Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 538

Search results for: textile dyes

538 Evaluation of Moringa oleifera in Decolourization of Dyes in Textile Wastewater

Authors: Nagia Ali, R. S. R. El-Mohamedy


The purpose of this paper is to irradiate the dyes biologically through the use of Moreinga oleifera. The study confirms the potential use of Moringa oleifera in decolourization of dyes and thus opens up a scope for future analysis pertaining to its performance in treatment of textile effluent. In this paper, the ability of natural products in removing dyes was tested using two reactive dyes and one acid dye. After a preliminary screening for dye removal capacity, a vegetal protein extract derived from Moeringa oleifera seed was fully studied. The influences of several parameters such as pH, temperature or initial dye concentration were tested and the behavior of coagulants was compared. It was found that dye removal decreased as pH increased. Temperature did not seem to have a considerable effect, while initial dye concentration appeared to be a very important variable.

Keywords: Moreinga oleifera, decolourization, waste water, reactive dyes, acid dyes

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537 Dyeing Cotton with Dyes Extracted from Eucalyptus and Mango Trees

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole, K. Shabaridharan


The use of natural dyes to replace synthetic dyes has been advocated for to circumvent the environmental problems associated with synthetic dyes. This paper is a preliminary study on the use of natural dyes extracted from eucalyptus and mango trees. Dyes extracted from eucalyptus bark gave more colourized material than the dyes extracted from eucalyptus leaves and mango pills and leaves. Additionally, the extracts exhibited a deeper colour shade. Cotton fiber dyed using the same dye but with different mordants resulted in fabric that exhibited different colours. It appears that natural dyes from these plants could be effective dyes for use on cotton fabrics especially considering that the dyes exhibited excellent colour fastness.

Keywords: natural dyes, mango, eucalyptus, cotton, mordants, colour fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
536 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter

Authors: Ayesha Irum, Sadia Mumtaz, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Safia Ahmed


The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was the ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.

Keywords: biodegradation, textile dyes, waste water, trickling filters

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535 Effects of Spent Dyebath Recycling on Pollution and Cost of Production in a Cotton Textile Industry

Authors: Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Sanjay Sharma


Textile manufacturing industry uses a substantial amount of chemicals not only in the production processes but also in manufacturing the raw materials. Dyes are the most significant raw material which provides colour to the fabric and yarn. Dyes are produced by using a large amount of chemicals both organic and inorganic in nature. Dyes are further classified as Reactive or Vat Dyes which are mostly used in cotton textiles. In the process of application of dyes to the cotton fiber, yarn or fabric, several auxiliary chemicals are also used in the solution called dyebath to improve the absorption of dyes. There is a very little absorption of dyes and auxiliary chemicals and a residual amount of all these substances is released as the spent dye bath effluent. Because of the wide variety of chemicals used in cotton textile dyes, there is always a risk of harmful effects which may not be apparent immediately but may have an irreversible impact in the long term. Colour imparted by the dyes to the water also has an adverse effect on its public acceptability and the potability. This study has been conducted with an objective to assess the feasibility of reuse of the spent dye bath. Studies have been conducted in two independent industries manufacturing dyed cotton yarn and dyed cotton fabric respectively. These have been referred as Unit-I and Unit-II. The studies included assessment of reduction in pollution levels and the economic benefits of such reuse. The study conclusively establishes that the reuse of spent dyebath results in prevention of pollution, reduction in pollution loads and cost of effluent treatment & production. This pollution prevention technique presents a good preposition for pollution prevention in cotton textile industry.

Keywords: dyes, dyebath, reuse, toxic, pollution, costs

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534 Colorful Textiles with Antimicrobial Property Using Natural Dyes as Effective Green Finishing Agents

Authors: Shahid-ul-Islam, Faqeer Mohammad


The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of annatto, teak and flame of the forest natural dyes on color, fastness, and antimicrobial property of protein based textile substrate. The color strength (K/S) of wool samples at various concentrations of dyes were analysed using a Reflective Spectrophotometer. The antimicrobial activity of natural dyes before and after application on wool was tested against common human pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans, by using micro-broth dilution method, disc diffusion assay and growth curve studies. The structural morphology of natural protein fibre (wool) was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Annatto and teak natural dyes proved very effective in inhibiting the microbial growth in solution phase and after application on wool and resulted in a broad beautiful spectrum of colors with exceptional fastness properties. The results encourage the search and exploitation of new plant species as source of dyes to replace toxic synthetic antimicrobial agents currently used in textile industry.

