Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 288

Search results for: Bacillus sp

288 Antifungal Nature of Bacillus Subtilis in Controlling Post Harvest Fungal Rot of Yam

Authors: Ifueko Oghogho Ukponmwan, Mike O. Orji

Abstract:

This study investigated the antifungal activity of Bacilluss subtilis in the control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea spp). Bacillus subtilis was isolated from the soil and fungi (Aspergillus spp, Mucor and yeasts) were isolated from rotten yam. The organisms were paired in yam nutrient agar (YNA) and yam Sabourraud dextrose agar media. In the yam dextrose agar media (YSDA) plates, the Bacillus grew rapidly and established itself and restricted the growth of the fungi organisms, but there was no zone of inhibition. This behaviour of Bacillus on the plates of YSDA was also observed in the yams where the fungi caused rot but the rot was suppressed by the presence of the Bacillus as compared to the degree of rot observed in the control that had only spoilage fungi. The control yam showed greater rot than other yams that contained a combination of Bacillus and fungi. The t-Test analysis showed that the difference in the rot between the treated samples and the control sample is significant and this implies that the presence of Bacillus significantly reduced the growth of fungi in the samples (yams). It was revealed from this study that Bacillus subtilis treatment can be successfully used to preserve white yams in storage. Its fast growth and early establishment in the sample accounts for its antifungal strength.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, rot, fungi, yam

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
287 Discrimination Between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus Isolates in Apple Juice by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Murada Alholy, Mengshi Lin, Omar Alhaj, Mahmoud Abugoush

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Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between four Alicyclobacillus strains and four Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm-1 reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these two genera.

Keywords: alicyclobacillus, bacillus, FT-IR, spectroscopy, PCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
286 Compost Enriched with Actinomyces and Bacillus Polymyxa Algae as a Partial Substitute for Mineral N in Ewaise Mango Orchards

Authors: Abdelaziz Sheba Abdelrahman

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Compost enriched with actinomyces and Bacillus polymyxa algae as a Partial Substitute for Mineral N in Ewaise Mango Orchards Organic fertiliser, compost enriched with actinomyces, and the biofertilizer Bacillus polymyxa algae were used as a partial replacement for mineral N fertiliser in Ewaise mango orchards during the 2019 and 2020 seasons. When compared to using mineral N alone, the results showed that reducing the percentage of mineral N fertiliser from 100 to 50% and using compost enriched with actinomyces at 25 to 50% and Bacillus polymyxa had an announced promotion on leaf area, total chlorophylls, leaf N, P, and K, yield, and fruit quality. The use of compost enriched with actinomyces and Bacillus polymyxa, as well as mineral N, resulted in a significant decrease in nitrite in the pulp. Reducing mineral N to 25% of the suitable N had a negative impact on yield. The application of appropriate N via 50% inorganic N + compost enriched with actinomyces at 50% + Bacillus polymyxa algae increased yield quantitatively and qualitatively in Ewaise mango orchards. This promised treatment significantly reduced nitrite levels in the pulp fruit.

Keywords: bacillus polymyxa algae, fertiliser, biofertilizer, ewaise mango

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285 Development of Non-Point Pollutants Removal Equipments Using Media with Bacillus sp.

Authors: Han-Seul Lee, Min-Koo Kang, Sang-Ill Lee

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This study was conducted to reduce runoff by rainwater infiltration facility using attached growth with Bacillus sp., which are reported to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as organic matter effectively. This study was investigated non-point pollutants removal efficiency of organic, nitrogen, and phosphorus in column using the media attached growth with Bacillus sp. To compare attached growth with bacillus sp. and detached media, two columns filled with perlite, zeolite, vermiculite, pumice, peat-moss was installed. In A column (attached growth with bacillus sp.), in case of infiltration velocity 30 mm/hr in high concentration of influent, it showed the removal efficiency (after aging term) is SS (suspended solid) 85.8±1.2 %, T-P (total phosphorus) 67.0±8.1 %, T-N (total nitrogen) 66.0±4.9 %, COD (chemical oxygen demand) 73.6±2.9 %, NH4+-N 72.7±3.0 %. In B column (detached media), in case of infiltration velocity 30 mm/hr in high concentration of influent, it showed the removal efficiency (after aging term) is SS 86.0±2.2 %, T-P 62.5±11.3 %, T-N 53.3±3.9 %, COD 34.6±3.7 %, NH4+-N 61.5±2.8 %. Removal efficiency of A column is better than B column. As the result from this study, using media with Bacillus sp. can improve an effective removal of non-point source pollutants.

