Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 106

Search results for: Shahid Adeel

106 Simulation of Flow through Dam Foundation by FEM and ANN Methods Case Study: Shahid Abbaspour Dam

Authors: Mehrdad Shahrbanozadeh, Gholam Abbas Barani, Saeed Shojaee

Abstract:

In this study, a finite element (Seep3D model) and an artificial neural network (ANN) model were developed to simulate flow through dam foundation. Seep3D model is capable of simulating three-dimensional flow through a heterogeneous and anisotropic, saturated and unsaturated porous media. Flow through the Shahid Abbaspour dam foundation has been used as a case study. The FEM with 24960 triangular elements and 28707 nodes applied to model flow through foundation of this dam. The FEM being made denser in the neighborhood of the curtain screen. The ANN model developed for Shahid Abbaspour dam is a feedforward four layer network employing the sigmoid function as an activator and the back-propagation algorithm for the network learning. The water level elevations of the upstream and downstream of the dam have been used as input variables and the piezometric heads as the target outputs in the ANN model. The two models are calibrated and verified using the Shahid Abbaspour’s dam piezometric data. Results of the models were compared with those measured by the piezometers which are in good agreement. The model results also revealed that the ANN model performed as good as and in some cases better than the FEM.

Keywords: seepage, dam foundation, finite element method, neural network, seep 3D model

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
105 Pre and Post Mordant Effect of Alum on Gamma Rays Assisted Cotton Fabric by Using Ipomoea indica Leaves Extract

Authors: Abdul Hafeez, Shahid Adeel, Ayesha Hussain

Abstract:

There are number of plants species in the universe which give the protections from different diseases and give colour for the foods and textiles. The environmental condition of the universe suggested toward the ecofriendly textiles. The aim of the paper is to analyze the influence of pre & post mordanting of alum on radiated cotton fabric with Gamma Radiation of different doses by using Ipomoea indica leaves extract. Alum used as mordant with the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% as pre and post mordanting to observe the effect of light and colour fastness of radiated cotton. 6% of alum concentration in pre mordanting gave good colour strength 117.82 with darker in shade toward the greenish tone and in post mordanting 6% concentration gave good colour strength 102.19. The lab values show that the colour is darker in tone and gave bluish effect. Further results showed that alum gave good light and rubbing fastness on gamma radiated cotton fabric.

Keywords: Ipomoea indica, gamma radiation, alum, light fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
104 Interpreting the Conflicted Self: A Reading of Agha Shahid Ali's Verses

Authors: Javeria Khurshid

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to bring forth the interpretation that Agha Shahid Ali in his verses exhibits. The study will focus on the conflict and chaos in his verses, reflecting the sense of identity attached to Kashmir. His verse advertently depicts the political turmoil and social dissent in the 'un-silent' valley, and ultimately, it expresses the chaos, anguish, and suffering, a sense of longing and belonging to this conflicted state of 'being' as well as 'mind.' Agha Shahid Ali, Kashmiri- American poet who writes of Kashmiri tragedies that continue to remain unarticulated and unheard to the major parts of world, articulates the narrative that showcases the conflicted self of Kashmiris in general and Ali’s in particular. The focus of the paper will be his poetry that debunks the claims of civility and how Kashmiri identity is kept either maligned or obscured in the major narratives that arise from the mainstream writers. However, Ali’s verses are substantially broad and clear, and very brilliantly, he rewrites Kashmir in his avid and novel voice, his verses embracing the Kashmiri self, effectively anew in English language. The paper will clearly indicate how Ali remains true to his name, 'shaheed' and 'shahid,' both a martyr and witness. Ali’s fate has been intricately entangled with Kashmir, even after his untimely death. He has fully and beautifully immersed himself in the surreal world of the conflict prevalent in the Valley, and this paper will examine the grotesque and gory history that has been spanning over the years in Kashmir with never ending cycle of conflict. The originality and innovation of his poetry surfaces from the anarchy of Kashmir, spanning between its culture, historical context, the art of memory and imagery.