Keywords: annatto, antimicrobial agents, natural dyes, green textiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
533 Sustainability and Awareness with Natural Dyes in Textile

Authors: Recep Karadag


Natural dyeing had started since pre-historical times for dyeing of textile materials. The natural dyeing had continued to beginning of 20th century. At the end of 19th century some synthetic dyes were synthesized. Although development of dyeing technologies and methods, natural dyeing was not developed in recent years. Despite rapid advances of synthetic dyestuff industries, natural dye processes have not developed. Therefore natural dyeing was not competed against synthetic dyes. At the same time, it was very difficult that large quantities of coloured textile was dyed with natural dyes And it was very difficult to get reproducible results in the natural dyeing using classical and traditional processes. However, natural dyeing has used slightly in the textile handicraft up to now. It is very important view that re-using of natural dyes to create awareness in textiles in recent years. Natural dyes have got many awareness and sustainability properties. Natural dyes are more eco-friendly than synthetic dyes. A lot of natural dyes have got antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal and anti –UV properties. It had been known that were obtained limited numbers colours with natural dyes in the past. On the contrary, colour scale is too wide with natural dyes. Except fluorescent colours, numerous colours can be obtained with natural dyes. Fastnesses of dyed textiles with natural dyes are good that there are light, washing, rubbing, etc. The fastness values can be improved depend on dyeing processes. Thanks to these properties mass production can be made with natural dyes in textiles. Therefore fabric dyeing machine was designed. This machine is too suitable for natural dyeing and mass production. Also any dyeing machine can be modified for natural dyeing. Although dye extraction and dyeing are made separately in the traditional natural dyeing processes and these procedures are become by designed this machine. Firstly, colouring compounds are extracted from natural dye resources, then dyeing is made with extracted colouring compounds. The colouring compounds are moderately dissolved in water. Less water is used in the extraction of colouring compounds from dye resources and dyeing with this new technique on the contrary much quantity water needs to use for dissolve of the colouring compounds in the traditional dyeing. This dyeing technique is very useful method for mass productions with natural dyes in traditional natural dyeing that use less energy, less dye materials, less water, etc. than traditional natural dyeing techniques. In this work, cotton, silk, linen and wool fabrics were dyed with some natural dye plants by the technique. According to the analysis very good results were obtained by this new technique. These results are shown sustainability and awareness of natural dyes for textiles.

Keywords: antibacterial, antimicrobial, natural dyes, sustainability

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532 Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Some Acid Dyes Derived from 1-Amino-4 Bromo-Anthraquine-2-Sulphonic Acid

Authors: Nuradeen Abdullahi Nadabo, Kasali Adewale Bello, Istifanus Chindo, Nurudeen Ayeni


Ten acid dyes were synthesized from 1-amino-4-bromo anthraghinone-2 sulphuric acid by condensation with different substituted amilines. These dyes were characterized by IR Spectroscopy and the results revealed an incorporation of various substituents. Application of these dyes were carried out on Nylon and wool fabrics using standard procedure melting point, percentage yield, molar extinction coefficient, wash, light and staining of adjacent fibre, of these dyes were also evaluated and the results obtained are within a reasonable range acceptable for commercial dyes.

Keywords: acid dyes, dyeing, exhaustion, extinction co-efficient

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531 Prediction of Binding Free Energies for Dyes Removal Using Computational Chemistry

Authors: R. Chanajaree, D. Luanwiset, K. Pongpratea


Dye removal is an environmental concern because the textile industries have been increasing by world population and industrialization. Adsorption is the technique to find adsorbents to remove dyes from wastewater. This method is low-cost and effective for dye removal. This work tries to develop effective adsorbents using the computational approach because it will be able to predict the possibility of the adsorbents for specific dyes in terms of binding free energies. The computational approach is faster and cheaper than the experimental approach in case of finding the best adsorbents. All starting structures of dyes and adsorbents are optimized by quantum calculation. The complexes between dyes and adsorbents are generated by the docking method. The obtained binding free energies from docking are compared to binding free energies from the experimental data. The calculated energies can be ranked as same as the experimental results. In addition, this work also shows the possible orientation of the complexes. This work used two experimental groups of the complexes of the dyes and adsorbents. In the first group, there are chitosan (adsorbent) and two dyes (reactive red (RR) and direct sun yellow (DY)). In the second group, there are poly(1,2-epoxy-3-phenoxy) propane (PEPP), which is the adsorbent, and 2 dyes of bromocresol green (BCG) and alizarin yellow (AY).

Keywords: dyes removal, binding free energies, quantum calculation, docking

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530 Rapid Method for the Determination of Acid Dyes by Capillary Electrophoresis

Authors: Can Hu, Huixia Shi, Hongcheng Mei, Jun Zhu, Hongling Guo


Textile fibers are important trace evidence and frequently encountered in criminal investigations. A significant aspect of fiber evidence examination is the determination of fiber dyes. Although several instrumental methods have been developed for dyes detection, the analysis speed is not fast enough yet. A rapid dye analysis method is still needed to further improve the efficiency of case handling. Capillary electrophoresis has the advantages of high separation speed and high separation efficiency and is an ideal method for the rapid analysis of fiber dyes. In this paper, acid dyes used for protein fiber dyeing were determined by a developed short-end injection capillary electrophoresis technique. Five acid red dyes with similar structures were successfully baseline separated within 5 min. The separation reproducibility is fairly good for the relative standard deviation of retention time is 0.51%. The established method is rapid and accurate which has great potential to be applied in forensic setting.