Keywords: non-point source pollutants, Bacillus sp., rainwater, infiltration facility

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
284 Promissing Antifungal Chitinase from Marine Strain of Bacillus

Authors: Ben Amar Cheba, Taha Ibrahim Zaghloul, Mohamad Hisham El-Massry, Ahmad Rafik El-Mahdy

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Seventy two bacterial strains with ability to degrade chitin were isolated during a screening program. One of the most potent isolates (strain R2) was identified as Bacillus sp. using conventional methods as well as 16S rRNA technique and submitted in the Gen Bank sequence database as Bacillus sp. R2 with a given accession number DQ 923161. This strain was able to produce high levels of extracellular chitinase. The chitinase of Bacillus sp. R2 hydrolyzed several chitinous substrates preferentially and showed a maximum activity toward the β chitin such as Calmar pen and squid bone chitins with the folds 1.47 and 1.23 respectively. The enzyme also exhibited a substrate binding capacity of more than 70% for squid chitin, shrimp shell colloidal chitin, chitosan and prawn shell chitin. The chitinase showed a moderate antifungal activity against many phytopathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium degitatum and Fusarium calmorum.This strain could be a suitable candidate for chitinase production on an industrial scale for using as promising antifungal biopestecide.

Keywords: antifungal activity, Bacillus sp. R2, chitinase, substrate specificity

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283 Characterization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (Tnt)-Metabolizing Bacillus Cereus Sp TUHP2 Isolated from TNT-Polluted Soils in the Vellore District, Tamilnadu, India

Authors: S. Hannah Elizabeth, A. Panneerselvam

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Objective: The main objective was to evaluate the degradative properties of Bacillus cereus sp TUHP2 isolated from TNT-Polluted soils in the Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: Among the 3 bacterial genera isolated from different soil samples, one potent TNT degrading strain Bacillus cereus sp TUHP2 was identified. The morphological, physiological and the biochemical properties of the strain Bacillus cereus sp TUHP2 was confirmed by conventional methods and genotypic characterization was carried out using 16S r-DNA partial gene amplification and sequencing. The broken down by products of DNT in the extract was determined by Gas Chromatogram- Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Supernatant samples from the broth studied at 24 h interval were analyzed by HPLC analysis and the effect on various nutritional and environmental factors were analysed and optimized for the isolate. Results: Out of three isolates one strain TUHP2 were found to have potent efficiency to degrade TNT and revealed the genus Bacillus. 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis showed highest homology (98%) with Bacillus cereus and was assigned as Bacillus cereus sp TUHP2. Based on the energy of the predicted models, the secondary structure predicted by MFE showed the more stable structure with a minimum energy. Products of TNT Transformation showed colour change in the medium during cultivation. TNT derivates such as 2HADNT and 4HADNT were detected by HPLC chromatogram and 2ADNT, 4ADNT by GC/MS analysis. Conclusion: Hence this study presents the clear evidence for the biodegradation process of TNT by strain Bacillus cereus sp TUHP2.

Keywords: bioremediation, biodegradation, biotransformation, sequencing

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
282 Plastic Degradation Activity of Bacillus Sp. Isolated from the Gut of Plastic-Fed Yellow Mealworm

Authors: Najat El-Kurdi, Sherif Hammad, Mohamed Ghazi, Sahar El-Shatoury, Khaled Zakaria

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The increasing number of plastic production and its importance to humanity in daily life made it a headache to the planet earth. The persistence of plastic wastes in the environment formed a serious problem. They are prominent with their capability to resist microbial degradation for decades. Thus, it was crucial to find ways to eliminate the plastics without depending on conventional recycling methods, which causes the formation of more hazardous compounds and doubles the problem. In this paper, mealworms were fed with a mixture of plastic wastes such as plastic bags, Styrofoam, PE foam, and plastic tarpaulins film as the sole food source for a month. Frass was collected at the end of the test and examined using FTIR analysis. Also, the gut bacteria were isolated and identified using 16S rRNA. The results show the mineralization of plastic in the frass of plastic-fed worms when compared to control. The 16S rRNA and the BLAST analysis showed that the obtained isolate belongs to the genus Bacillus Sp especially Bacillus subtilis. Phylogenetic analysis showed their relatedness to the other Bacillus species in the NCBI database.

Keywords: mealworm, waste management, plastic-degrading bacteria, gut microbiome, Bacillus sp

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
281 The Interactive Effect of Sodium Chloride and Diatomaceous Earth (DE) on Bacillus aquimaris

Authors: Bassam O AlJohny

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The growth of Bacillus aquimaris was inhibited from 6 - 20 % of NaCl but it showed some tolerance when Diatomaceous earth (DE) added from 2 - 12% NaCl. Concerning the effect of NaCl on polyol production, we can conclude that, the test bacterium showed some tolerance to NaCl by producing glycerol up to 8 % of NaCl. Then decreased sharply. The addition of DE decrease the amount of polyol and glycerol remarkably and this due to the productive effect of DE to the bacterial cells. The SEM figures represented the presence of electron dense bodies due to the accumulation of small particles of DE as protective molecules.