Keywords: identity, self, turmoil, Kashmir

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
103 Laboratory Scale Purification of Water from Copper Waste

Authors: Mumtaz Khan, Adeel Shahid, Waqas Khan

Abstract:

Heavy metals presence in water streams is a big danger for aquatic life and ultimately effects human health. Removal of copper (Cu) by ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake from synthetic solution in batch conditions was studied. Different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial solution pH, agitation rate, initial Cu concentration, biosorbent concentration, and biosorbent particle size has been studied to quantify the Cu biosorption. The rate of adsorption of metal ions was very fast at the beginning and became slow after reaching the saturation point, followed by a slower active metabolic uptake of metal ions into the cells. Up to a certain point, (pH=4, concentration of Cu = ~ 640 mg/l, agitation rate = ~ 400 rpm, biosorbent concentration = ~ 0.5g, 3g, 3g for ispaghula husk, maize fiber and maize oil cake, respectively) increasing the pH, concentration of Cu, agitation rate, and biosorbent concentration, increased the biosorption rate; however the sorption capacity increased by decreasing the particle size. At optimized experimental parameters, the maximum Cu biosorption by ispaghula husk, maize fibre and maize oil cake were 86.7%, 59.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the kinetics studies demonstrated that the biosorption of copper on ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The results of adsorption were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model represented the sorption process better than Freundlich, and R² value ~ 0.978. Optimizations of physical and environmental parameters revealed, ispaghula husk as more potent copper biosorbent than maize fibre, and maize oil cake. The sorbent is cheap and available easily, so this study can be applied to remove Cu impurities on pilot and industrial scale after certain modifications.

Keywords: biosorption, copper, ispaghula husk, maize fibre, maize oil cake, purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
102 The Investigation of Cracking on the Shell of Dryers (tag No. 2DR-1745 and DR-1402) in Shahid Tondguyan Petrochemical Company (STPC)

Authors: Ali Haghiri

Abstract:

This research has been to investigate the cause of the stress corrosion cracking on dryer equipment (2DR-1745 and DR-1402) in Shahid Tondguyan Petrochemical Company (STPC). These dryers are as a drying powder Terphetalic acid in CTA2 and CTA1 unit. After passing through RVF equipment, wet cake moisture content of about 14% and temperature of 90C changed into a dry cake with a moisture content of less than 0.1% and the final temperature of about 140C and sent out Final Silo (FS-1820). After the declaration of the operation department concerning the observation of acid leakage under the primary insulation was decided that at the first opportunity, this issue must be investigated. So, after the shutdown of a unit at the date 2012/10/20 (2DR-1745) and 2021/11/24 (DR-1402) and after washing the dryer wall, insulation around the wall opened and it was found to crack and leakage from some points.

Keywords: stress corrosion cracking, residual stress, austenitic stainless steel, Br- ion

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
101 Tuning of Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicles Using Tethered Setup

Authors: Shoeb Ahmed Adeel, Vivek Paul, K. Prajwal, Michael Fenelon

Abstract:

Techniques have been used to tether and stabilize a multi-rotor MAV but carrying out the same process to a fixed wing MAV is a novel method which can be utilized in order to reduce damage occurring to the fixed wing MAVs while conducting flight test trials and PID tuning. A few sensors and on board controller is required to carry out this experiment in horizontal and vertical plane of the vehicle. Here we will be discussing issues such as sensitivity of the air vehicle, endurance and external load of the string acting on the vehicle.

Keywords: MAV, PID tuning, tethered flight, UAV

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
100 Applying of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for Estimation of Flood Hydrographs

Authors: Amir Ahmad Dehghani, Morteza Nabizadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to flood hydrograph modeling of Shahid Rajaee reservoir dam located in Iran. This was carried out using 11 flood hydrographs recorded in Tajan river gauging station. From this dataset, 9 flood hydrographs were chosen to train the model and 2 flood hydrographs to test the model. The different architectures of neuro-fuzzy model according to the membership function and learning algorithm were designed and trained with different epochs. The results were evaluated in comparison with the observed hydrographs and the best structure of model was chosen according the least RMSE in each performance. To evaluate the efficiency of neuro-fuzzy model, various statistical indices such as Nash-Sutcliff and flood peak discharge error criteria were calculated. In this simulation, the coordinates of a flood hydrograph including peak discharge were estimated using the discharge values occurred in the earlier time steps as input values to the neuro-fuzzy model. These results indicate the satisfactory efficiency of neuro-fuzzy model for flood simulating. This performance of the model demonstrates the suitability of the implemented approach to flood management projects.

