealba

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The expanded use of risk assessment in legislative and corporate decision-making has increased the role of expert judgement in giving data for security-related decision-making. Expert judgements are required in most steps of risk assessment: danger recognizable proof, hazard estimation, risk evaluation, and examination of choices. This paper presents a fault tree analysis (FTA), which implies a probabilistic failure analysis applied to leakage of oil in a subsea production system. In standard FTA, the failure probabilities of items of a framework are treated as exact values while evaluating the failure probability of the top event. There is continuously insufficiency of data for calculating the failure estimation of components within the drilling industry. Therefore, fuzzy hypothesis can be used as a solution to solve the issue. The aim of this paper is to examine the leaks from the Zafiro West subsea oil facility by using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA). As a result, the research has given theoretical and practical contributions to maritime safety and environmental protection. It has been also an effective strategy used traditionally in identifying hazards in nuclear installations and power industries.

Keywords: expert judgment, probability assessment, fault tree analysis, risk analysis, oil pipelines, subsea production system, drilling, quantitative risk analysis, leakage failure, top event, off-shore industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
39 Genomic Evidence for Ancient Human Migrations Along South America's East Coast

Authors: Andre Luiz Campelo dos Santos, Amanda Owings, Henry Socrates Lavalle Sullasi, Omer Gokcumen, Michael DeGiorgio, John Lindo

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An increasing body of archaeological and genomic evidence have indicated a complex settlement process of the Americas. Here, four newly sequenced ancient genomes from Northeast Brazil and Uruguay are reported to share strong relationships with previously published samples from Panama and Southeast Brazil. Moreover, an unexpected high genomic affinity with present-day Onge is found in ancient individuals unearthed along the northern portion of South America’s Atlantic coast. These results provide genomic evidence for ancient migrations along South America’s Atlantic coast.

Keywords: archaeogenomics, atlantic coast, paleomigrations, South America

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
38 Effect of Discharge Pressure Conditions on Flow Characteristics in Axial Piston Pump

Authors: Jonghyuk Yoon, Jongil Yoon, Seong-Gyo Chung

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In many kinds of industries which usually need a large amount of power, an axial piston pump has been widely used as a main power source of a hydraulic system. The axial piston pump is a type of positive displacement pump that has several pistons in a circular array within a cylinder block. As the cylinder block and pistons start to rotate, since the exposed ends of the pistons are constrained to follow the surface of the swashed plate, the pistons are driven to reciprocate axially and then a hydraulic power is produced. In the present study, a numerical simulation which has three dimensional full model of the axial piston pump was carried out using a commercial CFD code (Ansys CFX 14.5). In order to take into consideration motion of compression and extension by the reciprocating pistons, the moving boundary conditions were applied as a function of the rotation angle to that region. In addition, this pump using hydraulic oil as working fluid is intentionally designed as a small amount of oil leaks out in order to lubricate moving parts. Since leakage could directly affect the pump efficiency, evaluation of effect of oil-leakage is very important. In order to predict the effect of the oil leakage on the pump efficiency, we considered the leakage between piston-shoe and swash-plate by modeling cylindrical shaped-feature at the end of the cylinder. In order to validate the numerical method used in this study, the numerical results of the flow rate at the discharge port are compared with the experimental data, and good agreement between them was shown. Using the validated numerical method, the effect of the discharge pressure was also investigated. The result of the present study can be useful information of small axial piston pump used in many different manufacturing industries. Acknowledgement: This research was financially supported by the “Next-generation construction machinery component specialization complex development program” through the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT).