Keywords: Bacillus aquimaris, Diatomaceous earth (DE), osmoticstress, sodium chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
280 Diversity, Phyto Beneficial Activities and Agrobiotechnolody of Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus and Paenibacillus

Authors: Cheba Ben Amar

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Bacillus and Paenibacillus are Gram-positive aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) and most abundant in the rhizosphere, they mediated plant growth promotion and disease protection by several complex and interrelated processes involving direct and indirect mechanisms that include nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, siderophores production, phytohormones production and plant diseases control. In addition to their multiple PGPR properties, high secretory capacity, spore forming ability and spore resistance to unfavorable conditions enabling their extended commercial applications for long shelf-life. Due to these unique advantages, Bacillus species were the most an ideal candidate for developing efficient PGPR products such as biopesticides, fungicides and fertilizers. This review list all studied and reported plant growth promoting Bacillus species and strains, discuss their capacities to enhance plant growth and protection with special focusing on the most frequent species Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus ,B. megaterium, B. amyloliquefaciens , B. licheniformis and B. sphaericus, furthermore we recapitulate the beneficial activities and mechanisms of several species and strains of the genus Paenibacillus involved in plant growth stimulation and plant disease control.

Keywords: bacillus, paenibacillus, PGPR, beneficial activities, mechanisms, growth promotion, disease control, agrobiotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
279 Studies on Optimization of Batch Biosorption of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) from Wastewater Using Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Narasimhulu Korrapati

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The objective of this present study is to optimize the process parameters for batch biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions by Bacillus subtilis using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Batch biosorption studies were conducted under optimum pH, temperature, biomass concentration and contact time for the removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions using Bacillus subtilis. From the studies it is noticed that the maximum biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) was by Bacillus subtilis at optimum conditions of contact time of 30 minutes, pH of 4.0, biomass concentration of 2.0 mg/mL, the temperature of 32°C in batch biosorption studies. Predicted percent biosorption of the selected heavy metal ions by the design expert software is in agreement with experimental results of percent biosorption. The percent biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) in batch studies is 80% and 78.4%, respectively.

Keywords: heavy metal ions, response surface methodology, biosorption, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
278 The Occurrence of Sporeformers in Processed Milk from Household Refrigerators and The Effect of Heat Treatment on Bacillus Spores Activation

Authors: Sarisha Devnath, Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi

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In recent years milk contamination has become a major problem in households; due to the likely occurrence of bacteria, even after the milk has been processed. One such genus of bacteria causing unwanted growth is Bacillus. This research project looks at the presence of spore formers in processed milk from household refrigerators and the effect of pasteurization and high temperature on Bacillus spores activation. 24 samples each of UHT milk and pasteurised milk from 24 households were sampled for the presence of spore formers. While anaerobic spore formers were not found in any of the samples, the average aerobic spore formers in UHT milk and pasteurized milk however were 5.77 cfu/ml and 5.88 cfu/ml respectively. After sequencing, it was detected that the mixed culture contained Bacillus cereus, for both pasteurised and UHT milk samples. For the activation study, raw milk samples were collected and subjected to four different temperatures; 65˚C, 72˚C, 80˚C, 100˚C respectively. Samples were stored for 7 days at 5˚C and 10˚C and analysed daily. The average aerobic spore formers in raw milk for samples stored at 5˚C range between 4.67-6.00 cfu/ml while it ranges between 4.84-6.00 cfu/ml at 10˚C, signifying that the high temperatures could have resulted in germination of dominant spores. Statistical analysis conducted on these results indicated a significant difference between the numbers of colonies present at the different treatment temperatures the bacterium was exposed to. This work showed that household milk may constitute public health risk furthermore; pasteurization and higher temperatures may not be effective to remove aerobic spore formers because of Bacillus spores activation.

Keywords: sporeformers, bacillus, spores, activation, milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
277 Cloning and Expression of the ansZ Gene from Bacillus sp. CH11 Isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru

Authors: Stephy Saavedra, Annsy C. Arredondo, Gisele Monteiro, Adalberto Pessoa Jr, Carol N. Flores-Fernandez, Amparo I. Zavaleta

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L-asparaginase from bacterial sources is used in leukemic treatment and food industry. This enzyme is classified based on its affinity towards L-asparagine and L-glutamine. Likewise, ansZ genes express L-asparaginase with higher affinity to L-asparagine. The aim of this work was to clone and express of ansZ gene from Bacillus sp. CH11 isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru. The gene encoding L-asparaginase was cloned into pET15b vector and transformed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The expression was carried out in a batch culture using LB broth and 0.5 mM IPTG. The recombinant L-asparaginase showed a molecular weight of ~ 39 kDa by SDS PAGE and a specific activity of 3.19 IU/mg of protein. The cloning and expression of ansZ gene from this halotolerant Bacillus sp. CH11 allowed having a biological input to improve a future scaling-up.

