Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: ARDL

27 The Dynamics of Algeria’s Natural Gas Exports to Europe: Evidence from ARDL Bounds Testing Approach with Breakpoints

Authors: Hicham Benamirouche, Oum Elkheir Moussi


The purpose of the study is to examine the dynamics of Algeria’s natural gas exports through the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach with break points. The analysis was carried out for the period from 1967 to 2015. Based on imperfect substitution specification, the ARDL approach reveals a long-run equilibrium relationship between Algeria’s Natural gas exports and their determinant factors (Algeria’s gas reserves, Domestic gas consumption, Europe’s GDP per capita, relative prices, the European gas production and the market share of competitors). All the long-run elasticities estimated are statistically significant with a large impact of domestic factors, which constitute the supply constraints. In short term, the elasticities are statistically significant, and almost comparable to those of the long term. Furthermore, the speed of adjustment towards long-run equilibrium is less than one year because of the little flexibility of the long term export contracts. Two break points have been estimated when we employ the domestic gas consumption as a break variable; 1984 and 2010, which reflect the arbitration policy between the domestic gas market and gas exports.

Keywords: natural gas exports, elasticity, ARDL bounds testing, break points, Algeria

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26 Impact of Workers’ Remittances on Poverty in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis by Ardl

Authors: Syed Aziz Rasool, Ayesha Zaman


Poverty is one of the most important problems for any developing nation. Workers’ remittances and investment plays a crucial role in development of any country by reducing the poverty level in Pakistan. This research studies the relationship between workers’ remittances and poverty alleviation. It also focused the significant effect on poverty reduction. This study uses time series data for the period of 1972-2013. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)Model and Error Correction (ECM)Model has been used in order to find out the long run and short run relationship between the worker’s remittances and poverty level respectively. Thus, inflow of remittances showed the significant and negative impact on poverty level. Moreover, coefficient of error correction model explains the adjustment towards convergence and it has highly significant and negative value. According to this research, Policy makers should strongly focus on positive and effective policies to attract more remittances. JELCODE: JEL: J61

Keywords: ECM, ARDL, AIC, SC

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25 Public Spending and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis of Developed Countries

Authors: Bernur Acikgoz


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of public spending on economic growth and examine the sources of economic growth in developed countries since the 1990s. This paper analyses whether public spending effect on economic growth based on Cobb-Douglas Production Function with the two econometric models with Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and Dynamic Fixed Effect (DFE) for 21 developed countries (high-income OECD countries), over the period 1990-2013. Our models results are parallel to each other and the models support that public spending has an important role for economic growth. This result is accurate with theories and previous empirical studies.

Keywords: public spending, economic growth, panel data, ARDL models

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24 Long Run Estimates of Population, Consumption and Economic Development of India: An ARDL Bounds Testing Approach of Cointegration

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Arumugam Sankaran, Arjun K., Mousumi Das


The amount of domestic consumption and population growth is having a positive impact on economic growth and development as observed by the Harrod-Domar and endogenous growth models. The paper negates the Solow growth model which argues the population growth has a detrimental impact on per capita and steady-state growth. Unlike the Solow model, the paper observes, the per capita income growth never falls zero, and it sustains as positive. Hence, our goal here is to investigate the relationship among population, domestic consumption and economic growth of India. For this estimation, annual data from 1980-2016 has been collected from World Development Indicator and Reserve Bank of India. To know the long run as well as short-run dynamics among the variables, we have employed the ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration followed by modified Wald causality test to know the direction of causality. The conclusion from cointegration and ARDL estimates reveal that there is a long run positive and statistically significant relationship among the variables under study. At the same time, the causality test shows that there is a causal relationship that exists among the variables. Hence, this calls for policies which have a long run perspective in strengthening the capabilities and entitlements of people and stabilizing domestic demand so as to serve long run and short run growth and stability of the economy.