Keywords: axial piston pump, CFD, discharge pressure, hydraulic system, moving boundary condition, oil leaks

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37 Chemical-Induced Mutation for Development of Resistance in Banana cv. Nanjangud rasabale

Authors: H. Kishor, G. Prabhuling, D. S. Ambika, D. P. Prakash

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The chemical mutagens have become important tool to enhance agronomic traits of banana crop. It is being used to develop fusarium resistance lines in various susceptible banana cultivars. There are several mutagens like EMS and NaN3 available for banana crop improvement and each mutagen has its own important role as positive or negative effects on growth and development of banana plants. Explants from shoot tip culture were treated with various EMS (0.30, 0.60, 0.90 and 0.12%) and NaN3 (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03%) concentrations. The putative mutants obtained after in vitro rooting were subjected for artificial inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. Screening putative mutants resistance to Panama disease was carried out by using syringe method of inoculation. It was observed that, EMS treated mutants were more susceptible compared to NaN3 treatment. Among the NaN3 doses 0.01% found to produce 3 resistant lines during preliminary screening under greenhouse conditions.

Keywords: Nanjangud rasabale, EMS, NaN3, putative mutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
36 A Study on User Authentication Method Using Haptic Actuator and Security Evaluation

Authors: Yo Han Choi, Hee Suk Seo, Seung Hwan Ju, Sung Hyu Han

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As currently various portable devices were launched, smart business conducted using them became common. Since smart business can use company-internal resources in an external remote place, user authentication that can identify authentic users is an important factor. Commonly used user authentication is a method of using user ID and Password. In the user authentication using ID and Password, the user should see and enter authentication information him or herself. In this user authentication system depending on the user’s vision, there is the threat of password leaks through snooping in the process which the user enters his or her authentication information. This study designed and produced a user authentication module using an actuator to respond to the snooping threat.

Keywords: actuator, user authentication, security evaluation, haptic actuator

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
35 Accelerating Side Channel Analysis with Distributed and Parallelized Processing

Authors: Kyunghee Oh, Dooho Choi

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Although there is no theoretical weakness in a cryptographic algorithm, Side Channel Analysis can find out some secret data from the physical implementation of a cryptosystem. The analysis is based on extra information such as timing information, power consumption, electromagnetic leaks or even sound which can be exploited to break the system. Differential Power Analysis is one of the most popular analyses, as computing the statistical correlations of the secret keys and power consumptions. It is usually necessary to calculate huge data and takes a long time. It may take several weeks for some devices with countermeasures. We suggest and evaluate the methods to shorten the time to analyze cryptosystems. Our methods include distributed computing and parallelized processing.

Keywords: DPA, distributed computing, parallelized processing, side channel analysis

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34 Non-Destructive Visual-Statistical Approach to Detect Leaks in Water Mains

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Tarek Zayed, Osama Moselhi

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In this paper, an effective non-destructive, non-invasive approach for leak detection was proposed. The process relies on analyzing thermal images collected by an IR viewer device that captures thermo-grams. In this study a statistical analysis of the collected thermal images of the ground surface along the expected leak location followed by a visual inspection of the thermo-grams was performed in order to locate the leak. In order to verify the applicability of the proposed approach the predicted leak location from the developed approach was compared with the real leak location. The results showed that the expected leak location was successfully identified with an accuracy of more than 95%.

Keywords: thermography, leakage, water pipelines, thermograms

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33 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of a Corrugated Rectangular Waveguide for a Microwave Conveyor-Belt Drier

Authors: Sang-Hyeon Bae, Sung-Yeon Kim, Min-Gyo Jeong, Ji-Hong Kim, Wang-Sang Lee

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Traditional heating methods such as electric ovens or steam heating are slow and not very efficient. For continuously heating the objects, a microwave conveyor-belt drier is widely used in the industrial microwave heating systems. However, there is a problem in which electromagnetic wave leaks toward outside of the heating cavity through the insertion opening. To achieve the prevention of the leakage of microwaves and improved heating characteristics, the corrugated rectangular waveguide at the entrance and exit openings of a microwave conveyor-belt drier is proposed and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is analyzed and verified. The corrugated waveguides in the proposed microwave heating system achieve at least 20 dB shielding effectiveness while ensuring a sufficient height of the openings.

