Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Gerard Moras Feliu

36 Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Movement Variability Performing a Resistance Exercise with Different Ballasts and Rhythms

Authors: Sílvia tuyà Viñas, Bruno Fernández-Valdés, Carla Pérez-Chirinos, Monica Morral-Yepes, Lucas del Campo Montoliu, Gerard Moras Feliu

Abstract:

Some researchers stated that whole body vibration (WBV) generates postural destabilization, although there is no extensive research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze movement variability when performing a half-squat with a different type of ballasts and rhythms with (V) and without (NV) WBV in male athletes using entropy. Twelve experienced in strength training males (age: 21.24  2.35 years, height: 176.83  5.80 cm, body mass: 70.63  8.58 kg) performed a half-squat with weighted vest (WV), dumbbells (D), and a bar with the weights suspended with elastic bands (B), in V and NV at 40 bpm and 60 bpm. Subjects performed one set of twelve repetitions of each situation, composed by the combination of the three factors. The movement variability was analyzed by calculating the Sample Entropy (SampEn) of the total acceleration signal recorded at the waist. In V, significant differences were found between D and WV (p<0.001; ES: 2.87 at 40 bpm; p<0.001; ES: 3.17 at 60 bpm) and between the B and WV at both rhythms (p<0.001; ES: 3.12 at 40 bpm; p<0.001; ES: 2.93 at 60 bpm) and a higher SampEn was obtained at 40 bpm with all ballasts (p<0.001; ES of WV: 1.22; ES of D: 4.49; ES of B: 4.03). No significant differences were found in NV. WBV is a disturbing and destabilizing stimulus. Strength and conditioning coaches should choose the combination of ballast and rhythm of execution according to the level and objectives of each athlete.

Keywords: accelerometry, destabilization, entropy, movement variability, resistance training

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
35 Validity of a Timing System in the Alpine Ski Field: A Magnet-Based Timing System Using the Magnetometer Built into an IMU

Authors: Carla Pérez-Chirinos Buxadé, Bruno Fernández-Valdés, Mónica Morral-Yepes, Sílvia Tuyà Viñas, Josep Maria Padullés Riu, Gerard Moras Feliu

Abstract:

There is a long way to explore all the possible applications inertial measurement units (IMUs) have in the sport field. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a new application on the use of these wearable sensors. Specifically, it was to evaluate a magnet-based timing system (M-BTS) for timing gate-to-gate in an alpine ski slalom using the magnetometer embedded in an IMU. This was a validation study. The criterion validity of time measured by the M-BTS was assessed using the 95% error-range against actual time obtained from photocells. The experiment was carried out with first-and second-year junior skiers performing a ski slalom on a ski training slope. Eight alpine skiers (17.4 ± 0.8 years, 176.4 ± 4.9 cm, 67.7 ± 2.0 kg, 128.8 ± 26.6 slalom FIS-Points) participated in the study. An IMU device was attached to the skier’s lower back. Skiers performed a 40-gate slalom from which four gates were assessed. The M-BTS consisted of placing four bar magnets buried into the snow surface, on the inner side of each gate’s turning pole; the magnetometer built into the IMU detected the peak-shaped magnetic field when passing near the magnets at a certain speed. Four magnetic peaks were detected. The time compressed between peaks was calculated. Three inter-gate times were obtained for each system: photocells and M-BTS. The total time was defined as the time sum of the inter-gate times. The 95% error intervals for the total time was 0.050 s for the ski slalom. The M-BTS is valid for timing gate-to-gate in an alpine ski slalom. Inter-gate times can provide additional data for analyzing skier’s performance, such as asymmetries between left and right foot.

Keywords: gate crossing time, inertial measurement unit, timing system, wearable sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
34 Thermal Modelling and Experimental Comparison for a Moving Pantograph Strip

Authors: Nicolas Delcey, Philippe Baucour, Didier Chamagne, Geneviève Wimmer, Auditeau Gérard, Bausseron Thomas, Bouger Odile, Blanvillain Gérard

Abstract:

This paper proposes a thermal study of the catenary/pantograph interface for a train in motion. A 2.5D complex model of the pantograph strip has been defined and created by a coupling between a 1D and a 2D model. Experimental and simulation results are presented and with a comparison allow validating the 2.5D model. Some physical phenomena are described and presented with the help of the model such as the stagger motion thermal effect, particular heats and the effect of the material characteristics. Finally it is possible to predict the critical thermal configuration during a train trip.