Keywords: cointegration, consumption, economic development, population growth

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23 The Effect of Macroeconomic Policies on Cambodia's Economy: ARDL and VECM Model

Authors: Siphat Lim


This study used Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration. In the long-run the general price level and exchange rate have a positively significant effect on domestic output. The estimated result further revealed that fiscal stimulus help stimulate domestic output in the long-run, but not in the short-run, while monetary expansion help to stimulate output in both short-run and long-run. The result is complied with the theory which is the macroeconomic policies, fiscal and monetary policy; help to stimulate domestic output in the long-run. The estimated result of the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) has indicated more clearly that the consumer price index has a positive effect on output with highly statistically significant. Increasing in the general price level would increase the competitiveness among producers than increase in the output. However, the exchange rate also has a positive effect and highly significant on the gross domestic product. The exchange rate depreciation might increase export since the purchasing power of foreigners has increased. More importantly, fiscal stimulus would help stimulate the domestic output in the long-run since the coefficient of government expenditure is positive. In addition, monetary expansion would also help stimulate the output and the result is highly significant. Thus, fiscal stimulus and monetary expansionary would help stimulate the domestic output in the long-run in Cambodia.

Keywords: fiscal policy, monetary policy, ARDL, VECM

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22 Usage of Military Spending, Debt Servicing and Growth for Dealing with Emergency Plan of Indian External Debt

Authors: Sahbi Farhani


This study investigates the relationship between external debt and military spending in case of India over the period of 1970–2012. In doing so, we have applied the structural break unit root tests to examine stationarity properties of the variables. The Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is used to test whether cointegration exists in presence of structural breaks stemming in the series. Our results indicate the cointegration among external debt, military spending, debt servicing, and economic growth. Moreover, military spending and debt servicing add in external debt. Economic growth helps in lowering external debt. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis and Granger causality test reveal that military spending and economic growth cause external debt. The feedback effect also exists between external debt and debt servicing in case of India.

Keywords: external debt, military spending, ARDL approach, India

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21 Analysis of the Impacts of Capital Goods' Import and Human Capital on the Economic Growth of the Sub Sahahra Africa: A Panel-ARDL Approach

Authors: Adeleke Omolade


The study investigated the impacts of capital goods' import and human capital on the economic growth of the Sub Sahahra Africa (SSA). 30 countries were used in the Panel- ARDL analysis where economic growth is the dependent variables and capital goods' import, human capital, primary export, investment exchange rate, among others were used as the independent variables. The result from the panel analysis indicates that capital goods' import will significantly and positively influence economic growth but human capital fails to have significant positive impact on economic growth of the SSA. Earlier the trend analysis and the correlation results have shown that there is a weak association between capital goods' import and human capital in the SSA. The results offer an expository analysis that reveals that the quality of the human capital is very germane to the effective utilization of capital goods' import for the purpose of growth in a primary goods' export dominated region like the SSA.

Keywords: capital goods import, economic growth, human capital, Sub-Sahara Africa

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20 An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on Capital Formation in Libya (1970–2010)

Authors: Khaled Ramadan Elbeydi


This study is carried out to provide an insight into the analysis of the impact of selected macro-economic variables on gross fixed capital formation in Libya using annual data over the period (1970-2010). The importance of this study comes from the ability to show the relative important factors that impact the Libyan gross fixed capital formation. This understanding would give indications to decision makers on which policy they must focus to stimulate the economy. An Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling process is employed to investigate the impact of the gross domestic product, monetary base, and trade openness on gross fixed capital formation in Libya. The results of this study reveal that there is an equilibrium relationship between capital formation and its determinants. The results also indicate that GDP and trade openness largely explain the pattern of capital formation in Libya. The findings and recommendations provide vital information relevant for policy formulation and implementation aimed to improve capital formation in Libya.

Keywords: ARDL, bounds test, capital formation, co-integration, Libya

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19 Maternal Health Outcome and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Analysis

Authors: Okwan Frank


Maternal health outcome is one of the major population development challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa. The region has the highest maternal mortality ratio, despite the progressive economic growth in the region during the global economic crisis. It has been hypothesized that increase in economic growth will reduce the level of maternal mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existence of the negative relationship between health outcome proxy by maternal mortality ratio and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study used the Pooled Mean Group estimator of ARDL Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and the Kao test for cointegration to examine the short-run and long-run relationship between maternal mortality and economic growth. The results of the cointegration test showed the existence of a long-run relationship between the variables considered for the study. The long-run result of the Pooled Mean group estimates confirmed the hypothesis of an inverse relationship between maternal health outcome proxy by maternal mortality ratio and economic growth proxy by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. Thus increasing economic growth by investing in the health care systems to reduce pregnancy and childbirth complications will help reduce maternal mortality in the sub-region.