Keywords: adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, flood hydrograph, hybrid learning algorithm, Shahid Rajaee reservoir dam

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
99 Design, Prototyping, Integration, Flight Testing of a 20 cm Span Fully Autonomous Fixed Wing Micro Air Vehicle

Authors: Vivek Paul, Abel Nelly, Shoeb A Adeel, R. Tilak, S. Maheshwaran, S. Pulikeshi, Roshan Antony, C. S. Suraj

Abstract:

This paper presents the complete design and development cycle of a 20 cm span fixed wing micro air vehicle that was developed at CSIR-NAL, under the micro air vehicle development program. The design is a cropped delta flying wing MAV with a modified N22 airfoil of 12.3% thickness. The design was fabricated using the fused deposition method- RPT technique. COTS components were procured and integrated into this RPT prototype. A commercial autopilot that was proven in the earlier MAV designs was used for this MAV. The MAV was flown fully autonomous for 14mins at an open field. The flight data showed good performance as expected from the MAV design. The paper also describes about the process involved in the design of MAVs.

Keywords: autopilot, autonomous mode, flight testing, MAV, RPT

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
98 Autonomic Threat Avoidance and Self-Healing in Database Management System

Authors: Wajahat Munir, Muhammad Haseeb, Adeel Anjum, Basit Raza, Ahmad Kamran Malik

Abstract:

Databases are the key components of the software systems. Due to the exponential growth of data, it is the concern that the data should be accurate and available. The data in databases is vulnerable to internal and external threats, especially when it contains sensitive data like medical or military applications. Whenever the data is changed by malicious intent, data analysis result may lead to disastrous decisions. Autonomic self-healing is molded toward computer system after inspiring from the autonomic system of human body. In order to guarantee the accuracy and availability of data, we propose a technique which on a priority basis, tries to avoid any malicious transaction from execution and in case a malicious transaction affects the system, it heals the system in an isolated mode in such a way that the availability of system would not be compromised. Using this autonomic system, the management cost and time of DBAs can be minimized. In the end, we test our model and present the findings.

Keywords: autonomic computing, self-healing, threat avoidance, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
97 Study of Syntactic Errors for Deep Parsing at Machine Translation

Authors: Yukiko Sasaki Alam, Shahid Alam

Abstract:

Syntactic parsing is vital for semantic treatment by many applications related to natural language processing (NLP), because form and content coincide in many cases. However, it has not yet reached the levels of reliable performance. By manually examining and analyzing individual machine translation output errors that involve syntax as well as semantics, this study attempts to discover what is required for improving syntactic and semantic parsing.

Keywords: syntactic parsing, error analysis, machine translation, deep parsing

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
96 A Detailed Study of Two Different Airfoils on Flight Performance of MAV of Same Physical Dimension

Authors: Shoeb A. Adeel, Shashant Anand, Vivek Paul, Dinesh, Suraj, Roshan

Abstract:

The paper presents a study of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wingspans of 20 Cm with two different airfoil configurations. MAVs have vast potential applications in both military and civilian areas. These MAVs are fully autonomous and supply real-time data. The paper focuses on two different designs of the MAVs one being N22 airfoil and the other a flat plate with similar dimension. As designed, the MAV would fly in a low Reynolds-number regime at airspeeds of 15 & 20 m/sec. Propulsion would be provided by an electric motor with an advanced lithium. Because of the close coupling between vehicle elements, system integration would be a significant challenge, requiring tight packaging and multifunction components to meet mass limitations and Centre of Gravity (C.G) balancing. These MAVs are feasible and within a couple of years of technology development in key areas including sensors, propulsion, Aerodynamics, and packaging these would be easily available to the users at affordable prices. The paper finally compares the flight performance of the two configurations.