Keywords: electro-thermal studies, mathematical optimizations, multi-physical approach, numerical model, pantograph strip wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
33 Phonological and Syntactic Evidence from Arabic in Favor of Biolinguistics

Authors: Marwan Jarrah

Abstract:

This research paper provides two pieces of phonological and syntactic evidence from Arabic for biolinguistics perspective of language processing. The first piece of evidence concerns the instances where a singular noun is converted to a plural noun in Arabic. Based on the findings of several research papers, this study shows that a singular word does not lose any of its moras when it is pluralized either regularly or irregularly. This mora conservation principle complies with the general physical law of the conservation of mass which states that mass is neither created nor destroyed but changed from one form into another. The second piece of evidence concerns the observation that when the object in some Arabic dialects including Jordanian Arabic and Najdi Arabic is a topic and positioned in situ (i.e. after the verb), the verb agrees with it, something that generates an agreeing inflection marker of the verb that agrees in Number, Person, and Gender with the in-situ topicalized object. This interaction between the verb and the object in such cases is invoked because of the extra feature the object bears, i.e. TOPIC feature. We suggest that such an interaction complies with the general natural law that elements become active when they, e.g., get an additional electron, when the mass number is not equal to the atomic number.

Keywords: biolinguistics, Arabic, physics, interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
32 Strategies and Perceptions of Small Olive Oil Farmers of By-Product Valorization

Authors: Judit Manuel-i-Martin, Mechthild Donner, Ivana Radic, Yamna Erraach, Fatima Elhadad, Taoufik Yatribi, Feliu Lopez-i-Gelats

Abstract:

This paper investigates how small olive farmers and olive oil producers implement circular economy practices to manage olive related waste and how such strategies are perceived by the farmers themselves. While there is a lot of data and research about possible uses of olive oil by-products, the perceptions and related practices of olive oil farmers is a much less investigated domain. A total of 60 semi-structured interviews were conducted in one of the most relevant olive oil producing regions in the Iberian Peninsula -the region of Terres de Ponent (Catalonia – Spain) - to examine the different by-product valorization strategies the olive oil farms develop. We test the hypothesis that the strategies conducted depend on the nature and amount of resources available by the farm. The results obtained point that access to milling infrastructure is a determining factor. We also found that olive tree pruning biomass and olive pomace are the most common by-products valorized by farmers, the first one on-farm and the latter in mills. Results indicate that high value uses for olive oil by-products are rarely implemented by farmers. We conclude that olive farmers tend to perceive by-product valorization strategies as waste management practices rather than as additional sources of value for their farm.

Keywords: circular economy, discourses, Mediterranean region, olive oil by-products, farmers’ strategies, olive pomace

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
31 A Remote Sensing Approach to Calculate Population Using Roads Network Data in Lebanon

Authors: Kamel Allaw, Jocelyne Adjizian Gerard, Makram Chehayeb, Nada Badaro Saliba

Abstract:

In developing countries, such as Lebanon, the demographic data are hardly available due to the absence of the mechanization of population system. The aim of this study is to evaluate, using only remote sensing data, the correlations between the number of population and the characteristics of roads network (length of primary roads, length of secondary roads, total length of roads, density and percentage of roads and the number of intersections). In order to find the influence of the different factors on the demographic data, we studied the degree of correlation between each factor and the number of population. The results of this study have shown a strong correlation between the number of population and the density of roads and the number of intersections.

Keywords: population, road network, statistical correlations, remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
30 Gall Bladder Polyp Identified as Solitary RCC Metastasis 4 Years after Nephrectomy: An Unusual Case Report

Authors: Gerard Bray, Arya Bahadori, Sachinka Ranasinghe

Abstract:

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the top 10 most common cancers worldwide, where metastatic disease carries a poor prognosis. Herein, we present a 74-year-old male presenting with asymptomatic solitary metachronous metastasis to the gall bladder 4 years following nephrectomy for clear cell RCC. Solitary RCC metastasis to the gall bladder following nephrectomy is rarely reported in the literature and brings with it a clinical conundrum of whether surgical resection or systemic therapy should be utilized. In this case, surgical excision with cholecystectomy was employed without systemic therapy. We, therefore, contribute a rare and interesting case that highlights that metastasectomy of a solitary metastasis can improve survival according to current literature.

Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, gall bladder metastasis, solitary metastasectomy, metachronous

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
29 Performance and Lifetime of Tandem Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Guillaume Schuchardt, Solenn Berson, Gerard Perrier

Abstract:

Multi-junction solar cell configurations, where two sub-cells with complementary absorption are stacked and connected in series, offer an exciting approach to tackle the single junction limitations of organic solar cells and improve their power conversion efficiency. However, the augmentation of the number of layers has, as a consequence, to increase the risk of reducing the lifetime of the cell due to the ageing phenomena present at the interfaces. In this work, we study the intrinsic degradation mechanisms, under continuous illumination AM1.5G, inert atmosphere and room temperature, in single and tandem organic solar cells using Impedance Spectroscopy, IV Curves, External Quantum Efficiency, Steady-State Photocarrier Grating, Scanning Kelvin Probe and UV-Visible light.