Keywords: economic growth, maternal mortality, pool mean group, Sub-Saharan Africa

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18 Determinants of Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Structural Vector Auto Regression Approach

Authors: Muhammad Ajmair


This empirical study followed structural vector auto regression (SVAR) approach proposed by the so-called AB-model of Amisano and Giannini (1997) to check the impact of relevant macroeconomic determinants on economic growth in Pakistan. Before that auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing technique and time varying parametric approach along with general to specific approach was employed to find out relevant significant determinants of economic growth. To our best knowledge, no author made such a study that employed auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing and time varying parametric approach with general to specific approach in empirical literature, but current study will bridge this gap. Annual data was taken from World Development Indicators (2014) during period 1976-2014. The widely-used Schwarz information criterion and Akaike information criterion were considered for the lag length in each estimated equation. Main findings of the study are that remittances received, gross national expenditures and inflation are found to be the best relevant positive and significant determinants of economic growth. Based on these empirical findings, we conclude that government should focus on overall economic growth augmenting factors while formulating any policy relevant to the concerned sector.

Keywords: economic growth, gross national expenditures, inflation, remittances

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17 Impact of Financial System’s Development on Economic Development: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Vilma Deltuvaitė


Comparisons of financial development across countries are central to answering many of the questions on factors leading to economic development. For this reason this study analyzes the implications of financial system’s development on country’s economic development. The aim of the article: to analyze the impact of financial system’s development on economic development. The following research methods were used: systemic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature, analysis of statistical data, time series model (Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model). The empirical results suggest about positive short and long term effect of stock market development on GDP per capita.

Keywords: banking sector, economic development, financial system’s development, stock market, private bond market

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16 The Nexus between Renewable Energy, Urbanization, Industrialization and Economic Growth in Pakistan

Authors: Zubda Zia, Zainab Masood


This study has investigated the relationship between renewable energy, urbanization, industrialization, and economic growth in Pakistan, through the years 1990-2016. All the three explanatory variables play a pivotal role in their contribution to growth in any economy, especially a developing one such as Pakistan. Auto-regressive distributive lag (ARDL) model has been used to determine the co-integration and relationship between the variables. The empirical results indicate that there exists a positive and significant relationship between all the three variables and economic growth and that there is a stable, long-run relationship among them. Policy suggestions that incorporate the results include having a larger share of renewable energy in the energy sector, using urbanization as a means to remove the big city trend and move towards, smaller sustainable cities, etc.

Keywords: economic growth, energy crisis, industrialization, renewable energy, SGDs, urbanization

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15 Air Access Liberalisation and Tourism Trade Evidence from a Sids

Authors: Seetanah Boopen, R. V. Sannassee


The objective of the present study is two-fold. Firstly, to assess the impact of air access liberalization on tourism demand for Mauritius and secondly to analyses the dual impact of the interplay between air access liberalization and marketing promotion efforts on tourism demand. Using an Autoregressive Distributed Lag model, the results suggest that air access liberalization is an important ingredient, albeit to a lesser extent as compared to other classical explanatory variables, of tourism demand. The results also highlight the fact that Mauritius is perceived as a luxurious destination and tourists are deemed price sensitive. Moreover, our dynamic approach interestingly confirms the presence of repeat tourism in the island. Finally, the findings also uncover the positive impact of the interplay between air access liberalization and marketing promotion efforts on fostering tourism demand.

Keywords: air access liberalization, ARDL, SIDS, time series

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14 The Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on Real Total Export and Sub-Categories of Real Total Export of Malaysia

Authors: Wong Hock Tsen


This study aims to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on real export in Malaysia. The moving standard deviation with order three (MSD(3)) is used for the measurement of exchange rate volatility. The conventional and partially asymmetric autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models are used in the estimations. This study finds exchange rate volatility to have significant impact on real total export and some sub-categories of real total export. Moreover, this study finds that the positive or negative exchange rate volatility tends to have positive or negative impact on real export. Exchange rate volatility can be harmful to export of Malaysia.