Keywords: airfoil, CFD, MAV, flight performance, endurance, climb, lift, drag

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
95 Estimation of Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation Studies of Islamabad, Capital City of Pakistan

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Maliha Afshan, Adeel Tahir

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation studies have been carried out for the Capital city of Pakistan, Islamabad ( latitude 330 43’N and Longitude 370 71’E) to assess the solar potential of the area. The global and diffuse solar radiation were carried out using sunshine hour data for the above-mentioned area. Monthly total solar radiation is calculated through regression constants a and b through declination angle of the sun and sunshine hours and KT that is cloudiness index are used to calculate the diffuse solar radiation. Result obtained shows variation in the direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months for Islamabad. Diffuse solar radiation was found maximum in July, i.e., 32% whereas direct or beam radiation was found to be high in April to June, i.e., 73%. During July, August, and December, the sky was found cloudy. From the result, it appears that with the exception of monsoon month July and August the solar energy can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year in Islamabad.

Keywords: global radiation, Islamabad, diffuse radiation, sky condition, sunshine hour

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
94 Children’s Experience of the Built Environment in the Initial Stages of a Settlement Formation: Case Study of Shahid-Keshvari New Settlement, Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Hassan Sheikh, Mehdi Nilipour, Amiraslan Fila

Abstract:

Many conventional town planning processes do little to give children and young people a voice on what is important about the urban environment. As a result of paying little attention to the children, their physical, social and mental needs are hardly met in urban environments. Therefore, urban spaces are impotent to attract children, while their recreational space has been confined to home or virtual spaces. Since children are just taking the first steps to learn the world beyond house borders, their living environment will profoundly influence almost all aspects of their lives. This puts a great deal of responsibility on the shoulders of planners, who need to balance a number of different issues in urban design to make places more child-friendly. The main purpose of present research is to analyze and plan a child-friendly environment in an on-going urban settlement development for the benefit of all residents. Assessing children’s needs and regard them in development strategies and policies will help to “plan for children”. Following this purpose, based on child-friendly environment studies, indicators of child-friendly environments were collected. Then three distinct characteristics of case study, which are being under-construction, lack of social ties between dwellers and high-rise building, determined seven indicators included basic services, Urban and environmental qualities, Family, kin, peers and community, Sense of belonging and continuity, participation, Safety, security and freedom of movement and human scale. With the survey, Informal observation and participation in small communities, essential data has been collected and analyzed by SPSS software. The field study is Shahid-Keshvari town in Isfahan, Iran. Eighty-six middle childhood, children (ages 8-13) participated. The results show Children's satisfaction is correlated with basic services and the quality of the environment, social environment and the safety and security. The considerable number of children and youth (55%) like to live somewhere other than the town. Satisfaction and sense of belonging and continuity have a strong inverse correlation with age. In other words, as age increases, satisfaction and consequently a sense of belonging will be reduced; thus children and youth consider their future somewhere out of the town. The main reason for dissatisfaction was the basic services and social environment. More than half of children (55%) expressed their wish to develop basic services in terms of availability, hierarchy, and quality. Among all recreational places, children showed more interest to the parks. About three-quarters (76%) considered building a park as a crucial item for residents. The significant number of children (54%) want to have a relationship with more friends. This could be due to the serious shortage of the leisure spaces such as parks or playgrounds. Also, the space around the house or space between the apartments has not been designed for play or children’s activities. Moreover, the presence of strangers and construction workers have a negative impact on children's sense of peace and security; 60% of children are afraid of theft and 36% of children found strangers as a menace. The analysis of children’s issues and suggestions provides an insight to plan and design of child-friendly environment in new towns.

Keywords: child-friendly city (CFC), child-friendly environment, child participation, under-construction environment, Isfahan Shahid-Keshvari Town

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
93 Estimation of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient Using Tracer Data

Authors: K. Ebrahimi, Sh. Shahid, M. Mohammadi Ghaleni, M. H. Omid

Abstract:

The longitudinal dispersion coefficient is a crucial parameter for 1-D water quality analysis of riverine flows. So far, different types of empirical equations for estimation of the coefficient have been developed, based on various case studies. The main objective of this paper is to develop an empirical equation for estimation of the coefficient for a riverine flow. For this purpose, a set of tracer experiments was conducted, involving salt tracer, at three sections located in downstream of a lengthy canal. Tracer data were measured in three mixing lengths along the canal including; 45, 75 and 100m. According to the results, the obtained coefficients from new developed empirical equation gave an encouraging level of agreement with the theoretical values.