Keywords: single and tandem organic solar cells, intrinsic degradation mechanisms, characterization: SKP, EQE, SSPG, UV-Visible, Impedance Spectroscopy, optical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
28 A Decision Tree Approach to Estimate Permanent Residents Using Remote Sensing Data in Lebanese Municipalities

Authors: K. Allaw, J. Adjizian Gerard, M. Chehayeb, A. Raad, W. Fahs, A. Badran, A. Fakherdin, H. Madi, N. Badaro Saliba

Abstract:

Population estimation using Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing faces many obstacles such as the determination of permanent residents. A permanent resident is an individual who stays and works during all four seasons in his village. So, all those who move towards other cities or villages are excluded from this category. The aim of this study is to identify the factors affecting the percentage of permanent residents in a village and to determine the attributed weight to each factor. To do so, six factors have been chosen (slope, precipitation, temperature, number of services, time to Central Business District (CBD) and the proximity to conflict zones) and each one of those factors has been evaluated using one of the following data: the contour lines map of 50 m, the precipitation map, four temperature maps and data collected through surveys. The weighting procedure has been done using decision tree method. As a result of this procedure, temperature (50.8%) and percentage of precipitation (46.5%) are the most influencing factors.

Keywords: remote sensing, GIS, permanent residence, decision tree, Lebanon

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
27 Maintaining a Motivated Workforce in the Malaysian Armed Forces

Authors: Gerard Lawrence

Abstract:

This paper gives an in-depth discussion on Motivation in the Malaysian Armed Forces; highlighting it as a powerful and important tool upon which the well-being of an entire (or any) organization rests. It starts with the literal definition of the word and then the psychological aspects of it detailing the intricate mechanics and fundamentals in order to accurately and systematically harness it to create a motivated workforce. It then describes the types of motivation; positive and negative, its many facets and manifestation, clearly identifying each one point by point as well as drawing examples. The paper also deals with certain controversial practices like favoritism; nepotism and provides examples of military motivation both in historic and contemporary context. It strips the current system (and its flaws) to build, nurture and maintain motivation in the future. It shows how “past practice” may not necessarily be “best practice”, by providing the building blocks necessary to move forward and cautions on the inter-relation and differences between morale and motivation. As a conclusion the paper coins a theory of working in shifts for the military and urges careful research and planning as to IF this can raise if not maintain motivation in the new era.

Keywords: armed forces, Malaysia, motivation, military psychology

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
26 Optimal Tuning of RST Controller Using PSO Optimization for Synchronous Generator Based Wind Turbine under Three-Phase Voltage Dips

Authors: K. Tahir, C. Belfedal, T. Allaoui, C. Gerard, M. Doumi

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented an optimized RST controller using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) meta-heuristic technique of the active and reactive power regulation of a grid connected wind turbine based on a wound field synchronous generator. This regulation is achieved below the synchronous speed, by means of a maximum power point tracking algorithm. The control of our system is tested under typical wind variations and parameters variation, fault grid condition by simulation. Some results are presented and discussed to prove simplicity and efficiency of the WRSG control for WECS. On the other hand, according to simulation results, variable speed driven WRSG is not significantly impacted in fault conditions.

Keywords: wind energy, particle swarm optimization, wound rotor synchronous generator, power control, RST controller, maximum power point tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
25 Techniques to Characterize Subpopulations among Hearing Impaired Patients and Its Impact for Hearing Aid Fitting

Authors: Vijaya K. Narne, Gerard Loquet, Tobias Piechowiak, Dorte Hammershoi, Jesper H. Schmidt

Abstract:

BEAR, which stands for better hearing rehabilitation is a large-scale project in Denmark designed and executed by three national universities, three hospitals, and the hearing aid industry with the aim to improve hearing aid fitting. A total of 1963 hearing impaired people were included and were segmented into subgroups based on hearing-loss, demographics, audiological and questionnaires data (i.e., the speech, spatial and qualities of hearing scale [SSQ-12] and the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing-Aids [IOI-HA]). With the aim to provide a better hearing-aid fit to individual patients, we applied modern machine learning techniques with traditional audiograms rule-based systems. Results show that age, speech discrimination scores, and audiogram configurations were evolved as important parameters in characterizing sub-population from the data-set. The attempt to characterize sub-population reveal a clearer picture about the individual hearing difficulties encountered and the benefits derived from more individualized hearing aids.

Keywords: hearing loss, audiological data, machine learning, hearing aids

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
24 Contribution of a Higher Education Institute towards Built Environment Sustainability

Authors: Tayyab Ahmad, Gerard Healey

Abstract:

The potential role of higher education institutes in sustainable development cannot be undermined. In this regard, it is important to investigate the established concept of sustainability in such institutes to explore the room for further improvement. In this paper, a case study of the University of Melbourne is conducted, and the institute’s commitments towards sustainability are examined by a detailed qualitative review of its policy and design standard documents. These documents are reviewed as through these; the institute portrays its vision of building environment facilities, which it aspires to procure and use. From detailed review, it is realized that these documents are updated at different times, creating the potential for mismatch between them. The occurrence of different goals and objectives in different documents is highlighted, and the interrelationships between different goals and operational objectives are explored. The role of the university aspired goals/objectives in terms of built environment sustainability is discussed, and the gaps in the articulation of goals and operational objectives are highlighted. Recommendations are provided for enhancing the built environment sustainability at the University of Melbourne.