Keywords: acid dyes, capillary electrophoresis, fiber evidence, rapid determination

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529 Recovery of Waste Acrylic Fibers for the Elimination of Basic Dyes

Authors: N. Ouslimani, M. T. Abadlia


Environment protection is a precondition for sustained growth and a better quality of life for all people on earth. Aqueous industrial effluents are the main sources of pollution. Among the compounds of these effluents, dyes are particularly resistant to discoloration by conventional methods, and discharges present many problems that must be supported. The scientific literature shows that synthetic organic dyes are compounds used in many industrial sectors. They are found in the chemical, car, paper industry and particularly the textile industry, where all the lines and grades of the chemical family are represented. The affinity between the fibers and dyes vary depending on the chemical structure of dyes and the type of materials to which they are applied. It is not uncommon to find that during the dyeing operation from 15 to 20 % of sulfur dyes, and sometimes up to 40 % of the reactants are discharged with the effluent. This study was conducted for the purpose of fading basics dyes from wastewater using as adsorbent fiber waste material. This technique presents an interesting alternative to usual treatment, as it allows the recovery of waste fibers, which can find uses as raw material for the manufacture of cleaning products or in other sectors In this study the results obtained by fading fiber waste are encouraging, given the rate of color removal which is about 90%.This method also helps to decrease BOD and suspended solids MES in an effective way.

Keywords: adsorption, dyes, fiber, valorization, wastewater

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528 Selective Adsorption of Anionic Textile Dyes with Sustainable Composite Materials Based on Physically Activated Carbon and Basic Polyelectrolytes

Authors: Mari Carmen Reyes Angeles, Dalia Michel Reyes Villeda, Ana María Herrera González


This work reports the design and synthesis of two composite materials based on physically activated carbon and basic polyelectrolytes useful in the adsorption of textile dyes present in aqueous solutions and wastewater. The synthesis of basic polyelectrolytes poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) and poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) was made by means of free radical polymerization. The carbon made from prickly pear peel (CarTunaF) was thermally activated in the presence of combustion gases. Composite materials CarTunaF2VP and CarTunaF4VP were obtained from CarTunaF and polybasic polyelectrolytes P2VP and P4VP with a ratio of 67:33 wt. The structure of each polyelectrolyte, P2VP, and P4VP, was elucidated by means of the FTIR and 1H NMR spectrophotometric techniques. Their thermal stability was evaluated using TGA. The characterization of CarTunaF and composite materials CarTunaF2VP and CarTunaF4VP was made by means of FTIR, TGA, SEM, and N2 adsorption. The adsorptive capacities of the polyelectrolytes and the composite materials were evaluated by adsorption of direct dyes present in aqueous solutions. The polyelectrolytes removed between 90 and 100% of the dyes, and the composite materials removed between 68 and 93% of the dyes. Using the four adsorbents P2VP, P4VP, CarTuna2VP, and CarTuna4VP, it was observed that the dyes studied, Direct Blue 80, Direct Turquoise 86, and Direct Orange 26, were adsorbed in the range between 46.1 and 188.7mg∙g-1 by means of electrostatic interactions between the anionic groups in the dyes with the cationic groups in the adsorbents. By using adsorbent materials in the treatment of wastewater from the textile industry, an improvement in the quality of the water was observed by decreasing its pH, COD, conductivity, and color considerably

Keywords: adsorption, anionic dyes, composite, polyelectrolytes

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527 Synthesis and Characterization of Some Mono Chloro-S-Triazine Vinyl Sulphone Reactive Dyes

Authors: Nuradeen Abdullahi Nadabo, Kasali Adewale Bello, Chindo Istifanus


A series of ten bi functional mono-chloro-s-triazine vinyl sulphone reactive dyes were synthesized based on H-acid with varied substituents coded as (BRD). These dyes were characterized by IR spectroscopy. The results revealed an incorporation of various substituents. The visible absorption spectra of these dyes were examined in various solvents and results shows positive and negative salvatochromism as the solvent polarity; changes, melting point, percentage yield and molar extinction co-efficient of these dyes were also evaluated and the results obtained are within a reasonable range acceptable for commercial dyeing.

Keywords: bifunctional, characterization, reactive dyes, synthesis

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526 Preparation of New Organoclays and Applications for Adsorption of Telon Dyes in Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Benamar Makhoukhi


Clay ion-exchange using bismidazolium salts (MBIM) could provide organophilic clays materials that allow effective retention of polluting dyes. The present investigations deal with bentonite (Bt) modification using (ortho, meta and para) bisimidazolium cations and attempts to remove a synthetic textile dyes, such as (Telon-Orange, Telon-Red and Telon-Blue) by adsorption, from aqueous solutions. The surface modification of MBIM–Bt was examined using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Adsorption tests applied to Telon dyes revealed a significant increase of the maximum adsorption capacity from ca. 21-28 to 88-108 mg.g-1 after intercalation. The highest adsorption level was noticed for Telon-Orange dye on the p-MBIM–Bt, presumably due higher interlayer space and better diffusion. The pseudo-first order rate equation was able to provide the best description of adsorption kinetics data for all three dyestuffs. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were also determined. The results show that MBIM–Bt could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of Telon dyes from effluents.