Keywords: corrugated, electromagnetic wave, microwave conveyor-belt drier, rectangular waveguide, shielding effectiveness

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32 The Technique of Mobilization of the Colon for Pull-Through Procedure in Hirschsprung's Disease

Authors: Medet K. Khamitov, Marat M. Ospanov, Vasiliy M. Lozovoy, Zhenis N. Sakuov, Dastan Z. Rustemov

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With a high rectosigmoid transitional zone in children with Hirschsprung’s disease, the upper rectal, sigmoid, left colon arteries are ligated during the pull-through of the descending part of the colon. As a result, the inferior mesenteric artery ceases to participate in the blood supply to the descending part of the colon. As a result, the reduced colon is supplied with blood only by the middle colon artery, which originates from the superior mesenteric artery. Insufficiency of blood supply to the reduced colon is the cause of the development of chronic hypoxia of the intestinal wall or necrosis of the reduced descending colon. Some surgeons prefer to preserve the left colon artery. However, it is possible to stretch the mesentery, which can lead to bowel retraction to anastomotic leaks and stenosis. Chronic hypoxia of the reduced colon, in turn, is the cause of acquired (secondary) aganglionosis. The highest frequency of anastomotic leaks is observed in children older than five years. The purpose is to reduce the risk of complications in the pull-through procedure of the descending part of the colon in patients with Hirschsprung’s disease by ensuring its sufficient mobility and maintaining blood supply to the lower mesenteric artery. Methodology and events. Two children aged 5 and 7 years with Hirschsprung’s disease were operated under the conditions of the hospital in Nur-Sultan. The diagnosis was made using x-ray contrast enema and histological examination. Operational technique. After revision of the left part of the colon and assessment of the architectonics of its blood vessels, parietal mobilization of the affected sigmoid and rectum was performed on laparotomy access, while maintaining the arterial and venous terminal arcades of the sigmoid vessels. Then, the descending branch of the left colon artery was crossed (if there is an insufficient length of the reduced intestine, the left colonic artery itself may also be crossed). This manipulation provides additional mobility of the pull-through descending part of the colon. The resulting "windows" in the mesentery of the reduced intestine were sutured to prevent the development of an internal hernia. Formed a full-blooded, sufficiently long transplant from the transverse loops of the splenic angle and the descending parts of the colon with blood supply from the upper and lower mesenteric artery, freely, without tension, is reduced to the rectal zone with the coloanal anastomosis 1.5 cm above the dentate line. Results. The postoperative period was uneventful. Patients were discharged on the 7th day. The observation was carried out for six months. In no case, there was a bowel retraction, anastomotic leak, anastomotic stenosis, or other complications. Conclusion. The presented technique of mobilization of the colon for the pull-through procedure in a high transitional rectosigmoid zone of Hirschsprung’s disease allows to maintain normal blood supply to the distal part of the colon and to avoid the tension of the colon. The technique allows reducing the risk of anastomotic leak, bowel necrosis, chronic ischemia, to exclude colon retraction and anastomotic stenosis.

Keywords: blood supply, children, colon mobilization, Hirschsprung's disease, pull-through

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
31 A Predictive MOC Solver for Water Hammer Waves Distribution in Network

Authors: A. Bayle, F. Plouraboué

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Water Distribution Network (WDN) still suffers from a lack of knowledge about fast pressure transient events prediction, although the latter may considerably impact their durability. Accidental or planned operating activities indeed give rise to complex pressure interactions and may drastically modified the local pressure value generating leaks and, in rare cases, pipe’s break. In this context, a numerical predictive analysis is conducted to prevent such event and optimize network management. A couple of Python/FORTRAN 90, home-made software, has been developed using Method Of Characteristic (MOC) solving for water-hammer equations. The solver is validated by direct comparison with theoretical and experimental measurement in simple configurations whilst afterward extended to network analysis. The algorithm's most costly steps are designed for parallel computation. A various set of boundary conditions and energetic losses models are considered for the network simulations. The results are analyzed in both real and frequencies domain and provide crucial information on the pressure distribution behavior within the network.