Keywords: university, design standards, policy, sustainability, built environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
23 Knowledge Reactor: A Contextual Computing Work in Progress for Eldercare

Authors: Scott N. Gerard, Aliza Heching, Susann M. Keohane, Samuel S. Adams

Abstract:

The world-wide population of people over 60 years of age is growing rapidly. The explosion is placing increasingly onerous demands on individual families, multiple industries and entire countries. Current, human-intensive approaches to eldercare are not sustainable, but IoT and AI technologies can help. The Knowledge Reactor (KR) is a contextual, data fusion engine built to address this and other similar problems. It fuses and centralizes IoT and System of Record/Engagement data into a reactive knowledge graph. Cognitive applications and services are constructed with its multiagent architecture. The KR can scale-up and scaledown, because it exploits container-based, horizontally scalable services for graph store (JanusGraph) and pub-sub (Kafka) technologies. While the KR can be applied to many domains that require IoT and AI technologies, this paper describes how the KR specifically supports the challenging domain of cognitive eldercare. Rule- and machine learning-based analytics infer activities of daily living from IoT sensor readings. KR scalability, adaptability, flexibility and usability are demonstrated.

Keywords: ambient sensing, AI, artificial intelligence, eldercare, IoT, internet of things, knowledge graph

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
22 Logistic Model Tree and Expectation-Maximization for Pollen Recognition and Grouping

Authors: Endrick Barnacin, Jean-Luc Henry, Jack Molinié, Jimmy Nagau, Hélène Delatte, Gérard Lebreton

Abstract:

Palynology is a field of interest for many disciplines. It has multiple applications such as chronological dating, climatology, allergy treatment, and even honey characterization. Unfortunately, the analysis of a pollen slide is a complicated and time-consuming task that requires the intervention of experts in the field, which is becoming increasingly rare due to economic and social conditions. So, the automation of this task is a necessity. Pollen slides analysis is mainly a visual process as it is carried out with the naked eye. That is the reason why a primary method to automate palynology is the use of digital image processing. This method presents the lowest cost and has relatively good accuracy in pollen retrieval. In this work, we propose a system combining recognition and grouping of pollen. It consists of using a Logistic Model Tree to classify pollen already known by the proposed system while detecting any unknown species. Then, the unknown pollen species are divided using a cluster-based approach. Success rates for the recognition of known species have been achieved, and automated clustering seems to be a promising approach.

Keywords: pollen recognition, logistic model tree, expectation-maximization, local binary pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
21 Gawa Gawa Lang ‘Yan: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Mental Health between Generations X and Z in Metro Manila, Philippines

Authors: Pierre Angelo Alino, Rafael Alejandro Ang, Maria Carmela Espanol, Dominic Gerard Ferreol, Jendrietch Adrian Lopez

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the differences in perception between Generation X and Generation Z towards mental health and mental health illnesses. Through this study, the researchers seek to identify and explore the differences that exist in the generational perception and determine the possible factors that influence the difference in perception. In order to achieve this, we conducted two focus group discussions (FGD), one composed of Generation X and the other composed of Generation Z. Participants for both focus group discussions were recruited through purposive sampling and online recruitment methods. In these discussions, they were asked questions relating to their personal history, experiences with mental health, and related illnesses, as well as their opinions regarding the subject matter. Afterwhich, we analyzed our data through a thematic analysis. Our study’s findings indicate notable differences in the perception of mental health as well as mental illness between the members of Generations X and Z. Additionally, factors such as culture, personal history, and intimate relationships influence the perceptions of mental health between generation groups.

Keywords: generational difference, mental health, mental health illness, perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
20 The Effect of Cognitively-Induced Self-Construal and Direct Behavioral Mimicry on Prosocial Behavior

Authors: Czar Matthew Gerard Dayday, Danielle Marie Estrera, Philippe Jefferson Galban, Gabrielle Marie Heredia

Abstract:

The study aimed to examine the effects of self-construal and direct mimicry on prosocial behavior. The study made use of a 2 (Self-construal: independent or interdependent) x 2 (Mimicry: mimicry or non-mimicry) between subjects factorial design where effects of self-construal was cognitively-induced through a story with varying pronouns (We, Us, Ourselves vs. Me, I, Myself), and prosocial behavior was measured with the amount of money donated to a fabricated advocacy. The research was conducted with a convenience sampling comprised of 88 undergraduate students (58 Females, 33 Males) aged 16 to 26 years olds from the University of the Philippines, Diliman. Results from the experiment show that both factors do not have significant main effects on prosocial behavior. Additionally, their interaction also does not have a significant effect to prosocial behavior with No Mimicry x Independent ranking highest in amount of money donated and Mimicry x Interdependent ranking lowest. These results can be attributed to multiple factors, which include the collectivist orientation and sense of kapwa of Filipinos, a role reversal in the methodology and the lack of Chameleon Effect, and a weak priming of self-construal with respect to self-relatedness.