Keywords: Bentonite, Organoclay, Bisimidazolium, Dyes, Isotherms, Adsorption

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525 Isolation and Screening of Laccase Producing Basidiomycetes via Submerged Fermentations

Authors: Mun Yee Chan, Sin Ming Goh, Lisa Gaik Ai Ong


Approximately 10,000 different types of dyes and pigments are being used in various industrial applications yearly, which include the textile and printing industries. However, these dyes are difficult to degrade naturally once they enter the aquatic system. Their high persistency in natural environment poses a potential health hazard to all form of life. Hence, there is a need for alternative dye removal strategy in the environment via bioremediation. In this study, fungi laccase is investigated via commercial agar dyes plates and submerged fermentation to explore the application of fungi laccase in textile dye wastewater treatment. Two locally isolated basidiomycetes were screened for laccase activity using media added with commercial dyes such as 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), guaiacol and Remazol Brillant Blue R (RBBR). Isolate TBB3 (1.70±0.06) and EL2 (1.78±0.08) gave the highest results for ABTS plates with the appearance of greenish halo on around the isolates. Submerged fermentation performed on Isolate TBB3 with the productivity 3.9067 U/ml/day, whereas the laccase activity for Isolate EL2 was much lower (0.2097 U/ml/day). As isolate TBB3 showed higher laccase production, it was subjected to molecular characterization by DNA isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. After being compared with other sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database), isolate TBB3 is probably from species Trametes hirsutei. Further research work can be performed on this isolate by upscale the production of laccase in order to meet the demands of the requirement for higher enzyme titer for the bioremediation of textile dyes.

Keywords: bioremediation, dyes, fermentation, laccase

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524 Experimental Studies on the Removal of Textile Dye of Naphthol Green B from Artificially Contaminated Water Using Purolite MB400 Ion Exchange Resin

Authors: Monika Liugė, Dainius Paliulis


Experimental research was made in order to point out the problem of removal of dyes from textile wastewater. Dyes are one of the most dangerous substances released into the environment from the textile industry. They are divided into natural and synthetic groups. Even small amounts of dyes in the effluent of the textile industry could be harmful to the environment and human health. Dyes could affect some vital organs such as the brain, kidneys, heart or organ systems, for example, immune or reproductive. The aim of this study was to determine the adsorption efficiency of the removal of naphthol green B from artificially contaminated water using Purolite MB400 ion exchange resin. Naphthol green B is a coordinating iron complex used as a dye. Its molecular formula is C30H15FeN3Na3O15S3. Naphthol green B dye belongs to the group of acid dyes, which is one of the largest of all dye groups. In experimental research was used 0.3-1.2 mm fraction of Purolite MB400. 6 samples with different amount of sorbent were prepared for this analysis. The experiment of sorption was performed at the same pH level, which ranged from 6 to 7. In order to find out whether the changes of the pH values of the solution after the sorption process did not affect the sorption process itself, optical density measurements were performed at different pH values. pH values ranged from 6 to 8.5. The sorption process was performed for 1 hour. Samples throughout the sorption process were mixing using magnetic stirrer. A calibration curve at 484 nm was generated before measurements using Photocolorimeter of Shimadzu UV-1800. The residual carbon content of the samples was determined using a carbon analyzer of Shimadzu TOC.

Keywords: circular economy, naphthol green B, PuroliteMB400, sorption, waste

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523 The Impact of Ionic Strength on the Adsorption Behavior of Anionic and Cationic Dyes on Low Cost Biosorbent

Authors: Abdallah Bouguettoucha, Derradji Chebli, Sara Aga, Agueniou Fazia


The objective of this study was to looking for alternative materials (low cost) for the adsorption of textile dyes and optimizes the type which gives optimum adsorption and provides an explanation of the mechanism involved in the adsorption process. Adsorption of Orange II and Methylene blue on H2SO4 traited cone of Pinus brutia, was carried out at different initial concentrations of the dye (20, 50 and 100 mg / L) and at tow initial pH, pH 1 and 10 respectively. The models of Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips were used in this study to analyze the obtained results of the adsorption isotherm. PCB-0M had high adsorption capacities namely 32.8967 mg/g and 128.1651 mg/g, respectively for orange II and methylene blue and further indicated that the removal of dyes increased with increase in the ionic strength of solution, this was attributed to aggregation of dyes in solution. The potential of H2SO4 traited cone of Pinus brutia, an easily available and low cost material, to be used as an alternative biosorbent material for the removal of a dyes, Orange II and Methylene Bleu, from aqueous solutions was therefore confirmed.