Keywords: ansZ gene, Bacillus sp, Chilca salterns, recombinant L-asparaginase

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
276 Antifungal Protein ~35kDa Produced by Bacillus cereus Inhibits the Growth of Some Molds and Yeasts

Authors: Saleh H. Salmen, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Hany M. Yehia, Mohammad A. Khiyami, Milton Wainwright, Naiyf S. Alharbi, Arunachalam Chinnathambi

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An antifungal protein synthesized by Bacillus cereus has been partially purified by the use of ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex-G-200 column chromatography. The protein was produced from Bacillus cereus grown in potato Dextrose Broth Medium (PDB) at 30 ºC for 3 days at 100 rpm. The protein showed antagonistic effect against some fungi and yeasts. Crude extract from medium and semi-purified protein were tested in vitro against both fungi and yeasts using the disc diffusion method in order to detect the inhibitory effect of the protein. Zones of inhibition of the following diameter were found (mm) were Alternaria alternate (28), Rhodotorula glutinis (20), Fusarium sp. (16), Rhizopus sp. (15), Penicillium digitatum (13), Mucor sp. (13) and Aspergillus niger (10). The isolated protein was found to have a molecular weight of ~35kDa by sodium deodecyl sulfate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The data showed that the protein of Bacillus cereus has antifungal activity, a fact which points to the possibility of using it as a bio-control agent against some fungi, findings which emphasize the potential role of B. cereus as an important bio-control agent.

Keywords: bacillus cereus, ~35kDa protein, molds, yeasts

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
275 Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strains against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance

Authors: Asad Ali, Asif Jamal

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The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.

Keywords: bacillus species, biocontrol agent, biopesticides, phytopathogens

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
274 Bioprotective Role of Soil Borne Bacillus Strain against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Agriculture Relevance

Authors: Asif Jamal, Asad Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ali

Abstract:

The agriculture productivity losses due to microbial pathogens have been a serious issue in Pakistan and rest of the world. Present work was designed to isolate soil borne microorganisms having the antagonistic ability against notorious phytopathogens. From the initial collection of 23 bacterial isolates, two potent strains of Bacillus were screened on the basis of their comparative efficacy against devastating fungal pathogens. The strains AK-1 and AK-5 showed excellent inhibitory indexes against the majority of tested fungal strains. It was noted that both strains of Bacillus showed significant biocontrolling activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotricum falcatum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Phythopthora capsici and Rhizopus oryzae. The strain AK-1 was efficient to suppress Aspergillus species and Rhizopus oryzae while AK-5 expressed significant antagonistic activity against Fusarium, Botrytis, and Colletotricum species. On the basis of in vitro assay, it can be postulated that the Bacillus strains AK-1 and AK-5 can be used as a bio-protective agent against various plant diseases. In addition, their applications as natural pesticides could be very helpful to prevent the adverse effects of chemical pesticides.

Keywords: biological control, Bacillus spp, fungal pathogens, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
273 Bacteriocinogenic Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from Soil at Northern of Algeria

Authors: R. Gounina-Allouane, I. Moussaoui, N. Boukahel

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Bacillus antimicrobial metabolites, especially those of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are of great interest for research because of health risks generated by the excessive use of chemical additives as well as the propagation of resistant microbial strains, caused by the massive treatment with antibiotics. The objective of this study was the selection of Bt strains producing antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins), and the partial purification of the most powerful bacteriocins, then the determination of their spectra of antimicrobial action. A collection of twenty one Bt strains isolated from soil at Boumerdès (northern Algeria) was used for screening strains having an antagonistic activity against phylogenetically closed bacteria. Spectra of antagonistic activity of two selected strains was determined against other Bt strains, Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains of clinical origin and others from ATCC collection as well as yeasts isolated in human dermatology. Bacteriocins of these two strains were partially purified and their effect on the kinetics of growth of the most sensitive microbial strains was studied. The bacteriocinogenic strains were biochemically characterized and their sensitivity to antibiotics was studied.

Keywords: antimicrobial peptides, Bacillus thuringiensis, bacteriocin, partial purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
272 Production of Lignocellulosic Enzymes by Bacillus safensis LCX Using Agro-Food Wastes in Solid State Fermentation

Authors: Abeer A. Q. Ahmed, Tracey McKay

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The increasing demand for renewable fuels and chemicals is pressuring manufacturing industry toward finding more sustainable cost-effective resources. Lignocellulose, such as agro-food wastes, is a suitable equivalent to petroleum for fine chemicals and fuels production. The complex structure of lignocellulose, however, requires a variety of enzymes in order to degrade its components into their respective building blocks that can be used further for the production of various value added products. This study aimed to isolate bacterial strain with the ability to produce a variety of lignocellulosic enzymes. One bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis as Bacillus safensis LCX found to have CMCase, xylanase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and laccase activities. The enzymes production was induced by growing Bacillus safensis LCX in solid state fermentation using wheat straw, wheat bran, and corn stover. The activities of enzymes were determined by specific colorimetric assays. This study presents Bacillus safensis LCX as a promising source for lignocellulosic enzymes. These findings can extend the knowledge on agro-food wastes valorization strategies toward a sustainable production of fuels and chemicals.