Keywords: exchange rate volatility, autoregressive distributed lag, export, Malaysia

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13 Behavior of Iran Stock Exchange and Impacts of US Oil and Financial Markets

Authors: Erfan Memarian, Seyyed Fazayel Alizadeh


This study aims to evaluate the impacts of the oil and financial markets of the United States on Iran stock exchange and to develop an ARDL model to predict the short and long-term relationship between these markets. In this regard, all 713 weekly data between 28 July 1999 and 20 March 2013 were analyzed by using Microfit4.0 and Eviews7 econometric softwares. The independent variable of the study is the “Price and Yield Index (TEDPIX)” of Tehran Stock Exchange and the independent variables include S & P 500 Index, the US three-month treasury bill rate and West Texas Intermediate oil spot price index. The results show that the West Texas Intermediate oil spot price and the S&P 500 indices have significant positive relationships with Iran's TEDPIX. Also, there exists a significant negative relationship between Iran's TEDPIX and the US three-month Treasury bill rate.

Keywords: TEDPIX; Tehran Stock Exchange; S&P 500 index; USA three-month Treasury bill rate; West Texas Intermediate oil

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12 Dynamic Interaction between Renwable Energy Consumption and Sustainable Development: Evidence from Ecowas Region

Authors: Maman Ali M. Moustapha, Qian Yu, Benjamin Adjei Danquah


This paper investigates the dynamic interaction between renewable energy consumption (REC) and economic growth using dataset from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) from 2002 to 2016. For this study the Autoregressive Distributed Lag- Bounds test approach (ARDL) was used to examine the long run relationship between real gross domestic product and REC, while VECM based on Granger causality has been used to examine the direction of Granger causality. Our empirical findings indicate that REC has significant and positive impact on real gross domestic product. In addition, we found that REC and the percentage of access to electricity had unidirectional Granger causality to economic growth while carbon dioxide emission has bidirectional Granger causality to economic growth. Our findings indicate also that 1 per cent increase in the REC leads to an increase in Real GDP by 0.009 in long run. Thus, REC can be a means to ensure sustainable economic growth in the ECOWAS sub-region. However, it is necessary to increase further support and investments on renewable energy production in order to speed up sustainable economic development throughout the region

Keywords: Economic Growth, Renewable Energy, Sustainable Development, Sustainable Energy

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11 Nexus between Energy, Environment and Economic Growth: Sectoral Analysis from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Sajjad


Climate change has become a global environmental challenge and it has affected the world’s economy. Its impact is widespread across all major sectors of the economy i.e. agriculture, industry, and services sectors. This study attempts to measure the long run as well as the short-run dynamic between energy; environment and economic growth by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound testing approach at aggregate as well as sectoral level. We measured the causal relationship between electricity consumption, fuel consumption, CO₂ emission, and real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the period of 1980 to 2016 for Pakistan. Our co-integration results reveal that all the variables are co-integrated at aggregate as well as at sectoral level. Electricity consumption shows two-way casual relation at for industry, services and aggregate level. The inverted U-Curve hypothesis tested the relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and per capita GDP and results supported the Environment Kuznet Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This study cannot ignore the importance of energy for economic growth but prefers to focus on renewable and green energy to pave on the trajectory of development.

Keywords: climate change, economic growth, energy, environment

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10 Economic Growth and Transport Carbon Dioxide Emissions in New Zealand: A Co-Integration Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Authors: Mingyue Sheng, Basil Sharp


Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from national transport account for the largest share of emissions from energy use in New Zealand. Whether the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship exists between environmental degradation indicators from the transport sector and economic growth in New Zealand remains unclear. This paper aims at exploring the causality relationship between CO₂ emissions from the transport sector, fossil fuel consumption, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in New Zealand, using annual data for the period 1977 to 2013. First, conventional unit root tests (Augmented Dickey–Fuller and Phillips–Perron tests), and a unit root test with the breakpoint (Zivot-Andrews test) are employed to examine the stationarity of the variables. Second, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test for co-integration, followed by Granger causality investigated causality among the variables. Empirical results of the study reveal that, in the short run, there is a unidirectional causality between economic growth and transport CO₂ emissions with direction from economic growth to transport CO₂ emissions, as well as a bidirectional causality from transport CO₂ emissions to road energy consumption.