Keywords: Methylene blue, orange II, cones of pinus brutia, adsorption

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522 An Investigation on the Removal of Synthetic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by a Functional Polymer

Authors: Ali Kara, Asim Olgun, Sevgi Sozugecer, Sahin Ozel, Kubra Nur Yildiz, P. Sevinç, Abdurrahman Kuresh, Guliz Turhan, Duygu Gulgun


The synthetic dyes, one of the most hazardous chemical compound classes, are important potential water pollutions since their presence in water bodies reduces light penetration, precluding the photosynthesis of aqueous flora and causing various diseases. Some the synthetic dyes are highly toxic and/or carcinogenic, and their biodegradation can produce even more toxic aromatic amines. The adsorption procedure is one of the most effective means of removing synthetic dye pollutants, and has been described in a number of previous studies by using the functional polymers. In this study, we investigated the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solution by using a functional polymer as an adsorbent material. The effect of initial solution concentration, pH, and contact time on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent were studied in details. The results showed that functional polymer has a potential to be used as cost-effective and efficient adsorbent for the treatment of aqueous solutions from textile industries.

Keywords: functional polymers, synhetic dyes, adsorption, physicochemical parameters

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521 Electrochemical Coagulation of Synthetic Textile Dye Wastewater

Authors: H. B. Rekha, Usha N. Murthy, Prashanth, Ashoka


Dyes are manufactured to have high chemical resistance because they are normally species, very difficult to degrade (reactive dyes). It damages flora and fauna. Furthermore, coloured components are highly hazardous. So removal of dyes becomes a challenge for both textile industry and water treatment facility. Dyeing wastewater is usually treated by conventional methods such as biological oxidation and adsorption but nowadays them becoming in-adequate because of large variability of composition of waste water. In the present investigation, mild steel electrodes of varying surface area were used for treatment of synthetic textile dye. It appears that electro-chemical coagulation could be very effective in removing coloured from wastewater; it could also be used to remove other parameters like chlorides, COD, and solids to some extent. In the present study, coloured removal up to 99% was obtained for surface area of mild steel electrode of 80 cm2 and 96% of surface area of mild steel electrode of 50 cm2. The findings from this study could be used to improve the design of electro-chemical treatment systems and modify existing systems to improve efficiency.

Keywords: electrochemical coagulation, mild steel, colour, environmental engineering

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520 Azadrachea indica Leaves Extract Assisted Green Synthesis of Ag-TiO₂ for Degradation of Dyes in Aqueous Medium

Authors: Muhammad Saeed, Sheeba Khalid


Aqueous pollution due to the textile industry is an important issue. Photocatalysis using metal oxides as catalysts is one of the methods used for eradication of dyes from textile industrial effluents. In this study, the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of photocatalytic activity of Ag-TiO₂ are reported. TiO₂ catalysts with 2, 4, 6 and 8% loading of Ag were prepared by green methods using Azadrachea indica leaves' extract as reducing agent and titanium dioxide and silver nitrate as precursor materials. The 4% Ag-TiO₂ exhibited the best catalytic activity for degradation of dyes. Prepared catalyst was characterized by advanced techniques. Catalytic degradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B were carried out in Pyrex glass batch reactor. Deposition of Ag greatly enhanced the catalytic efficiency of TiO₂ towards degradation of dyes. Irradiation of catalyst excites electrons from conduction band of catalyst to valence band yielding an electron-hole pair. These photoexcited electrons and positive hole undergo secondary reaction and produce OH radicals. These active radicals take part in the degradation of dyes. More than 90% of dyes were degraded in 120 minutes. It was found that there was no loss catalytic efficiency of prepared Ag-TiO₂ after recycling it for two times. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B followed Eley-Rideal mechanism which states that dye reacts in fluid phase with adsorbed oxygen. 27 kJ/mol and 20 kJ/mol were found as activation energy for photodegradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B dye respectively.

Keywords: TiO₂, Ag-TiO₂, methylene blue, Rhodamine B., photo degradation

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519 Synthesis of Montmorillonite/CuxCd1-xS Nanocomposites and Their Application to the Photodegradation of Methylene Blue

Authors: H. Boukhatem, L. Djouadi, H. Khalaf, R. M. Navarro, F. V. Ganzalez


Synthetic organic dyes are used in various industries, such as textile industry, leather tanning industry, paper production, hair dye production, etc. Wastewaters containing these dyes may be harmful to the environment and living organisms. Therefore, it is very important to remove or degrade these dyes before discharging them into the environment. In addition to standard technologies for the degradation and/or removal of dyes, several new specific technologies, the so-called advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have been developed to eliminate dangerous compounds from polluted waters. AOPs are all characterized by the same chemical feature: production of radicals (•OH) through a multistep process, although different reaction systems are used. These radicals show little selectivity of attack and are able to oxidize various organic pollutants due to their high oxidative capacity (reduction potential of HO• Eo = 2.8 V). Heterogeneous photocatalysis, as one of the AOPs, could be effective in the oxidation/degradation of organic dyes. A major advantage of using heterogeneous photocatalysis for this purpose is the total mineralization of organic dyes, which results in CO2, H2O and corresponding mineral acids. In this study, nanomaterials based on montmorillonite and CuxCd1-xS with different Cu concentration (0.3 < x < 0.7) were utilized for the degradation of the commercial cationic textile dye Methylene blue (MB), used as a model pollutant. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA). Test results of photocatalysis of methylene blue under UV-Visible irradiation show that the photoactivity of nanomaterials montmorillonite/ CuxCd1-xS increases with the increasing of Cu concentration. The kinetics of the degradation of the MB dye was described with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L–H) kinetic model.