Keywords: Bacillus safensis LCX, high valued chemicals, lignocellulosic enzymes, solid state fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
271 Powerful Bacteriocins Produced by Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Isolated from Soil at Northern of Algeria

Authors: R. Gounina-Allouane, I. Moussaoui, N. Boukahel

Abstract:

Bacillus antimicrobial metabolites, especially those of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are of great interest for research because of health risks generated by the excessive use of chemical additives as well as the propagation of resistant microbial strains, caused by the massive treatment with antibiotics. The objective of this study was the selection of Bt strains producing antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins), and the partial purification of the most powerful bacteriocins, then the determination of their spectra of antimicrobial action. A collection of twenty one Bt strains isolated from soil at Boumerdès (northern of Algeria) was used for screening strains having an antagonistic activity against phylogenetically closed bacteria. Spectra of antagonistic activity of two selected strains was determined against other Bt strains, Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains of clinical origin and others from ATCC collection as well as yeasts isolated in human dermatology. Bacteriocins of these two strains were partially purified and their effect on the kinetics of growth of the most sensitive microbial strains was studied. The bacteriocinogenic strains were biochemically characterized and their sensitivity to antibiotics was studied.

Keywords: antimicrobial peptides, Bacillus thuringiensis, bacteriocin, partial purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
270 Effect of Marine Stress Starvation Conditions on Survival and Retention of the Properties of Potential Probiotic Bacillus Strains

Authors: Abdelkarim Mahdhi, Fdhila Kais, Faouzi Lamari, Zeineb Hmila, Fathi Kamoun, Maria Ángeles Esteban, Amina Bakhrouf

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Pathogenic bacteria are considered to be responsible for several infectious diseases in aquaculture. To overcome diseases in fish culture, the use of antimicrobial drugs as strategy, have been adopted. The use of probiotic was a promising approach to avoid the risk associated to pathogenic bacteria. To find a biological control treatment against pathogens, we undertook this investigation to study the maintain of the probiotic properties of Bacillus sp., such as viability, adhesive ability to abiotic surface, antibacterial activity and pathogenicity/toxicity, under marine starvation conditions. Our data revealed that the tested strains maintained their capacity to inhibit pathogens in vivo and in vitro conditions. These strains maintain their adhesive capacity to polystyrene and do not demonstrate the pathogenic or toxic effect to the host. The obtained results give insight about the effect of starvation conditions on the physiological responses of these Bacillus strains that can be considered as a potential candidate’s probiotic.

Keywords: bacillus, probiotic, cell viability, starvation conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
269 Influence of Bio-Based Admixture on Compressive Strength of Concrete for Columns

Authors: K. Raza, S. Gul, M. Ali

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Concrete is a fundamental building material, extensively utilized by the construction industry. Problems related to the strength of concrete is an immense issue for the sustainability of concrete structures. Concrete mostly loses its strength due to the cracks produced in it by shrinkage or hydration process. This study aims to enhance the strength and service life of the concrete structures by incorporating bio-based admixture in the concrete. By the injection of bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete, it will self-heal the cracks by producing calcium carbonate. Minimization of cracks will compact the microstructure of the concrete, due to which strength will increase. For this study, Bacillus subtilis will be used as a bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete. Calcium lactate up to 1.5% will be used as the food source for the Bacillus subtilis in concrete. Two formulations containing 0 and 5% of Bacillus subtilis by weight of cement, will be used for the casting of concrete specimens. Direct mixing method will be adopted for the usage of bio-based admixture in concrete. Compressive strength test will be carried out after 28 days of curing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) will be performed for the examination of micro-structure of concrete. Results will be drawn by comparing the test results of 0 and 5% the formulations. It will be recommended to use to bio-based admixture (BBA) in concrete for columns because of the satisfactory increase in the compressive strength of concrete.

Keywords: bio-based admixture, Bacillus subtilis, calcium lactate, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
268 Biological Control of Sclerotium rolfsii, Damping-off Disease on Centella asiatica

Authors: K. Sunitra, T. Srisuda

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Centella asiatica, asiatic pennywort is a medicinal herb plant used widely which held in herbal health care group. The problem of asiatic pennywort production is the outbreak of Sclerotium rolfsii causing a damp-off disease which caused plant stem turn yellowish, finally they begin to die and result in extremely damaging to growers. Therefore, the studies were caried out to control damping off with Trichoderma sp., Bacillus subtilis and fermented banana as compared to the control to suppress with bi-culture under the laboratory condition. It was found that Trichoderma harzianum showed the highest percentage of inbihition, 69.44%. The pot experiments in greenhouse condition showed that chemical had minimum of damping-off (31.54%) and highest yield (1.20 tons/rai) and following by Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis treatment. Due to the chemical usage leaving toxic residues on plants and affect the human bodies. Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis should be considered as alternatives which have percent of damp-off disease and yields as follows: 45.50 and 43.75%, and 1.12 and 1.09 tons/rai, respectively. These two products are known that they have no health risk for growers and consumers in the future.