Keywords: behavior, mimicry, prosocial, self-construal

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
19 Investigation into Micro-Grids with Renewable Energy Sources for Use as High Reliability Electrical Power Supply in a Nuclear Facility

Authors: Gerard R. Lekhema, Willie A Cronje, Ian Korir

Abstract:

The objective of this research work is to investigate the use of a micro-grid system to improve the reliability and availability of emergency electrical power in a nuclear facility. The nuclear facility is a safety-critical application that requires reliable electrical power for safe startup, operation and normal or emergency shutdown conditions. The majority of the nuclear facilities around the world utilize diesel generators as emergency power supply during loss of offsite power events. This study proposes the micro-grid system with distributed energy sources and energy storage systems for use as emergency power supply. The systems analyzed include renewable energy sources, decay heat recovery system and large scale energy storage system. The configuration of the micro-grid system is realized with guidelines of nuclear safety standards and requirements. The investigation results presented include performance analysis of the micro-grid system in terms of reliability and availability.

Keywords: emergency power supply, micro-grid, nuclear facility, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
18 Investigation of Alfa Fibers Reinforced Epoxy-Amine Composites Properties

Authors: Amar Boukerrou, Ouerdia Belhadj, Dalila Hammiche, Jean Francois Gerard, Jannick Rumeau

Abstract:

The main goal of this study is the investigation of alfa fiber content, treated with alkali treatment, on the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-amine matrix-based composites. The fibers were treated with 5% of sodium hydroxide solution and varied between 10% to 30% weight fractions. The tensile, flexural, and hardness tests are carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of composites. The results show those composites’ mechanical properties are higher than the neat epoxy-amine. It was noticed that the alkali treatment is more effective in the case of the tensile and flexural modulus than the tensile and flexural strength. The decline of both the tensile and flexural behavior of all composites with the increasing of the filler content was due probably to the random dispersion of the fibers in the epoxy resin The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was employed to analyze the chemical structure of epoxy resin before and after curing with amine hardener. FTIR and DSC analysis confirmed that epoxy resin was completely cured with amine hardener at room temperature. SEM analysis has highlighted the microstructure of epoxy matrix and its composites.

Keywords: alfa fiber, epoxy resin, alkali treatment, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
17 Offline Signature Verification Using Minutiae and Curvature Orientation

Authors: Khaled Nagaty, Heba Nagaty, Gerard McKee

Abstract:

A signature is a behavioral biometric that is used for authenticating users in most financial and legal transactions. Signatures can be easily forged by skilled forgers. Therefore, it is essential to verify whether a signature is genuine or forged. The aim of any signature verification algorithm is to accommodate the differences between signatures of the same person and increase the ability to discriminate between signatures of different persons. This work presented in this paper proposes an automatic signature verification system to indicate whether a signature is genuine or not. The system comprises four phases: (1) The pre-processing phase in which image scaling, binarization, image rotation, dilation, thinning, and connecting ridge breaks are applied. (2) The feature extraction phase in which global and local features are extracted. The local features are minutiae points, curvature orientation, and curve plateau. The global features are signature area, signature aspect ratio, and Hu moments. (3) The post-processing phase, in which false minutiae are removed. (4) The classification phase in which features are enhanced before feeding it into the classifier. k-nearest neighbors and support vector machines are used. The classifier was trained on a benchmark dataset to compare the performance of the proposed offline signature verification system against the state-of-the-art. The accuracy of the proposed system is 92.3%.

Keywords: signature, ridge breaks, minutiae, orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
16 Assessment of Runway Micro Texture Using Surface Laser Scanners: An Explorative Study

Authors: Gerard Van Es

Abstract:

In this study, the use of a high resolution surface laser scanner to assess the micro texture of runway surfaces was investigated experimentally. Micro texture is one of the important surface components that helps to provide high braking friction between aircraft tires and a wet runway surface. Algorithms to derive different parameters that characterise micro texture was developed. Surface scans with a high resolution laser scanner were conducted on 40 different runway (like) surfaces. For each surface micro texture parameters were calculated from the laser scan data. These results were correlated with results obtained from a British pendulum tester that was used on the same surface. Results obtained with the British pendulum tester are generally considered to be indicative for the micro texture related friction characteristics. The results show that a meaningful correlation can be found between different parameters that characterise micro texture obtained with the laser scanner and the British pendulum tester results. Surface laser scanners are easier to operate and give more consistent results than a British pendulum tester. Therefore for airport operators surface laser scanners can be a useful tool to determine if their runway becomes slippery when wet due to a smooth micro texture.