Keywords: energetic losses models, method of characteristic, numerical predictive analysis, water distribution network, water hammer

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30 Aspects Regarding the Structural Behaviour of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle for Emergency Response

Authors: Lucian Stefanita Grigore, Damian Gorgoteanu, Cristian Molder, Amado Stefan, Daniel Constantin

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The purpose of this article is to present an analytical-numerical study on the structural behavior of a sunken autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for emergency intervention. The need for such a study was generated by the key objective of the ERL-Emergency project. The project aims to develop a system of collaborative robots for emergency response. The system consists of two robots: unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) on tracks and the second is an AUV. The system of collaborative robots, AUV and UGV, will be used to perform missions of monitoring, intervention, and rescue. The main mission of the AUV is to dive into the maritime space of an industrial port to detect possible leaks in a pipeline transporting petroleum products. Another mission is to close and open the valves with which the pipes are provided. Finally, you will need to be able to lift a manikin to the surface, which you can take to land. Numerical analysis was performed by the finite element method (FEM). The conditions for immersing the AUV at 100 m depth were simulated, and the calculations for different fluid flow rates were repeated. From a structural point of view, the stiffening areas and the enclosures in which the command-and-control elements and the accumulators are located have been especially analyzed. The conclusion of this research is that the AUV meets very well the established requirements.

Keywords: analytical-numerical, emergency, FEM, robotics, underwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
29 Process Safety Evaluation of a Nuclear Power Plant through Virtual Process Hazard Analysis Using Hazard and Operability Technique

Authors: Elysa V. Largo, Lormaine Anne A. Branzuela, Julie Marisol D. Pagalilauan, Neil C. Concibido, Monet Concepcion M. Detras

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The energy demand in the country is increasing; thus, nuclear energy is recently mandated to add to the energy mix. The Philippines has the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP), which can be a source of nuclear energy; however, it has not been operated since the completion of its construction. Thus, evaluating the safety of BNPP is vital. This study explored the possible deviations that may occur in the operation of a nuclear power plant with a pressurized water reactor, which is similar to BNPP, through a virtual process hazard analysis (PHA) using the hazard and operability (HAZOP) technique. Temperature, pressure, and flow were used as parameters. A total of 86 causes of various deviations were identified, wherein the primary system and line from reactor coolant pump to reactor vessel are the most critical system and node, respectively. A total of 348 scenarios were determined. The critical events are radioactive leaks due to nuclear meltdown and sump overflow that could lead to multiple worker fatalities, one or more public fatalities, and environmental remediation. There were existing safeguards identified; however, further recommendations were provided to have additional and supplemental barriers to reduce the risk.

Keywords: PSM, PHA, HAZOP, nuclear power plant

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28 A Smart Monitoring System for Preventing Gas Risks in Indoor

Authors: Gyoutae Park, Geunjun Lyu, Yeonjae Lee, Jaheon Gu, Sanguk Ahn, Hiesik Kim

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In this paper, we propose a system for preventing gas risks through the use of wireless communication modules and intelligent gas safety appliances. Our system configuration consists of an automatic extinguishing system, detectors, a wall-pad, and a microcomputer controlled micom gas meter to monitor gas flow and pressure as well as the occurrence of earthquakes. The automatic fire extinguishing system checks for both combustible gaseous leaks and monitors the environmental temperature, while the detector array measures smoke and CO gas concentrations. Depending on detected conditions, the micom gas meter cuts off an inner valve and generates a warning, the automatic fire-extinguishing system cuts off an external valve and sprays extinguishing materials, or the sensors generate signals and take further action when smoke or CO are detected. Information on intelligent measures taken by the gas safety appliances and sensors are transmitted to the wall-pad, which in turn relays this as real time data to a server that can be monitored via an external network (BcN) connection to a web or mobile application for the management of gas safety. To validate this smart-home gas management system, we field-tested its suitability for use in Korean apartments under several scenarios.