Keywords: Centella asiatica, Sclerotium rolfsii, Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus subtilis

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
267 Effect of Nitrogen Source on Production of CMCase by Bacillus megaterium 1295S Isolated from Sewage Treatment Plants

Authors: Adel A. S. Al-Gheethi, M. O. Abdul-Monem

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Cellulase-producing bacteria were isolated from wastewater and sludge, and identified as Bacillus megaterium 1295S, Sporosarcina pasteurii 586S, Bacillus subtilis 117S, Burkholderia cepacia 120S and Staphylococcus xylosus 222W. Among bacteria, B. megaterium 1295S was the best cellulase producer under the catabolic repression and was therefore selected to study the factors affecting cellulase production. The optimum conditions for cellulase production were observed in CMC-Yeast Extract (CYE) agar medium (pH 6.5) inoculated with 0.4 mL of bacterial culture and incubated at 45˚C for 72 h. Twenty amino acids were introduced into the production medium as nitrogen source to investigate the production of cellulase in presence of amino acids in comparison to peptone (as an organic source) and sodium nitrate (as an inorganic source). The results found that the maximum production of cellulase was recorded at 50 ppm when L-hydroxy proline, L-arginine, glycine, L-histidine, L-leucine, DL-isoleucine, DL-β-phenylalanine were used as sole nitrogen sources and at 100 ppm when DL-threonine, L-ornithine 12.29, L-proline were used as sole nitrogen sources. The highest biomass yield was found when glycine 5 ppm and DL-serine 100 ppm used as a nitrogen source.

Keywords: CMCase, Bacillus megaterium 1295S, factors, amino acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
266 Bioremediation of Phenanthrene by Monocultures and Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soil

Authors: A. Fazilah, I. Darah, I. Noraznawati

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Three different bacteria capable of degrading phenanthrene were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated site. In this study, the phenanthrene-degrading activity by defined monoculture was determined and mixed culture was identified as Acinetobacter sp. P3d, Bacillus sp. P4a and Pseudomonas sp. P6. All bacteria were able to grow in a minimal salt medium saturated with phenanthrene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Phenanthrene degradation efficiencies by different combinations (consortia) of these bacteria were investigated and their phenanthrene degradation was evaluated by gas chromatography. Among the monocultures, Pseudomonas sp. P6 exhibited 58.71% activity compared to Acinetobacter sp. P3d and Bacillus sp. P4a which were 56.97% and 53.05%, respectively after 28 days of cultivation. All consortia showed high phenanthrene elimination which were 95.64, 79.37, 87.19, 79.21% for Consortia A, B, C and D, respectively. The results indicate that all of the bacteria isolated may effectively degrade target chemical and have a promising application in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil purposes.

Keywords: phenanthrene, consortia, acinetobacter sp. P3d, bacillus sp. P4a, pseudomonas sp. P6

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
265 Protective Effect of hsa-miR-124 against to Bacillus anthracis Toxins on Human Macrophage Cells

Authors: Ali Oztuna, Meral Sarper, Deniz Torun, Fatma Bayrakdar, Selcuk Kilic, Mehmet Baysallar

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Bacillus anthracis is one of the biological agents most likely to be used in case of bioterrorist attack as well as being the cause of anthrax. The bacterium's major virulence factors are the anthrax toxins and an antiphagocytic polyglutamic capsule. TEM8 (ANTXR1) and CMG2 (ANTXR2) are ubiquitously expressed type I transmembrane proteins, and ANTXR2 is the major receptor for anthrax toxins. MicroRNAs are 21-24 bp small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by base pairing with the 3' UTR (untranslated regions) of their target mRNAs resulting in mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. MicroRNAs contribute to regulation of most biological processes and influence numerous pathological states like infectious disease. In this study, post-exposure (toxins) protective effect of the hsa-miR-124-3p against Bacillus anthracis was examined. In this context, i) THP-1 and U937 cells were differentiated to MΦ macrophage, ii) miRNA transfection efficiencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and qPCR, iii) protection against Bacillus anthracis toxins were investigated by XTT, cAMP ELISA and MEK2 cleavage assays. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) under Grant SBAG-218S467.