Keywords: heterogeneous photocatalysis, methylene blue, montmorillonite, nanomaterial

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518 Enhanced Decolourization and Biodegradation of Textile Azo and Xanthene Dyes by Using Bacterial Isolates

Authors: Gimhani Madhushika Hewayalage, Thilini Ariyadasa, Sanja Gunawardena


In Sri Lanka, the largest contribution for the industrial export earnings is governed by textile and apparel industry. However, this industry generates huge quantities of effluent consists of unfixed dyes which enhance the effluent colour and toxicity thereby leading towards environmental pollution. Therefore, the effluent should properly be treated prior to the release into the environment. The biological technique has now captured much attention as an environmental-friendly and cost-competitive effluent decolourization method due to the drawbacks of physical and chemical treatment techniques. The present study has focused on identifying dye decolourizing potential of several bacterial isolates obtained from the effluent of the local textile industry. Yellow EXF, Red EXF, Blue EXF, Nova Black WNN and Nylosan-Rhodamine-EB dyes have been selected for the study to represent different chromophore groups such as Azo and Xanthene. The rates of decolorization of each dye have been investigated by employing distinct bacterial isolates. Bacterial isolate which exhibited effective dye decolorizing potential was identified as Proteus mirabilis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The high decolorizing rates of identified bacterial strain indicate its potential applicability in the treatment of dye-containing wastewaters.

Keywords: azo, bacterial, biological, decolourization, xanthene

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517 Eco-Friendly Natural Dyes from Butea monosperma and Their Application on Cotton Fabric

Authors: Archna Mall, Neelam Agrawal, Hari O. Saxena, Bhavana Sharma


Butea monosperma occurs widely throughout central Indian states. Eco-friendly natural dyes were isolated in aqueous medium from leaves, bark and flowers of this plant. These dyes were used for dyeing on cotton fabric using various chemical (potassium aluminium sulphate, potassium dichromate, ferrous sulphate, stannous chloride & tannic acid) and natural mordants (rinds of Terminallia bellerica & Terminalia chebula fruits and shells of Prunus dulcis & Juglans regia nuts). Dyeing was carried out using the pre-mordanting technique. Large range of beautiful shades in terms of hue and darkness were recorded because of varying mordant concentrations and combinations. More importantly dyed fabrics registered varying the degree of colour fastness properties to washing (1-3, colour change and 4-5, colour staining), light (2-4), rubbing (4-5, dry and 3-5, wet) and perspiration (1-4, colour change and 4-5, colour staining). Thus, along with flowers which are traditionally known for natural dyes, the leaves and bark may also find their place in textile industries.

Keywords: Butea monosperma, cotton, mordants, natural dyes

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516 Eco-Fashion Dyeing of Denim and Knitwear with Particle-Dyes

Authors: Adriana Duarte, Sandra Sampaio, Catia Ferreira, Jaime I. N. R. Gomes


With the fashion of faded worn garments the textile industry has moved from indigo and pigments to dyes that are fixed by cationization, with products that can be toxic, and that can show this effect after washing down the dye with friction and/or treating with enzymes in a subsequent operation. Increasingly they are treated with bleaches, such as hypochlorite and permanganate, both toxic substances. An alternative process is presented in this work for both garment and jet dyeing processes, without the use of pre-cationization and the alternative use of “particle-dyes”. These are hybrid products, made up by an inorganic particle and an organic dye. With standard soluble dyes, it is not possible to avoid diffusion into the inside of the fiber unless using previous cationization. Only in this way can diffusion be avoided keeping the centre of the fibres undyed so as to produce the faded effect by removing the surface dye and showing the white fiber beneath. With “particle-dyes”, previous cationization is avoided. By applying low temperatures, the dye does not diffuse completely into the inside of the fiber, since it is a particle and not a soluble dye, being then able to give the faded effect. Even though bleaching can be used it can also be avoided, by the use of friction and enzymes they can be used just as for other dyes. This fashion brought about new ways of applying reactive dyes by the use of previous cationization of cotton, lowering the salt, and temperatures that reactive dyes usually need for reacting and as a side effect the application of a more environmental process. However, cationization is a process that can be problematic in applying it outside garment dyeing, such as jet dyeing, being difficult to obtain level dyeings. It also should be applied by a pad-fix or Pad-batch process due to the low affinity of the pre-cationization products making it a more expensive process, and the risk of unlevelness in processes such as jet dyeing. Wit particle-dyes, since no pre-cationizartion is necessary, they can be applied in jet dyeing. The excess dye is fixed by a fixing agent, fixing the insoluble dye onto the surface of the fibers. By applying the fixing agent only one to 1-3 rinses in water at room temperature are necessary, saving water and improving the washfastness.