Keywords: coefficients, dispersion, river, tracer, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
92 Analysis of Fixed Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna Systems

Authors: Muhammad Umair Shahid, Abdul Rehman, Mudassir Mukhtar, Muhammad Nauman

Abstract:

The smart antenna is the prominent technology that has become known in recent years to meet the growing demands of wireless communications. In an overcrowded atmosphere, its application is growing gradually. A methodical evaluation of the performance of Fixed Beamforming algorithms for smart antennas such as Multiple Sidelobe Canceller (MSC), Maximum Signal-to-interference ratio (MSIR) and minimum variance (MVDR) has been comprehensively presented in this paper. Simulation results show that beamforming is helpful in providing optimized response towards desired directions. MVDR beamformer provides the most optimal solution.

Keywords: fixed weight beamforming, array pattern, signal to interference ratio, power efficiency, element spacing, array elements, optimum weight vector

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
91 Ants of the Genus Trichomyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with Description of Two New Species

Authors: Mostafa R. Sharaf, Shehzad Salman, Hathal M. Al Dhafer, Shahid A. Akbar, Abdulrahman S. Aldawood

Abstract:

The ant genus Trichomyrmex Mayr is revised for the Arabian Peninsula based on the worker caste. Nine species are recognized and descriptions of two new species, T. almosayari sp. n. and T. shakeri sp. n. from Riyadh Province, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are given. A key to species and diagnostic characters of the treated species are presented. New country records are presented, T. abyssinicus (Forel) for the KSA and T. destructor (Jerdon) and T. mayri (Forel) for the State of Qatar. New distribution records for T. destructor (Jerdon) and T. mayri (Forel) in the KSA are provided. Regional and world distributions, and distribution maps for the treated species are included. Ecological and biological data are given where known.

Keywords: ants, Trichomyrmex, Arabian Peninsula, T. almosayari, T. shakeri

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
90 Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Employee Performance: Mediating Role of Counterproductive Work Behavior in Hotel Industry of Pakistan

Authors: Kashif Mahmood, Tehreem Fatima, Adeel Hassan

Abstract:

Firms are always concerned with their performance which is directly linked to employees’ performance. In the thrive of this goal, number of researches have been conducted where Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and Counterproductive Work Behavior (CPWB) is among those studies. This study is aimed at investigating the role OCB by considering altruism and conscientiousness in an employee’s job performance with the mediating role of CPWB by considering sabotage and withdraw among the employees of hotel industry in Pakistan. A quantitative method was used by following deductive approach in positivist paradigm where survey was conducted through self-administered questionnaires and data was collected from the employees working in hotel industry of Pakistan. Top 10 hotels from the region of Lahore, Punjab was selected as population, and 500 questionnaires were distributed among their employees by using stratified random sampling technique. There is a positive impact of OCB is found on job performance of an employee whereas full mediation of CPWB is also found between OCB and job performance. The study is important for the practitioners in a way that hotel industry is growing at an enormous rate where employee behavior is always a concern specifically in emerging markets due to the exploitation of employees at the workplace, so the findings of the study can be helpful for practitioners and policy makers.

Keywords: organizational citizenship behavior, counterproductive work behavior, employee performance, altruism, conscientiousness, sabotage, withdraw, hotel industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
89 Investigation of Surface Water Quality Intera-Annual Variations, Gorganroud Basin, Iran

Authors: K. Ebrahimi, S. Shahid, H. Dehban

Abstract:

Climate variability can affect surface water quality. The objective of present study is to assess the impacts of climate variability on water quality of Gorganroud River, Iran, over the time period 1971 to 2011. To achieve this aim, climate variability and water quality variations were studied involving a newly developed drought index (MRDI) and hysteresis curves, respectively. The results show that climate variability significantly affected surface water quality over the time. The existence of yearly internal variation and hysteresis phenomenon for pH and EC parameters was observed. It was found that though drought affected pH considerably, it could not affect EC significantly.