Keywords: gas sensor, leak, gas safety, gas meter, gas risk, wireless communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
27 Support for and Participation in 'Spontaneous' Mass Protest in Iceland: The Moderating Effects of Biographical Availability, Critical Mass, and Social Embeddedness

Authors: Jon Gunnar Bernburg

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The present study addresses a topic that is fundamental to social movement theory, namely, the contingent link between movement support and movement participation. Usually, only a small fraction of those who agree with the cause of a social movement is mobilized into participating in it (a pattern sometimes referred to as 'the collective action problem'). However, historical moments sometimes emerge when many supporters become mobilized to participate in the movement, greatly enhancing the chance of movement success. By studying a case in point, this paper addresses the limited work on how support and participation are related at such critical moments. Specifically, the paper examines the association between supporting and participating in a huge 'pro-democracy' protest in Iceland in April 2016, in the wake of the global Panama Papers scandal. Organized via social media by only a handful of activists, but supported by a majority of Icelanders, the protest attracted about a fourth of the urban population, leading to a snap election and government change. Surveying Iceland’s urban population, this paper tests hypotheses about the processes mobilizing supporters to participate in the protest. The findings reveal how variables derived from the theories of biographical availability (males vs. females, working class vs. professionals), critical mass (expectations, prior protest success), and social embeddedness (close ties with protesters) moderate the association between protest support and participation. The study helps to account for one of the largest protests in Iceland’s history while contributing to the theory about how historical contexts shape the behavior of movement supporters.

Keywords: Iceland, crisis, protest support vs. participation, theories of mass mobilization

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26 A Study on the Effect of Rib Structure in Spoke-Type PMSM

Authors: Hyun-Soo Seol, In-Gun Kim, Hyun Seok Hong, Dong-Woo Kang, Ju Lee

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Rotor of Spoke-Type PMSM is divided into permanent magnet and rotor core. Moreover, rotor core is composed of pole-piece, Bridge and rib. Piece between the permanent magnet N and S poles is pole-piece. Bridge and rib hold pole-piece. In the case of pole-piece and bridge, it is essential structure of Spoke-Type PMSM. However, Rib can be selected by the designer depending on the operating conditions and constraints. If rib is present in the rotor, rib which acts in the leak path generates a leakage flux. Although the leakage flux reduces the torque in low speed, it expands speed range in high speed. So, there is a relationship of trade off. Viewed from the standpoint of permanent magnet demagnetization, since the magnetic flux by the stator winding leaks to the rib, it is an advantage. In addition, rib affects the safety factor of the rotor. For application required high speed operation, since the securing the safety factor of the rotor is important, rib structure is advantageous. On the other hand, in the case of the application that does not require high speed operation, it is desirable to increase the output power by designing without rib. In this paper, Effects on rib structure is analyzed in detail and this paper provides designer with information about rotor design of spoke-type PMSM according to rib structure.

Keywords: spoke-Type PMSM, rotor shape, rib, operation range

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25 Door Fan Test in New CED at Portopalo Test Site

Authors: F. Noto, M. Castro, R. Garraffo, An. Mirabella, A. Rizzo, G. Cuttone

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The door fan test is a verification procedure on the tightness of a room, necessary following the installation of saturation extinguishing systems and made mandatory according to the UNI 15004-1: 2019 standard whenever a gas extinguishing system is designed and installed. The door fan test was carried out at the Portopalo di Capo Passero headquarters of the Southern National Laboratories and highlighted how the Data Processing Center is perfectly up to standard, passing the door fan test in an excellent way. The Southern National Laboratories constitute a solid research reality, well established in the international scientific panorama. The CED in the Portopalo site has been expanded, so the extinguishing system has been expanded according to a detailed design. After checking the correctness of the design to verify the absence of air leaks, we carried out the door fan test. The activities of the LNS are mainly aimed at basic research in the field of Nuclear Physics, Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics. The Portopalo site will host some of the largest submarine wired scientific research infrastructures built in Europe and in the world, such as KM3NeT and EMSO ERIC; in particular, the site research laboratory in Portopalo will host the power supply and data acquisition systems of the underwater infrastructures, and a technological backbone will be created, unique in the Mediterranean, capable of allowing the connection, at abyssal depths, of dozens of real-time surveying and research structures of the marine environment deep.