Keywords: denim, garment dyeing, worn look, eco-fashion

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515 Investigation of Green Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Natural Dyes

Authors: M. Hosseinnezhad, K. Gharanjig


Natural dyes, extracted from black carrot and bramble, were utilized as photosensitizers to prepare dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Spectrophotometric studies of the natural dyes in solution and on a titanium dioxide substrate were carried out in order to assess changes in the status of the dyes. The results show that the bathochromic shift is seen on the photo-electrode substrate. The chemical binding of the natural dyes at the surface photo-electrode were increased by the chelating effect of the Ti(IV) ions. The cyclic voltammetry results showed that all extracts are suitable to be performed in DSSCs. Finally, photochemical performance and stability of DSSCs based on natural dyes were studied. The DSSCs sensitized by black carrot extract have been reported to achieve up to Jsc=1.17 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.55 V, FF= 0.52, η=0.34%, whereas Bramble extract can obtain up to Jsc=2.24 mAcm-2, Voc= 0.54 V, FF= 0.57, η=0.71%. The power conversion efficiency was obtained from the mixed dyes in DSSCs. The power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using mixed Black carrot and Bramble dye is the average of the their efficiency in single DSSCs.

Keywords: anthocyanin, dye-sensitized solar cells, green energy, optical materials

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514 Experimental and Theoretical Studies for Removal of Dyes from Industrial Wastewater Using Bioremediation

Authors: Sakshi Batra, Suresh Gupta, Pratik Pande, Navneet Kaur, Lovdeep Kaur


The objective of this study is removal of Methylene blue dye or reactive orange-16 from industrial waste water or from soil using bioremediation technique. As huge amount of dyes are releasing from textile industry in water and soil environment during dyeing process. In this study, we focused on removal of Methylene blue dye and Reactive orange dye from industrial soil at different initial concentration of dye. An experiment study was carried out at methylene blue dye or Reactive orange-16 dye at varying concentration of both the dye as 50 ppm, 100ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm and 400 ppm. Maximum removal is obtained at 16-20 hours Experiments are carried out for pH, Temperature and MSM composition. The final concentration has been observed by UV-VIS. The two species has been isolated from the Industrial effluent. Finally the product analysis has been done by GC-MS.

Keywords: bioremediation, cultural growth, dyes, environment

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513 Production, Optimization, Characterization, and Kinetics of a Partially Purified Laccase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Its Application in Swift Bioremediation of Azo Dyes

Authors: Ankita Kushwaha, M. P. Singh


Background: In the present investigation the efficiency of laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC from Pleurotus citrinopileatus was assessed for the decolorization of azo dyes. Aim: Enzyme production, characterization and kinetics of a partially purified laccase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus were determined for its application in bioremediation of azo dyes. Methods & Results: Laccase has been partially purified by using 80% ammonium sulphate solution. Total activity, total protein, specific activity and purification fold for partially purified laccase were found to be 40.38U, 293.33mg/100ml, 0.91U/mg and 2.84, respectively. The pH and temperature optima of laccase were 5.0 and 50ºC, respectively, while the enzyme was most stable at pH 4.0 and temperature 30ºC when exposed for one hour. The Km of the partially purified laccase for substrates guaiacol, DMP (2,6-dimethoxyphenol) and syringaldazine (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde azine) were 60, 95 and 26, respectively. This laccase has been tested for the use in the bioremediation of azo dyes in the absence of mediator molecules. Two dyes namely congo red and bromophenol blue were tested. Discussion: It was observed that laccase enzyme was very effective in the decolorization of these two dyes. More than 80% decolorization was observed within half an hour even in the absence of mediator and their lower Km value indicates that efficiency of the enzyme is very high. The results were promising due to quicker decolorization in the absence of mediators showing that it can be used as a valuable biocatalyst for quick bioremediation of azo dyes. Conclusion: The enzymatic properties of laccase from P. citrinopileatus should be considered for a potential environmental (biodegradation and bioremediation) or industrial applications.

Keywords: azo dyes, decolorization, laccase, P.citrinopileatus

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512 Substantiate the Effects of Reactive Dyes and Aloe Vera on the Ultra Violet Protective Properties on Cotton Woven and Knitted Fabrics

Authors: Neha Singh


The incidence of skin cancer has been rising worldwide due to excessive exposure to sun light. Climatic changes and depletion of ozone layer allow the easy entry of UV rays on earth, resulting skin damages such as sunburn, premature skin ageing, allergies and skin cancer. Researches have suggested many modes for protection of human skin against ultraviolet radiation; avoidance to outdoor activities, using textiles for covering the skin, sunscreen and sun glasses. However, this paper gives an insight about how textile material specially woven and knitted cotton can be efficiently utilized for protecting human skin from the harmful ultraviolet radiations by combining reactive dyes with Aloe Vera. Selection of the fabric was based on their utility and suitability as per the climate condition of the country for the upper and lower garment. A standard dyeing process was used, and Aloe Vera molecules were applied by in-micro encapsulation technique. After combining vat dyes with Aloe Vera excellent UPF (Ultra violet Protective Factor) was observed. There is a significant change in the UPF of vat dyed cotton fabric after treatment with Aloe Vera.