Keywords: climate variability, hysteresis curves, multi drought index, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
88 Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Sindh Province, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha A. Siddiqui, Adeel Tahir

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of southern sindh namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to asses the feasibility of solar Energy utilization at Sindh province for power generation. From the observation, result is derived which shows a drastic variation in the diffuse and direct component of solar radiation for summer and winter for Southern Sindh that is both contributes 50% for Karachi and Hyderabad. In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low in monsoon months, July and August. The Kᴛ value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky almost throughout the year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even in monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential whereas Karachi and Hyderabad has low solar potential. During the monsoon months, the southern part of Sind can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 to 6.9 m/sec. There exist a wind corridor near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in monsoon months July and August the wind speed are higher in the southern region of Sindh.

Keywords: hybrid power system, power generation, solar and wind energy potential, southern Sindh

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
87 A Study on the Residential Estate Development and Management by Defence Housing Authority (DHA) in Lahore

Authors: Zareen Shahid

Abstract:

Rapid increase in population has resulted in uncontrolled and unplanned growth of metropolitan cities in Pakistan. Pakistan is facing unprecedented challenges of acute housing shortages, unhealthy living conditions and a non-existent or dilapidated infrastructure across the country. The government of Pakistan has also failed to devise a comprehensive and long-term strategy to cope with the problem of housing and better infrastructure development and management that has resulted in congestion, overcrowding and deterioration of environment in cities. On the other hand public has developed intense faith upon Defence Housing Authority (DHA) Lahore. This research paper is about to observe the difference in residential estate development and services provided by DHA Lahore. This paper attempts to identify the factors which are contributing towards the success of DHA and recommend measures for improvement in public sector for betterment.

Keywords: residential estate, development and management, defence housing authority

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
86 Dissecting the Hindu and New York Times Perspective on War on Terror

Authors: Shahid Minhas

Abstract:

This study 'Dissecting the Hindu and New York Times perspective on War on Terror' conducted to determine the comparative perspective and portrayal of war on Terror in Pakistan. The study also aimed to find out how these two selected countries i.e. India and America, press depict and how considerably they cover the war on terror in Pakistan, which also benefits to know the policy of government concerned. This study also analyzes to what extent Indian and American press followed its foreign policy guidelines in the coverage of the war on Terror in Pakistan. This study observes that actually, the New York Times pays little consideration to Pakistan and even the third words countries, and when it pays consideration, it tends to cover negative news. Pakistan is more frequently covers unfavorable than positive likewise encircled more frequently as a fundamentalist than a liberal state by the Hindu, While stance that Pakistan has played the anti-India tag to develop equities cultivate non-state groups as chattels.

Keywords: war on terror, terrorism, Pak-India relation, Pak-US relation

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
85 Electrochemical Performance of Al-Mn2O3 Based Electrode Materials

Authors: Noor Ul Ain Bhatti, M. Junaid Khan, Javed Ahmad, Murtaza Saleem, Shahid M. Ramay, Saadat A. Siddiqi

Abstract:

Manganese oxide is being recently used as electrode material for rechargeable batteries. In this study, Al incorporated Mn2O3 compositions were synthesized to study the effect of Al doping on electrochemical performance of host material. Structural studies were carried out using X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm the phase stability and explore the lattice parameters, crystallite size, lattice strain, density and cell volume. Morphology and composition were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Dynamic light scattering analysis was performed to observe the average particle size of the compositions. FTIR measurements exhibit the O-Al-O and O-Mn-O and Al-O bonding and with increasing the concentration of Al, the vibrational peaks of Mn-O become sharper. An enhanced electrochemical performance was observed in compositions with higher Al content.

Keywords: Mn2O3, electrode materials, energy storage and conversion, electrochemical performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
84 Estimation of Twist Loss in the Weft Yarn during Air-Jet Weft Insertion

Authors: Muhammad Umair, Yasir Nawab, Khubab Shaker, Muhammad Maqsood, Adeel Zulfiqar, Danish Mahmood Baitab

Abstract:

Fabric is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Today fabrics are produced by weaving, braiding, knitting, tufting and non-woven. Weaving is a method of fabric production in which warp and weft yarns are interlaced perpendicular to each other. There is infinite number of ways for the interlacing of warp and weft yarn. Each way produces a different fabric structure. The yarns parallel to the machine direction are called warp yarns and the yarns perpendicular to the machine direction are called weft or filling yarns. Air jet weaving is the modern method of weft insertion and considered as high speed loom. The twist loss in air jet during weft insertion affects the strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of twist change in weft yarn during air-jet weft insertion. A total number of 8 samples were produced using 1/1 plain and 3/1 twill weave design with two fabric widths having same loom settings. Two different types of yarns like cotton and PC blend were used. The effect of material type, weave design and fabric width on twist change of weft yarn was measured and discussed. Twist change in the different types of weft yarn and weave design was measured and compared the twist change in the weft yarn with the yarn before weft yarn insertion and twist loss is measured. Wider fabric leads to higher twist loss in the yarn.