Keywords: runway friction, micro texture, aircraft braking performance, slippery runways

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
15 Independence of the Judiciary in South Africa: An Assessment After Twenty Years of Democracy

Authors: Serges Djoyou Kamga, Gerard Emmanuel Kamdem Kamga

Abstract:

Any serious constitutionalism entails a system of government characterised by the separation of powers between the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary. The latter is generally in charge of upholding the rule of law and the respect for human rights which are vital for the functioning of any democracy. Therefore, for the judiciary to play its role as a watchdog, it should be independent from other branches of government. The aim of this paper is to examine the independence of the judiciary in South Africa after 20 of democracy. Defining judicial independence as the courts’ ability ‘to decide cases on the basis of established law and the merits of the case, without interference from other political or governmental agents’, the paper examines the extent to which the South African judiciary is independent after twenty years of democracy. As part of assessing the independence of the judiciary, the paper begins by looking at the situation during apartheid, then proceeds with an examination of the post-apartheid legal order. It also examines the institutional independence of the judiciary by looking into its day to day activities which revolve around its self-governance, or administrative and financial independence. In addition, the paper assesses the judges’ individual independence by examining whether judicial appointment, security of tenure, judges’ remuneration and disciplinary actions and the removal of judges from office do not contain loopholes that can hinder judicial independence. Ultimately, the chapter argues that although the South African model of judicial independence is yet to be perfect, it is a good practice that can be emulated by other African countries.

Keywords: judical independence, South Africa, democracy, separation of powers

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
14 Foreign Women Affecting the Social Life of the Ottoman Empire at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century: The Case of Lady Alice Lowther (1873-1939)

Authors: Meliha Nur Cercinli

Abstract:

In the last period of the Ottoman Empire, foreign officers played important role in the political area. Behind their political activities, their wives had a considerable influence on Ottoman social life. Despite the difficult conditions, these women involved in educating girls, encouraging Ottoman women to take part in the production area. For this purpose, they opened many schools and workplaces in various regions of the capital-Istanbul. One of these women was Lady Alice Lowther, who was known as the wife of British ambassador Gerard Agustus Lowther. She arranged various organizations in order to create necessary resources to help families of martyrs. Also, she chaired the Committee for Aid to Ottoman Military Families (Asker Ailelerine Yardım Komitesi), made an effort to establish the Society for Protection Animals in Istanbul (Istanbul Himaye-i Hayvanat Cemiyeti) with the supports of The Royal Society For Prevention Cruelty For Animals. Apart from these, she was also a good observer and writer as a traveller. She wrote and published her memories with the name of Down The Old Road (1921), When It Was June (1923) Land Of Gold Mohur (1932), Moments In Portugal Or Land Of The Laurel (1939). This paper aims to analyze Lady Alice Lowther’s activities in Istanbul based on Ottoman Archive documents. In addition, her books will also be examined as they will present a different perspective regarding her experiences.

Keywords: Lady Lowther, Ottoman Empire, women history, social life

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
13 Manipulative Figurative Linguistic Violence of Contemporary National Anthems: A Socio-Cognitive Critical Discourse Analysis

Authors: Samson Olasunkanmi Oluga, Teh Chee Send, Gerard Sagaya Raj Rajo

Abstract:

It is ironical that the national anthems of many nations that are in the forefront of the global condemnation of violence of all forms have portions or expressions that propagate various forms of linguistic violence which advocate attacking opponents, going to war, shedding blood and sacrificing lives. These diametrically contradict contemporary yearnings for global tranquility and the ideals of the United Nations established for the maintenance of international peace and harmony aimed at making the world a safe haven for all and sundry. The linguistic violence of many national anthems is manipulatively constructed /presented via the instrumentality of the figurative or rhetorical language. This helps to linguistically embellish the violent ideas communicated and makes them sound somehow better or logical to the target audience with the intention of cognitively manipulating them to accept or rationalize such violent ideas. This paper, therefore, presents the outcome of a linguistic exploration/examination of national anthems which reveals elements or cases manipulative figurative linguistic violence in the anthems of twenty-one (21) nations. The paper details a Socio-Cognitive Critical Discourse Analysis of the manipulative figures of comparison, contrast, indirectness, association and sound used to convey the linguistic violence of the identified national anthems. Finally, the paper advocates the need for linguistic overhaul of affected anthems so that the language of anthems which epitomize nations can be pacific and in tandem with contemporary global trends.