Keywords: ANTXR2, hsa-miR-124-3p, MΦ macrophage, THP-1, U937

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264 Impact of Bacillus subtilis Exotoxins on Fecundity, Sex Hormones and Release of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae in Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails

Authors: Alaa A. Youssef, Mohamed A. El-Emam, Momeana B. Mahmoud, Mona Ragheb

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Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a disease caused by a parasitic trematode worm called Schistosoma. Biological control of the snail intermediate hosts of Schistosoma is one of the promising methods for eliminating this disease in Egypt. The molluscicidal activity of exotoxins secreted from Bacillus subtilis bacteria was studied. The effect of these exotoxins was studied on the fecundity of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni; the fecundity includes the reproductive rate (R0) of B. alexandrina snails and levels of sex hormones (progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol). Moreover, the cercarial production of S. mansoni was determined. The results showed a significant reduction in the egg-laying capacity of the treated snails after exposure to sublethal concentrations ( LC10 and LC25) of B. Subtilis exotoxins; this reduction reached 70% at LC25. Moreover, B. Subtilis exotoxins' significantly suppressed the cercarial production of B. alexandrina snails. It is concluded that the exotoxins of Bacillus subtilis bacteria play an important role in the interference of the Schistosomiasis transmission, hence should be applied in the strategy of schistosomiasis control.

Keywords: schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, Bacillus subtilis bacteria, fecundity, sex hormones

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263 Evaluation of Paper Effluent with Two Bacterial Strain and Their Consortia

Authors: Priya Tomar, Pallavi Mittal

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As industrialization is inevitable and progress with rapid acceleration, the need for innovative ways to get rid of waste has increased. Recent advancement in bioresource technology paves novel ideas for recycling of factory waste that has been polluting the agro-industry, soil and water bodies. Paper industries in India are in a considerable number, where molasses and impure alcohol are still being used as raw materials for manufacturing of paper. Paper mills based on nonconventional agro residues are being encouraged due to increased demand of paper and acute shortage of forest-based raw materials. The colouring body present in the wastewater from pulp and paper mill is organic in nature and is comprised of wood extractives, tannin, resins, synthetic dyes, lignin and its degradation products formed by the action of chlorine on lignin which imparts an offensive colour to the water. These mills use different chemical process for paper manufacturing due to which lignified chemicals are released into the environment. Therefore, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the emanating stream is quite high. This paper presents some new techniques that were developed for the efficiency of bioremediation on paper industry. A short introduction to paper industry and a variety of presently available methods of bioremediation on paper industry and different strategies are also discussed here. For solving the above problem, two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis) and their consortia (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis) were utilized for the pulp and paper mill effluent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis named as T–1, T–2, T–3, T–4, T–5, T–6, for the decolourisation of paper industry effluent. The results indicated that a maximum colour reduction is (60.5%) achieved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and COD reduction is (88.8%) achieved by Bacillus subtilis, maximum pH changes is (4.23) achieved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, TSS reduction is (2.09 %) achieved by Bacillus subtilis, and TDS reduction is (0.95 %) achieved by Bacillus subtilis. When the wastewater was supplemented with carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (yeast extract) source and data revealed the efficiency of Bacillus subtilis, having more with glucose than Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Keywords: bioremediation, paper and pulp mill effluent, treated effluent, lignin

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262 The Genus Bacillus, Effect on Commercial Crops of Colombia

Authors: L. C. Sánchez, L. C. Corrales, A. G. Lancheros, E. Castañeda, Y. Ariza, L. S. Fuentes, L. Sierra, J. L. Cuervo

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The importance of environment friendly alternatives in agricultural processes is the reason why the research group Ceparium, the Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca University, Colombia, investigated the genus Bacillus and its applicability for improving crops of economic importance in Colombia. In this investigation, we presented a study in which the genus Bacillus plays a leading role as beneficial microorganism. The objective was to identify the biochemical potential of three indigenous species of Bacillus, which were able to carry out actions for biological control against pathogens and pests or promoted growth to improve productivity of crops in Colombia. The procedures were performed in three phases: first, the production of biomass of an indigenous strain and a reference strain starting from culture media for production of spores and toxins were made. Spore count was done in a Neubauer chamber, concentrations of spores of Bacillus sphaericus were prepared and a bioassay was done at the Laboratory of Entomology at the University Jorge Tadeo Lozano of Plutella xylostella larvae, insect pest of crucifers in several Colombian regions. The second phase included the extraction in the liquid state fermentation, a secondary metabolite that has antibiosis action against fungi, call iturin B, and was obtained from strains of Bacillus subtilis. The molecule was identified using High Resolution Chromatography (HPLC) and its biocontrol effect on Fusarium sp fungus causes vascular wilt in economically important plant varieties, was confirmed using testing of antagonism in Petri dish. In the third phase, an initial procedure in that let recover and identify microorganisms of the genus Bacillus from the rhizosphere in two aromatic herbs, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris L. was used. Subsequently, testing of antagonism against Fusarium sp were made and an assay was done under greenhouse conditions to observe biocontrol and growth promoting action by comparing growth in length and dry weight. In the first experiment, native Bacillus sphaericus was lethal to 92% Plutella xylostella larvae in 10 DDA. In the second experiment, iturin B was identified and biological control of Fusarium sp was demonstrated. In the third study, all strains demonstrated biological control and the B14 strain identified as Bacillus megaterium increased root length and productivity of the two plants in terms of weight. It was concluded that the native microorganisms of the genus Bacillus has a great biochemical potential that provides a beneficial interactions with plants, improve their growth and development and therefore a greater impact on production.