Keywords: air jet loom, twist per inch, twist loss, weft yarn

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
83 Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Copper Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Humaira Khan, Mohsin Javed, Sammia Shahid

Abstract:

The reinforced photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) along with composites of ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied by synthesizing ZnO and copper- doped ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. Zinc acetate and copper acetate were used as precursors, whereas graphene oxide was prepared from pre-oxidized graphite in the presence of H2O2.The supernatant was collected carefully and showed high-quality single-layer characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction Analysis), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry). The degradation of methylene blue as standard pollutant under UV-Visible irradiation gave results for photocatalytic activity of dopants. It could be concluded that shrinking of optical band caused by composites of Cu-dopped nanoparticles with GO enhances the photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: degradation, graphene oxide, photocatalysis, ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
82 Use of Dendrochronology in Estimation of Creep Velocity and Its Dependence on the Bulk Density of Soils

Authors: Mohammad Amjad Sabir, Ishtiaq Khan, Shahid Ali, Umar Shabbir, Aneel Ahmad

Abstract:

Creep, being the main silt contributor to the rivers, is a slow, downhill flow of soils. The creep velocity is measured in millimeters to a couple of centimeters per year and is determined with the help of tilt caused by creep in the vertical objects and needs at least ten years to get a reliable creep velocity. This project was devised to calculate creep velocity using dendrochronology and looking for the difference of creep velocity registered by different trees on the same slope. It was concluded that dendrochronology provides a very reliable procedure of creep velocity estimation if ‘J’ shaped trees are studied for their horizontal movement and age. The age of these trees was measured using tree coring, and the horizontal movement was measured with a conventional tape. Using this procedure it does not require decades and additionally the data reveals the creep velocity for up to 150 years and even more instead of just a decade. It was also concluded that the creep velocity does not only depend on bulk density of soil hence no pronounced effect of bulk density was detected.

Keywords: creep velocity, Galiyat, Pakistan, dendrochronology, Nagri Bala

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
81 Effect of Heating Rate on Microstructural Developments in Cold Heading Quality Steel Used for Automotive Applications

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, F. Mufadi, A. Boodi

Abstract:

Microstructural study and phase transformation in steels is a basic and important step during the design of structural steel. There are huge efforts and study has been done so far on phase transformations, due to so many steel grades available commercially the phase development in steel has different consequences. In the present work an effort has been made to study the effect of heating rate on microstructural features of cold heading quality steel. The SEM, optical microscopy, and heat treatment techniques have been applied to observe the microstructural features in the experimental steel. It was observed that heating rate has the strong influence on phase transformation of CHQ steel under investigation. Heating rate increases the austenite formation kinetics with respect to holding time, and this austenite has been transformed to martensite upon cooling. Heating rate also plays a vital role on nucleation sites of austenite formation in the experimental steel.

Keywords: CHQ steel, austenite formation, heating rate, nucleation

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
80 Perceived Parenting Styles and Body Dissatisfaction among Women

Authors: Tazvin Ijaz, Aisha Shahid Sheikh

Abstract:

The current study was conducted to explore the relationship between body dissatisfaction and the perceived parenting styles of women. For the purpose of study a sample of adult women (N=308) was drawn through the process of stratified random sampling. The sample consisted of women belonging to different categories which were based on their occupation. Two instruments, the Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDSS) and Perceived Parenting Styles (PPSS) were used in the study to find the relationship between the two variables. The results showed that the controlling parenting style in father led to higher body dissatisfaction while the nurturing parenting style lead to lesser symptoms of body dissatisfaction. The results also proved that the controlling parenting style in mother also lead to high symptoms of body dissatisfaction as well. It was revealed that the women with high education showed more body dissatisfaction than women with lower education. It was also seen that there was a significant difference in the body dissatisfaction of working and the non-working women.