Keywords: KM3Net, fire protection, door fan test, CED

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24 Hard Sludge Formation and Consolidation in Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generators: An Experimental Study

Authors: R. Fernandez-Saavedra, M. B. Gomez-Mancebo, D. Gomez-Briceno

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The gradual corrosion of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) feedwater, condensate and drain systems results in the inevitable liberation of corrosion products, principally metallic oxides, to the secondary circuit. In addition, other contaminants and impurities are introduced into the makeup water, auxiliary feedwater and by condenser leaks. All these compounds circulating in the secondary flow can eventually be transported to steam generators and be transformed into deposits on their surfaces. Deposits that accumulate on the tube sheet are known as sludge piles and when they consolidate and harden become into hard sludge. Hard sludge is especially detrimental because it favors tube deformation or denting at the top of tube sheet and further stress corrosion cracking (SCC). These failures affect the efficiency of nuclear power plants. In a recent work, a model for the formation and consolidation of hard sludge has been formulated, highlighting the influence of aluminum and silicon compounds in the initial formation of hard sludge. In this work, an experimental study has been performed in order to get a deeper understanding of the behavior of Al and Si species in hard sludge formation and consolidation. For this purpose, the key components of hard sludge (magnetite, aluminum and/or silicon sources) have been isothermally autoclaved in representative secondary circuit conditions during one week, and the resulting products have been chemically and structurally characterized by XRF and XRD techniques, respectively.

Keywords: consolidation, hard sludge, secondary circuit, steam generator

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23 An Application of Path Planning Algorithms for Autonomous Inspection of Buried Pipes with Swarm Robots

Authors: Richard Molyneux, Christopher Parrott, Kirill Horoshenkov

Abstract:

This paper aims to demonstrate how various algorithms can be implemented within swarms of autonomous robots to provide continuous inspection within underground pipeline networks. Current methods of fault detection within pipes are costly, time consuming and inefficient. As such, solutions tend toward a more reactive approach, repairing faults, as opposed to proactively seeking leaks and blockages. The paper presents an efficient inspection method, showing that autonomous swarm robotics is a viable way of monitoring underground infrastructure. Tailored adaptations of various Vehicle Routing Problems (VRP) and path-planning algorithms provide a customised inspection procedure for complicated networks of underground pipes. The performance of multiple algorithms is compared to determine their effectiveness and feasibility. Notable inspirations come from ant colonies and stigmergy, graph theory, the k-Chinese Postman Problem ( -CPP) and traffic theory. Unlike most swarm behaviours which rely on fast communication between agents, underground pipe networks are a highly challenging communication environment with extremely limited communication ranges. This is due to the extreme variability in the pipe conditions and relatively high attenuation of acoustic and radio waves with which robots would usually communicate. This paper illustrates how to optimise the inspection process and how to increase the frequency with which the robots pass each other, without compromising the routes they are able to take to cover the whole network.

Keywords: autonomous inspection, buried pipes, stigmergy, swarm intelligence, vehicle routing problem

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22 Corrosion Mitigation in Gas Facilities Piping Through the Use of FBE Coated Pipes and Corrosion Resistant Alloy Girth Welds

Authors: Fadi Chammas, Saad Alkhaldi, Tariq Alghamdi, Stefano Alexandirs

Abstract:

The operating conditions and corrosive nature of the process fluid in the Haradh and Hawiyah areas are subjecting facility piping to undesirable corrosion phenomena. Therefore, production headers inside remote headers have been internally cladded with high alloy material to mitigate the corrosion damage mechanism. Corrosion mitigation in the jump-over lines, constructed between the existing flowlines and the newly constructed facilities to provide operational flexibility, is proposed. This corrosion mitigation system includes the application of fusion bond epoxy (FBE) coating on the internal surface of the pipe and depositing corrosion-resistant alloy (CRA) weld layers at pipe and fittings ends to protect the carbon steel material. In addition, high alloy CRA weld material is used to deposit the girth weld between the 90-degree elbows and mating internally coated segments. A rigorous testing and qualification protocol was established prior to actual adoption at the Haradh and Hawiyah Field Gas Compression Program, currently being executed by Saudi Aramco. The proposed mitigation system, aimed at applying the cladding at the ends of the internally FBE coated pipes/elbows, will resolve field joint coating challenges, eliminate the use of approximately (1700) breakout flanges, and prevent the potential hydrocarbon leaks.

Keywords: pipelines, corrosion, cost-saving, project completion

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21 The Transnationalization of Anti-Corruption Compliance Programs in Latin America

Authors: Hitalo Silva

Abstract:

The most famous corruption scandals in the past four years were taken in Latin America, especially in Brazil, but besides the stain that these countries suffered in an international field, there was a huge effort to create or modernize its national anti-corruption laws. Also, the countries are implementing new standards for investigations and corporate compliance programs, in order to combat corruption and prevent the money laundering. But here is the following question: is here an invisible uniformization/transnationalization of the anti-corruption systems in Latin America? This new scenario reflects the impacts of the corruption investigations conducted in Latin America countries, such as Car Wash Operation in Brazil, Pretelt Case in Colombia, Gasoducto Sur Peruano case and the Mr. Alex Kouri’s case both in Peru. Legal and institutional pro-transparency reforms were made recently, the companies are trying to implement new standards of conduct and investing in their compliance department. In this sense, there is a huge homogeneity in Latin America concerning the structuring of corporate compliance programs, a truly transnationalization not only of laws but also corporate standards among these countries. Although legislative initiatives vary among the countries, there is a tendency to impose rigid liability standards for the companies being investigated for corruption, not only the personal punishments of their executives, which demonstrate the power of authorities to strength the investigative tools. Also, instruments such as leniency agreements and plea bargain are essential to put a central role in enforcement activities in Latin America. In other words, in a region where six former Presidents were convicted for acts of corruption, and, companies such as Odebrecht that is accused of offering bribes to politicians from Argentina to México, passing through Ecuador, Colombia, Guatemala and Panama, this demonstrates the necessity to increase strength of their legal framework in a sense that unify transnational goals. All things considered, this paper will show how anti-corruption regulators are cooperating in Latin America jurisdictions in order to unify their laws and how the private sector is dealing with this new scenario of corporate culture change.

Keywords: compliance, corruption, investigations, Latin America, transnational

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20 A Study on Genus Carolia Cantraine, 1838: A Case Study in Egypt with Special Emphasis on Paleobiogeographic, and Biometric Context

Authors: Soheir El-Shazly, Gouda Abdel-Gawad, Yasser Salama, Dina Sayed

Abstract:

Twelve species belonging to genus Carolia Cantraine, 1838 were recorded from nine localities in the Tertiary rocks of the Tethys, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Provinces. During The Eocene two species were collected from Indian-Pakistani region, two from North Africa (Libya, Tunis and Algeria), one from Jamaica and two from Peru. The Oligocene shows its appearance in North America (Florida) and Argentina. The genus showed its last occurrence in the Miocene rocks of North America (Florida) before its extinction. In Egypt, the genus was diversified in the Eocene rocks and was represented by four species and two subspecies. The paleobiogeographic distribution of Genus Carolia Cantraine, 1838 indicates that it appeared in the Lower Eocene of West Indian Ocean and migrated westward flowing circumtropical Tethys Current to the central Tethyan province, where it appeared in North Africa and continued its dispersal westward to the Atlantic Ocean and arrived Jamaica in the Middle Eocene. It persisted in the Caribbean Sea and appeared later in the Oligocene and Miocene rocks of North America (Florida). Crossing Panama corridor, the genus migrated to the south Eastern Pacific Ocean and was collected from the Middle Eocene of Peru. The appearance of the genus in the Oligocene of the South Atlantic Coast of Argentina may be via South America Seaway or its southward migration from Central America to Austral Basin. The thickening of the upper valve of the genus, after the loss of its byssus to withstand the current action, caused inability of the animal to carry on its vital activity and caused its extinction. The biometric study of Carolia placunoides Cantraine, 1938 from thhe Eocene of Egypt, indicates that the distance between the muscle scars in the upper valve increases with the closure of the byssal notch.