Keywords: national anthems, linguistic violence, figurative language, cognitive, manipulation, CDA

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
12 Impact of Data and Model Choices to Urban Flood Risk Assessments

Authors: Abhishek Saha, Serene Tay, Gerard Pijcke

Abstract:

The availability of high-resolution topography and rainfall information in urban areas has made it necessary to revise modeling approaches used for simulating flood risk assessments. Lidar derived elevation models that have 1m or lower resolutions are becoming widely accessible. The classical approaches of 1D-2D flow models where channel flow is simulated and coupled with a coarse resolution 2D overland flow models may not fully utilize the information provided by high-resolution data. In this context, a study was undertaken to compare three different modeling approaches to simulate flooding in an urban area. The first model used is the base model used is Sobek, which uses 1D model formulation together with hydrologic boundary conditions and couples with an overland flow model in 2D. The second model uses a full 2D model for the entire area with shallow water equations at the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM). These models are compared against another shallow water equation solver in 2D, which uses a subgrid method for grid refinement. These models are simulated for different horizontal resolutions of DEM varying between 1m to 5m. The results show a significant difference in inundation extents and water levels for different DEMs. They are also sensitive to the different numerical models with the same physical parameters, such as friction. The study shows the importance of having reliable field observations of inundation extents and levels before a choice of model and data can be made for spatial flood risk assessments.

Keywords: flooding, DEM, shallow water equations, subgrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
11 Robotic Assisted vs Traditional Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy Peri-Operative Outcomes: A Comparative Single Surgeon Study

Authors: Gerard Bray, Derek Mao, Arya Bahadori, Sachinka Ranasinghe

Abstract:

The EAU currently recommends partial nephrectomy as the preferred management for localised cT1 renal tumours, irrespective of surgical approach. With the advent of robotic assisted partial nephrectomy, there is growing evidence that warm ischaemia time may be reduced compared to the traditional laparoscopic approach. There is still no clear differences between the two approaches with regards to other peri-operative and oncological outcomes. Current limitations in the field denote the lack of single surgeon series to compare the two approaches as other studies often include multiple operators of different experience levels. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first single surgeon series comparing peri-operative outcomes of robotic assisted and laparoscopic PN. The current study aims to reduce intra-operator bias while maintaining an adequate sample size to assess the differences in outcomes between the two approaches. We retrospectively compared patient demographics, peri-operative outcomes, and renal function derangements of all partial nephrectomies undertaken by a single surgeon with experience in both laparoscopic and robotic surgery. Warm ischaemia time, length of stay, and acute renal function deterioration were all significantly reduced with robotic partial nephrectomy, compared to laparoscopic nephrectomy. This study highlights the benefits of robotic partial nephrectomy. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes would be valuable additions to the current literature.

Keywords: partial nephrectomy, robotic assisted partial nephrectomy, warm ischaemia time, peri-operative outcomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
10 A Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of a Solar-Powered Off-Grid Air Conditioning System for Residential Buildings

Authors: Adam Y. Sulaiman, Gerard I.Obasi, Roma Chang, Hussein Sayed Moghaieb, Ming J. Huang, Neil J. Hewitt

Abstract:

Residential air-conditioning units are essential for quality indoor comfort in hot climate countries. Nevertheless, because of their non-renewable energy sources and the contribution of ecologically unfriendly working fluids, these units are a major source of CO2 emissions in these countries. The utilisation of sustainable technologies nowadays is essential to reduce the adverse effects of CO2 emissions by replacing conventional technologies. This paper investigates the feasibility of running an off-grid solar-powered air-conditioning bed unit using three low GWP refrigerants (R32, R290, and R600a) to supersede conventional refrigerants.A prototype air conditioning unit was built to supply cold air to a canopy that was connected to it. The assembled unit was designed to distribute cold air to a canopy connected to it. This system is powered by two 400 W photovoltaic panels, with battery storage supplying power to the unit at night-time. Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software is used to mathematically model the vapor compression cycle (VCC) and predict the unit's energetic and exergetic performance. The TRNSYS software was used to simulate the electricity storage performance of the batteries, whereas the IES-VE was used to determine the amount of solar energy required to power the unit. The article provides an analytical design guideline, as well as a comprehensible process system. Combining a renewable energy source to power an AC based-VCC provides an excellent solution to the real problems of high-energy consumption in warm-climate countries.