Keywords: body dissatisfaction, perceived parenting styles, Pakistani women, gender

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
79 Effects of Bile Acids and Lipase Supplementation in Low-Energy Diets on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate the effect of bile acids and lipase supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Seven hundred day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 45.9 ± 0.3 g were assigned to 5 dietary treatments, with five replications of 28 birds each in a completely randomized design. The five treatments were as follows: (i) HE: broilers received a diet with high energy content; (ii) LE: broilers received a diet with low energy content and energy content reduced by 100 kcal/kg as compared to HE; (iii) LEB: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 300 g/ton bile acids; (iv) LEL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 180 g/ton lipase enzyme and (v) LEBL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with both 300 g/ton bile acids and 180 g/ton lipase enzyme. The experimental period lasted for 35 days. Broilers fed HE had a lower (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) gain and lower feed intake (1-35 d), but during finisher period (21-35 d), BW gain was similar with other treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in HE and higher in LEBL group (P < 0.05), while the LE, LEB, and LEL had intermediate values. At 35 d no difference occurred between treatment for water holding capacity and pH of breast and thigh muscles (P > 0.05). The relative weight of pancreas was higher (P < 0.05) in LEB treatment but lower (P < 0.05) in LEL treatment. In conclusion, bile acids and lipase supplementation at 300 g/ton and 150g/ton of feed in low-energy diets respectively had no effect on broiler performance and meat quality. However, FCR was improved in HE treatment.

Keywords: bile acids, energy, enzyme, growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
78 Mitigating Ruminal Methanogenesis Through Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Faiz-Ul Hassan, Yanfen Cheng

Abstract:

According to FAO, enteric methane (CH4) production is about 44% of all greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. Ruminants produce CH4 as a result of fermentation of feed in the rumen especially from roughages which yield more CH4 per unit of biomass ingested as compared to concentrates. Efficient ruminal fermentation is not possible without abating CO2 and CH4. Methane abatement strategies are required to curb the predicted rise in emissions associated with greater ruminant production in future to meet ever increasing animal protein requirements. Ecology of ruminal methanogenesis and avenues for its mitigation can be identified through various genomic and transcriptomic techniques. Programs such as Hungate1000 and the Global Rumen Census have been launched to enhance our understanding about global ruminal microbial communities. Through Hungate1000 project, a comprehensive reference set of rumen microbial genome sequences has been developed from cultivated rumen bacteria and methanogenic archaea along with representative rumen anaerobic fungi and ciliate protozoa cultures. But still many species of rumen microbes are underrepresented especially uncultivable microbes. Lack of sequence information specific to the rumen's microbial community has inhibited efforts to use genomic data to identify specific set of species and their target genes involved in methanogenesis. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic study of entire microbial rumen populations offer new perspectives to understand interaction of methanogens with other rumen microbes and their potential association with total gas and methane production. Deep understanding of methanogenic pathway will help to devise potentially effective strategies to abate methane production while increasing feed efficiency in ruminants.

Keywords: Genome sequences, Hungate1000, methanogens, ruminal fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
77 Mediatization of Politics and Democracy in Pakistan: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Shahid Imran

Abstract:

'Mediatization' has influenced the politics by shaping and transforming the attitudes and practices of political actors. It is a serious challenge to democracy in today’s era. This study aims to analyze the dynamics of media politics interplay in Pakistan and the contextual factors which govern this interplay. It will also address the perceived influence of media on the practices of politicians from the perspectives of the actors. The objectives have been achieved qualitatively through Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The phenomenological data have been collected using semi-structured interviews of journalists and politicians of Pakistan. The findings depict that politics in Pakistan is more driven by media logic than political or democratic logic. Media and politics have a ‘Tom and Jerry’ relationship. Political ecology is highly media-induced: politicians strategically adopt and adapt the media logic to be in the ‘media spotlight’; journalists, on the other hands, do not practice ‘fair journalism rather a more politically parallelized. The mediatized political communication behaviours of the actors are the undermining the public service logic and affecting the spirit of democracy in Pakistan. The study offers some valued implications for media, politicians and policy makers.

Keywords: medialization, media logic, politics, political logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 122