Keywords: economic growth, transport carbon dioxide emissions, environmental Kuznets curve, causality

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9 Human Development Strengthening against Terrorism in ASEAN East Asia and Pacific: An Econometric Analysis

Authors: Tismazammi Mustafa, Jaharudin Padli


The frequency of terrorism is increasing throughout years that is resulting in loss of life, damaging people’s property, and destructing the environment. The incident of terrorism is not stationed in one particular country but has spread and scattered in other countries hence causing an increase in the number of terrorism cases. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the factors of human development upon the terrorism in East Asia and Pacific countries. This study used a panel ARDL model, in which it enables to capture the long run and the short run relationship among the variables of interest. Logit Model for Binary data is also used, in which to representing an attributes of dependent variables. This study focuses on several human development variables namely GDP per capita, population, human capital, land area, and technologies. The empirical finding revealed that the GDP per capita, population, human capital, land area, and technologies are positively and statistically significant in influencing the terrorism. Thus, the finding in this study will present as grounds to preserve human rights and develop public awareness and will offer guidelines to policy makers, emergency managers, first responders, public health workers, physicians, and other researchers.

Keywords: terrorism, East Asia and Pacific, human development, econometric analysis

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8 The Long-Run Impact of Financial Development on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in India: An Application of Regime Shift Based Cointegration Approach

Authors: Javaid Ahmad Dar, Mohammad Asif


The present study investigates the long-run impact of financial development, energy consumption and economic growth on greenhouse gas emissions for India, in presence of endogenous structural breaks, over a period of 1971-2013. Autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing procedure and Hatemi-J threshold cointegration technique have been used to test the variables for cointegration. ARDL bounds test did not confirm any cointegrating relationship between the variables. The threshold cointegration test establishes the presence of long-run impact of financial development, energy use and economic growth on greenhouse gas emissions in India. The results reveal that the long-run relationship between the variables has witnessed two regime shifts, in 1978 and 2002. The empirical evidence shows that financial sector development and energy consumption in India degrade environment. Unlike previous studies, this paper finds no statistical evidence of long-run relationship between economic growth and environmental deterioration. The study also challenges the existence of environmental Kuznets curve in India.

Keywords: cointegration, financial development, global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, regime shift, unit root

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7 Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach

Authors: L. L. Ivy-Yap, H. A. Bekhet


As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 periods. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential sector, a sector that is important for the contemplation of energy policy. The Phillips-Perron (P-P) unit root test is employed to infer the stationary of each variable while the bound test is executed to determine the existence of co-integration relationship among the variables, modeled in an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) framework. The CUSUM and CUSUM of squares tests are applied to ensure the stability of the model. The results suggest the existence of long-run equilibrium relationship and bidirectional Granger causality between EC and the macroeconomic variables. The empirical findings will help policy makers of Malaysia in developing new monitoring standards of energy consumption. As it is the major contributing factor in economic growth and CO2 emission, there is a need for more proper planning in Malaysia to attain future targets in order to cut emissions.

Keywords: co-integration, elasticity, granger causality, Malaysia, residential electricity consumption

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6 Demographic Dividend and Creation of Human and Knowledge Capital in Liberal India: An Endogenous Growth Process

Authors: Arjun K., Arumugam Sankaran, Sanjay Kumar, Mousumi Das


The paper analyses the existence of endogenous growth scenario emanating from the demographic dividend in India during the liberalization period starting from 1980. Demographic dividend creates a fertile ground for the cultivation of human and knowledge capitals contributing to technological progress which can be measured using total factor productivity. The relationship among total factor productivity, human and knowledge capitals are examined in an open endogenous framework for the period 1980-2016. The control variables such as foreign direct investment, trade openness, energy consumption are also employed. The data are sourced from Reserve Bank of India, World Bank, International Energy Agency and The National Science and Technology Management Information System. To understand the dynamic association among variables, ARDL bounds approach to cointegration followed by Toda-Yamamoto causality test are used. The results reveal a short run and long run relationship among the variables supported by the existence of causality. This calls for an integrated policy to build and augment human capital and research and development activities to sustain and pace up growth and development in the nation.