Keywords: air-conditioning, refrigerants, PV panel, energy storages, VCC, exergy

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
9 From Homogeneous to Phase Separated UV-Cured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks: Influence of the System Composition on Properties and Microstructure

Authors: Caroline Rocco, Feyza Karasu, Céline Croutxé-Barghorn, Xavier Allonas, Maxime Lecompère, Gérard Riess, Yujing Zhang, Catarina Esteves, Leendert van der Ven, Rolf van Benthem Gijsbertus de With

Abstract:

Acrylates are widely used in UV-curing technology. Their high reactivity can, however, limit their conversion due to early vitrification. In addition, the free radical photopolymerization is known to be sensitive to oxygen inhibition leading to tacky surfaces. Although epoxides can lead to full polymerization, they are sensitive to humidity and exhibit low polymerization rate. To overcome the intrinsic limitations of both classes of monomers, Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) can be synthesized. They consist of at least two cross linked polymers which are permanently entangled. They can be achieved under thermal and/or light induced polymerization in one or two steps approach. IPNs can display homogeneous to heterogeneous morphologies with various degrees of phase separation strongly linked to the monomer miscibility and also synthesis parameters. In this presentation, we synthesize UV-cured methacrylate - epoxide based IPNs with different chemical compositions in order to get a better understanding of their formation and phase separation. Miscibility before and during the photopolymerization, reaction kinetics, as well as mechanical properties and morphology have been investigated. The key parameters controlling the morphology and the phase separation, namely monomer miscibility and synthesis parameters have been identified. By monitoring the stiffness changes on the film surface, atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) gave, in conjunction with polymerization kinetic profiles and thermomechanical properties, explanations and corroborated the miscibility predictions. When varying the methacrylate / epoxide ratio, it was possible to move from a miscible and highly-interpenetrated IPN to a totally immiscible and phase-separated one.

Keywords: investigation of properties and morphology, kinetics, phase separation, UV-cured IPNs

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
8 Evaluating the Effect of Spatial Qualities, Openness and Complexity, on Human Cognitive Performance within Virtual Reality

Authors: Pierre F. Gerard, Frederic F. Leymarie, William Latham

Abstract:

Architects have developed a series of objective evaluations, using spatial analysis tools such as Isovist, that show how certain spatial qualities are beneficial to specific human activities hosted in the built environments. In return, they can build more adapted environments by tuning those spatial qualities in their design. In parallel, virtual reality technologies have been developed by engineers with the dream of creating a system that immerses users in a new form of spatial experiences. They already have demonstrated a useful range of benefits not only in simulating critical events to assist people in acquiring new skills, but also to enhance memory retention, to name just a few. This paper investigates the effects of two spatial qualities, openness, and complexity, on cognitive performance within immersive virtual environments. Isovist measure is used to design a series of room settings with different levels of each spatial qualities. In an empirical study, each room was then used by every participant to solve a navigational puzzle game and give a rating of their spatial experience. They were then asked to fill in a questionnaire before solving the visual-spatial memory quiz, which addressed how well they remembered the different rooms. Findings suggest that those spatial qualities have an effect on some of the measures, including navigation performance and memory retention. In particular, there is an order effect for the navigation puzzle game. Participants tended to spend a longer time in the complex room settings. Moreover, there is an interaction effect while with more open settings, participants tended to perform better when in a simple setting; however, with more closed settings, participants tended to perform better in a more complex setting. For the visual-spatial memory quiz, participants performed significantly better within the more open rooms. We believe this is a first step in using virtual environments to enhance participant cognitive performances through better use of specific spatial qualities.

Keywords: architecture, navigation, spatial cognition, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
7 Humins: From Industrial By-Product to High Value Polymers

Authors: Pierluigi Tosi, Ed de Jong, Gerard van Klink, Luc Vincent, Alice Mija

Abstract:

During the last decades renewable and low-cost resources have attracted increasingly interest. Carbohydrates can be derived by lignocellulosic biomasses, which is an attractive option since they represent the most abundant carbon source available in nature. Carbohydrates can be converted in a plethora of industrially relevant compounds, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), within acid catalyzed dehydration of sugars with mineral acids. Unfortunately, these acid catalyzed conversions suffer of the unavoidable formation of highly viscous heterogeneous poly-disperse carbon based materials known as humins. This black colored low value by-product is made by a complex mixture of macromolecules built by covalent random condensations of the several compounds present during the acid catalyzed conversion. Humins molecular structure is still under investigation but seems based on furanic rings network linked by aliphatic chains and decorated by several reactive moieties (ketones, aldehydes, hydroxyls, …). Despite decades of research, currently there is no way to avoid humins formation. The key parameter for enhance the economic viability of carbohydrate conversion processes is, therefore, increasing the economic value of the humins by-product. Herein are presented new humins based polymeric materials that can be prepared starting from the raw by-product by thermal treatment, without any step of purification or pretreatment. Humins foams can be produced with the control of reaction key parameters, obtaining polymeric porous materials with designed porosity, density, thermal and electrical conductivity, chemical and electrical stability, carbon amount and mechanical properties. Physico chemical properties can be enhanced by modifications on the starting raw material or adding different species during the polymerization. A comparisons on the properties of different compositions will be presented, along with tested applications. The authors gratefully acknowledge the European Community for financial support through Marie-Curie H2020-MSCA-ITN-2015 "HUGS" Project.

Keywords: by-product, humins, polymers, valorization

Procedia PDF Downloads 77