Keywords: Atlantic, carolia, paleobiogeography, tethys

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19 Environmental Protection by Optimum Utilization of Car Air Conditioners

Authors: Sanchita Abrol, Kunal Rana, Ankit Dhir, S. K. Gupta

Abstract:

According to N.R.E.L.’s findings, 700 crore gallons of petrol is used annually to run the air conditioners of passenger vehicles (nearly 6% of total fuel consumption in the USA). Beyond fuel use, the Environmental Protection Agency reported that refrigerant leaks from auto air conditioning units add an additional 5 crore metric tons of carbon emissions to the atmosphere each year. The objective of our project is to deal with this vital issue by carefully modifying the interiors of a car thereby increasing its mileage and the efficiency of its engine. This would consequently result in a decrease in tail emission and generated pollution along with improved car performance. An automatic mechanism, deployed between the front and the rear seats, consisting of transparent thermal insulating sheet/curtain, would roll down as per the requirement of the driver in order to optimize the volume for effective air conditioning, when travelling alone or with a person. The reduction in effective volume will yield favourable results. Even on a mild sunny day, the temperature inside a parked car can quickly spike to life-threatening levels. For a stationary parked car, insulation would be provided beneath its metal body so as to reduce the rate of heat transfer and increase the transmissivity. As a result, the car would not require a large amount of air conditioning for maintaining lower temperature, which would provide us similar benefits. Authors established the feasibility studies, system engineering and primarily theoretical and experimental results confirming the idea and motivation to fabricate and test the actual product.

Keywords: automation, car, cooling insulating curtains, heat optimization, insulation, reduction in tail emission, mileage

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18 Oil Field Water Production Problem and Control

Authors: Abdulsalam Agila Nagem

Abstract:

Water production usually represents as waste product in petroleum industry and is not a revenue stream, it is one of the major technical, environmental, and economical problems associated with oil and gas production The quantity of “produced water” generally increases substantially with the age of the oil field. Produced water handling tactic depends on the composition of produced water, location, quantity, and the availability of resources. Produced water can limit the productive life of the oil and gas wells and can cause several problems, including corrosion of tubular, fines migration, loading most onshore produced water is re-injected either to underground formations, to provide additional oil and gas recovery or for disposal Techniques to minimize and control produced water volumes should be establish by their major steps (Source of produced water - Methods to identify- Remedial actions, Water control problems can be classified into one of two major categories Near Well bore problems Mechanical problems (Casing leaks) /Communication problems Reservoir related problems Channels behind casing Barrier breakdowns Completion into or near water - Coning and cresting - Channeling through high perm zones or Fractures Methods to Identify Sources Chloride /TDS (Total Dissolved Water) tests Production logging (Spinner survey – Cased Hole Formation Resistivity – reservoir saturation Tool (RST) / Mechanical integrity tests (MIT) Remedial Action / Water Shutoff Technology is defined as an operation that hinders water from entering the production wells / Mechanical solution / Chemical solution (Cement squeeze - Polymer treatments) Abdul Salam Agila Nagem Production engineering department – Arabian Gulf Oil Company

Keywords: oil well production problems, environmental control, economic consideration, corrosion control

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