Keywords: demographic dividend, young population, open endogenous growth models, human and knowledge capital

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5 Long-Run Relationship among Tehran Stock Exchange and the GCC Countries Financial Markets, Before and After 2007/2008 Financial Crisis

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Ranjbar, Mahdi Bagheri, B. Shivaraj


This study attempts to investigate the relationship between stock market of Iran and GCC countries stock exchanges. Eight markets were included: the stock market of Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Oman. Daily country market indices were collected from January 2005 to December 2010. The potential time-varying behaviors of long-run stock market relationship among selected markets are tested applying correlation test, Augmented Dick Fuller test (ADF), Bilateral and Multilateral Cointegration (Johansen), and the Granger Causality test. The findings suggest that stock market of Iran is negatively correlated with most of the selected markets in the whole duration. But contemporaneous correlations among the eight selected markets are increased positively in period of financial crises. Bilateral Cointegration between selected markets suggests that there is no integration between Tehran stock exchange and other selected markets. Among other markets, except the stock market of Dubai and Abu Dhabi as a one pair, are not cointegrated in whole, but in duration of financial crises integration between selected markets are increased. Finally, investigation of the casual relationship among eight financial markets suggests there are unidirectional and bidirectional causal relationship among some of stock market indices.

Keywords: financial crises, Middle East, stock market integration, Granger Causality test, ARDL test

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4 Exchange Rate, Market Size and Human Capital Nexus Foreign Direct Investment: A Bound Testing Approach for Pakistan

Authors: Naveed Iqbal Chaudhry, Mian Saqib Mehmood, Asif Mehmood


This study investigates the motivators of foreign direct investment (FDI) which will provide a panacea tool and ground breaking results related to it in case of Pakistan. The study considers exchange rate, market size and human capital as the motivators for attracting FDI. In this regard, time series data on annual basis has been collected for the period 1985–2010 and an Augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) and Phillips–Perron (PP) unit root tests are utilized to determine the stationarity of the variables. A bound testing approach to co-integration was applied because the variables included in the model are at I(1) – first level stationary. The empirical findings of this study confirm the long run relationship among the variables. However, market size and human capital have strong positive and significant impact, in short and long-run, for attracting FDI but exchange rate shows negative impact in this regard. The significant negative coefficient of the ECM indicates that it converges towards equilibrium. CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests plots are with in the lines of critical value, which indicates the stability of the estimated parameters. However, this model can be used by Pakistan in policy and decision making. For achieving higher economic growth and economies of scale, the country should concentrate on the ingredients of this study so that it could attract more FDI as compared to the other countries.

Keywords: ARDL, CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests, ECM, exchange rate, FDI, human capital, market size, Pakistan

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3 World Agricultural Commodities Prices Dynamics and Volatilities Impacts on Commodities Importation and Food Security in West African Economic and Monetary Union Countries

Authors: Baoubadi Atozou, Koffi Akakpo


Since the decade 2000, the use of foodstuffs such as corn, wheat, and soybeans in biofuel production has been growing sharply in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Thus, prices for these agricultural products are rising in the world market. These cereals are the most important source of calorific energy for West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) countries members’ population. These countries are highly dependent on imports of most of these products. Thereby, rising prices can have an important impact on import levels and consequently on food security in these countries. This study aims to analyze the interrelationship between the prices of these commodities and their volatilities, and their effects on imports of these agricultural products by each WAEMU ’country member. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model, the GARCH Multivariate model, and the Granger Causality Test are used in this investigation. The results show that import levels are highly and significantly sensitive to price changes as well as their volatility. In the short term as well as in the long term, there is a significant relationship between the prices of these products. There is a positive relationship in general between price volatility. And these volatilities have negative effects on the level of imports. The market characteristics affect food security in these countries, especially access to food for vulnerable and low-income populations. The policies makers must adopt viable strategies to increase agricultural production and limit their dependence on imports.