Keywords: UV protection, aloe vera, protective clothing, reactive dyes, cotton, woven and knits

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511 Synthesis and Photophysical Studies of BOPIDY Dyes Conjugated with 4-Benzyloxystyryl Substituents

Authors: Bokolombe Pitchou Ngoy, John Mack, Tebello Nyokong


Synthesis and photochemical studies of BODIPY dyes have been investigated in this work in order to have a broad benchmark of this functionalized photosensitizer for biological applications such as photodynamic therapy or antimicrobial activity. The common acid catalyzed synthetic method was used, and BODIPY dyes were obtained in quite a good yield (25 %) followed by bromination and Knoevenagel condensation to afford the BODIPY dyes conjugated with maximum absorbance in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The fluorescence lifetimes, fluorescence quantum yield, and Singlet oxygen quantum yield of the conjugated BODIPY dyes were determined in different solvents by using Time Correlation Single Photon Counting (TCSPC), fluorimeter, and Laser Flash Photolysis respectively. It was clearly shown that the singlet oxygen quantum yield was higher in THF followed by DMSO compared to another solvent. The same trend was observed for the fluorescence lifetimes.

Keywords: BODIPY, photodynamic therapy, photosensitizer, singlet oxygen

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510 Development of Cobalt Doped Alumina Hybrids for Adsorption of Textile Effluents

Authors: Uzaira Rafique, Kousar Parveen


The discharge volume and composition of Textile effluents gains scientific concern due to its hazards and biotoxcity of azo dyes. Azo dyes are non-biodegradable due to its complex molecular structure and recalcitrant nature. Serious attempts have been made to synthesize and develop new materials to combat the environmental problems. The present study is designed for removal of a range of azo dyes (Methyl orange, Congo red and Basic fuchsine) from synthetic aqueous solutions and real textile effluents. For this purpose, Metal (cobalt) doped alumina hybrids are synthesized and applied as adsorbents in the batch experiment. Two different aluminium precursor (aluminium nitrate and spent aluminium foil) and glucose are mixed following sol gel method to get hybrids. The synthesized materials are characterized for surface and bulk properties using FTIR, SEM-EDX and XRD techniques. The characterization of materials under FTIR revealed that –OH (3487-3504 cm-1), C-H (2935-2985 cm-1), Al-O (~ 800 cm-1), Al-O-C (~1380 cm-1), Al-O-Al (659-669 cm-1) groups participates in the binding of dyes onto the surface of hybrids. Amorphous shaped particles and elemental composition of carbon (23%-44%), aluminium (29%-395%), and oxygen (11%-20%) is demonstrated in SEM-EDX micrograph. Time-dependent batch-experiments under identical experimental parameters showed 74% congo red, 68% methyl orange and 85% maximum removal of basic fuchsine onto the surface of cobalt doped alumina hybrids probably through the ion-exchange mechanism. The experimental data when treated with adsorption models is found to have good agreement with pseudo second order kinetic and freundlich isotherm for adsorption process. The present study concludes the successful synthesis of novel and efficient cobalt doped alumina hybrids providing environmental friendly and economical alternative to the commercial adsorbents for the treatment of industrial effluents.

Keywords: alumina hybrid, adsorption, dopant, isotherm, kinetic

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509 Toxic Dyes Removal in Aqueous Solution Using Calcined and Uncalcined Anionic Clay Zn/Al+Fe

Authors: Bessaha Hassiba, Bouraada Mohamed


Layered double hydroxide with Zn/(Al+Fe) molar ratio of 3:1 was synthesized by co-precipitation method and their calcined product was obtained by heating treatment of ZAF-HT at 500°C. The calcined and uncalcined materials were used to remove weak acid dyes: indigo carmine (IC) and green bezanyl-F2B (F2B) in aqueous solution. The synthesized materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR and TG/DTA analysis confirming the formation of pure layered structure of ZAF-HT, the destruction of the original structure after calcination and the intercalation of the dyes molecules. Moreover, the interlayer distance increases from 7.645 Å in ZAF-HT to 19.102 Å after the dyes sorption. The dose of the adsorbents was chosen 0.5 g/l while the initial concentrations were 250 and 750 mg/l for indigo carmine and green bezanyl-F2B respectively. The sorption experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and without adjusting the initial solution pH (pHi = 6.10 for IC and pHi = 5.01 for F2B). In addition, the maximum adsorption capacities obtained by ZAF-HT and CZAF for both dyes followed the order: CZAF-F2B (1501.4 mg.g-1) > CZAF-IC (617.3 mg.g-1) > ZAF-HT-IC (41.4 mg.g-1) > ZAF-HT-F2B (28.9 mg.g-1). The removal of indigo carmine and green bezanyl-F2B by ZAF-HT was due to the anion exchange and/or the adsorption on the surface. By using the calcined material (CZAF), the removal of the dyes was based on a particular property, called ‘memory effect’. CZAF recover the pristine structure in the presence anionic molecules such as acid dyes where they occupy the interlayer space. The sorption process was spontaneous in nature and followed pseudo-second-order. The isotherms showed that the removal of IC and F2B by ZAF-HT and CZAF were consistent with Langmiur model.

Keywords: acid dyes, adsorption, calcination, layered double hydroxides

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