Keywords: genus bacillus, biological control, PGPRs, biochemical potential

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261 Cellolytic Activity of Bacteria of the Bacillus Genus Isolated from the Soil of Zailiskiy Alatau Slopes

Authors: I. Savitskaya, A. Kistaubayeva, A. Zhubanova, I. Blavachinskaiya, D. Ibrayeva, M. Abdulzhanova, A. Otarbay, A.Isabekova

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This study was conducted for the investigation of number of cellulolytic bacteria and their ability in decomposition. Seven samples surface soil were collected on cellulose Zailiskii Alatau slopes. Cellulolitic activity of new strains of Bacillus, isolated from soil is determined. Isolated cellulose degrading bacteria were screened for determination of the highest cellulose activity by quantitative assay using Congo red, gravimetric assay and colorimetric DNS method trough of the determination of the parameters of sugar reduction. Strains are assigned to: B.subtilis, B.licheniformis, B. cereus and, В. megaterium. Bacillus strains consisting of several different types of cellulases have broad substrate specificity of cellulase complexes formed by them. Cellulolitic bacteria were recorded to have highest cellulase activity and selected for optimization of cellulase enzyme production.

Keywords: cellulose-degrading bacteria, cellulase complex, foothills soil, screening

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260 Improving the Quality and Nutrient Content of Palm Kernel Cake through Fermentation with Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Mirnawati, Gita Ciptaan, Ferawati

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Background and Objective: Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a waste of the palm oil industry. Indonesia, as the largest palm oil producer in the world, produced 45-46% palm kernel cake. Palm kernel cake can potentially be used as animal ration but its utilization for poultry is limited. Thus, fermentation process was done in order to increase the utilization PKC in poultry ration. An experiment was conducted to study the effect between Inoculum Doses with Bacillus subtilis and fermentation time to improve the quality and nutrient content of fermented Palm Kernel Cake. Material and Methods: 1) Palm kernel cake derived from Palm Kernel Processing Manufacture of Andalas Agro Industry in Pasaman, West Sumatra. 2) Bacillus subtilis obtained from The Research Center of Applied Chemistry LIPI, Bogor. 3) Preparations nutrient agar medium (NA) produced by Difoo - Becton Dickinson. 4) Rice bran 5) Aquades and mineral standard. The experiment used completely randomize design (CRD) with 3 x 3 factorial and 3 replications. The first factors were three doses of inoculum Bacillus subtilis: (3%), (5%), and (7%). The second factor was fermentation time: (1) 2 day, (2) 4 day, and (3) 6 day. The parameters were crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, and crude fiber digestibility of fermented palm kernel cake (FPKC). Results: The result of the study showed that there was significant interaction (P<0.01) between factor A and factor B and each factor A and B also showed significant effect (P<0.01) on crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen retention, and crude fiber digestibility. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that fermented PKC with 7% doses of Bacillus subtilis and 6 days fermentation time provides the best result as seen from 24.65% crude protein, 17.35% crude fiber, 68.47% nitrogen retention, 53.25% crude fiber digestibility of fermented palm kernel cake (FPKC).

Keywords: fermentation, Bacillus Subtilis, inoculum, palm kernel cake, quality, nutrient

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259 Laboratory Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis Bioactivity on Musca domestica (Linn) (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae from Poultry Farms in South Western Nigeria

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya

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Muscid flies are known to be vectors of disease agents and species that annoy humans and domesticated animals. An example of these flies is Musca domestica (house fly) whose adult and immature stages occur in a variety of filthy organic substances including household garbage and animal manures. They contribute to microbial contamination of foods. It is therefore imperative to control these flies as a result of their role in Public health. The second and third instars of Musca domestica (Linn) were infected with varying cell loads of Bacillus subtilis in vitro for a period of 48 hours to evaluate its larvicidal activities. Mortality of the larvae increased with incubation period after treatment with the varying cell loads. Investigation revealed that the second instars larvae were more susceptible to treatment than the third instars treatments. Values obtained from the third instar group were significantly different (P0.05) from those obtained from the second instars group in all the treatments. Lethal concentration (LC50) at 24 hours for 2nd instars was 2.35 while LC50 at 48 hours was 4.31.This study revealed that Bacillus subtilis possess good larvicidal potential for use in the control of Musca domestica in poultry farms.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, Musca domestica, larvicidal activities, poultry farms

Procedia PDF Downloads 352