Keywords: price volatility, import of agricultural products, food safety, WAEMU

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2 The Per Capita Income, Energy production and Environmental Degradation: A Comprehensive Assessment of the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in Bangladesh

Authors: Ashique Mahmud, MD. Ataul Gani Osmani, Shoria Sharmin


In the first quarter of the twenty-first century, the most substantial global concern is environmental contamination, and it has gained the prioritization of both the national and international community. Keeping in mind this crucial fact, this study conducted different statistical and econometrical methods to identify whether the gross national income of the country has a significant impact on electricity production from nonrenewable sources and different air pollutants like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions. Besides, the primary objective of this research was to analyze whether the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis holds for the examined variables. After analyzing different statistical properties of the variables, this study came to the conclusion that the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis holds for gross national income and carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh in the short run as well as the long run. This study comes to this conclusion based on the findings of ordinary least square estimations, ARDL bound tests, short-run causality analysis, the Error Correction Model, and other pre-diagnostic and post-diagnostic tests that have been employed in the structural model. Moreover, this study wants to demonstrate that the outline of gross national income and carbon dioxide emissions is in its initial stage of development and will increase up to the optimal peak. The compositional effect will then force the emission to decrease, and the environmental quality will be restored in the long run.

Keywords: environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, carbon dioxide emission in Bangladesh, gross national income in Bangladesh, autoregressive distributed lag model, granger causality, error correction model

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1 Wage Differentials in Pakistan by Focusing on Wage Differentials in Public and Private Sectors, Formal and Informal Sectors, and Major Occupational Groups

Authors: Asghar Ali, Narjis Khatoon


This study focuses on the presence of wage differentials in Pakistan and also on the determinants that originate it. Since there are a smaller number of studies that are conducted on this topic in Pakistan, the current study aims to contribute in bridging the existing gap in this particular research genre. Hence, this study not only generates the desired results specific focus but it also contributes to the overall empirical work on the Pakistan economy. The preceding works which have been done to research wage determinants and wage differentials have used numerous different theories and approaches to reach their goals. The current study, in order to analyze the determinants of wage differentials in the developing economy, deals with the study of a number of such theories and approaches that are supposed as being beneficial for the purpose. This study undertakes the explanation of wage differentials in Pakistan by focusing on wage differentials in public and private sectors, formal and informal sectors, and major occupational groups. The study uses 'Wage Theory' to examine wage differentials among male and female employees in public and private sectors on varied levels of working conditions. This study also uses 'Segmented Labor Market Theory' to determine the wage differential in both public and private sectors, formal and informal, and major occupational groups in Pakistan. So the author has used various econometric techniques in order to explain and test these theories and to find out the required results. This study has employed seven different cross-sectional Labour Force Surveys for the time period between 2006-07 to 2012-13. Gender equality is not only a policy reform agenda for developing countries but also an important goal of Millennium Development Goals. This study investigates the nexus between wage inequality and economic growth and detects co-integration between gender wage differential and economic growth using ARDL bound test. It is confirmed from the empirical results that there exists long-run relationship between economic growth and wage differential. Our study indicated that half of the total female employees from fourteen major cities of Pakistan were employed in the public sector. Out of total female employees in private sector, 66 percent are employed in the formal sector, and 33 percent are working in the informal sector. Results also indicated that both men and women were paid more in the public sector compared to the private sector counterparts. Among the total female employees, only 9 percent had received any formal training, 52% were married and average years of schooling were 11 years. Further, our findings regarding wage differential between genders indicate that wage gap is lower in public sector as compared to private sector. In proportion, gender wage ratio was found to be 0.96, 0.62 and 0.66 in public, formal private and informal private sectors respectively. This suggests that in this case, private sector female employees with the same pay structure are compensated at a lower endowments rate as then public sector workers as compared to their counter parts.

Keywords: wage differentials, formal, informal, economic growth

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