Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1345

Search results for: Ajay Kumar Pandey

1345 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey


A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: Signals, fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, S-G differentiator

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1344 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Rajesh K. Pandey, Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai


The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

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1343 Efficient Prediction of Surface Roughness Using Box Behnken Design

Authors: Ajay Kumar Sarathe, Abhinay Kumar


Production of quality products required for specific engineering applications is an important issue. The roughness of the surface plays an important role in the quality of the product by using appropriate machining parameters to eliminate wastage due to over machining. To increase the quality of the surface, the optimum machining parameter setting is crucial during the machining operation. The effect of key machining parameters- spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on surface roughness has been evaluated. Experimental work was carried out using High Speed Steel tool and AlSI 1018 as workpiece material. In this study, the predictive model has been developed using Box-Behnken Design. An experimental investigation has been carried out for this work using BBD for three factors and observed that the predictive model of Ra value is closed to predictive value with a marginal error of 2.8648 %. Developed model establishes a correlation between selected key machining parameters that influence the surface roughness in a AISI 1018. F

Keywords: Optimisation, response surface methodology, ANOVA, bbd

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1342 Identification and Characterization of Genes Expressed in Diseased Condition Silkworms (Bombyx mori): A Systematic Investigation

Authors: Siddharth Soni, Gourav Kumar Pandey, Sneha Kumari, Dev Mani Pandey, Koel Mukherjee


The silkworm Bombyx mori is a commercially important insect, but a major roadblock in silk production are silkworm diseases. Flacherie is one of the diseases of the silkworm, that affects the midgut of the 4th and 5th instar larvae and eventually makes them lethargic, stop feeding and finally result in their death. The concerned disease is a result of bacterial and viral infection and in some instances a combination of both. The present study aims to identify and study the expression level of genes in the flacherie condition. For the said work, total RNA was isolated from the infected larvae at their most probable infectious instar and cDNA was synthesized using Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). This cDNA was then used to amplify disease relalted genes whose expression levels were checked using quantitaive PCR (qPCR) using the double delta Ct method. Cry toxin receptors like APN and BtR-175, ROS mediator Dual Oxidase are few proteins whose genes were overexpressed. Interestingly, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) C-type lectins' genes were found to be downregulated. The results explain about the strong expression of genes that can distinguish the concerned protein in the midgut of diseased silkworm and thereby aiding knowledge in the field of inhibitor designing research.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, flacherie disease, inhibitor designing, up and down regulation

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1341 Telephone Health Service to Improve the Quality of Life of the People Living with AIDS in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta, Naveen Kumar Pandey, Binod Kumar Deo


Quality of Life (QOL) is an important component in the evaluation of the well-being of People Living with AIDS (PLWA). This study assessed the effectiveness of education intervention programme in improving the QOL of PLWA on ART attaining the ART-clinics at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Nepal. A pre-experimental research design was used to conduct the study among the PLWA on ART at BPKIHS from June to August 2013 involving 60 PLWA on pre-test randomly. The mean age of the respondents was 36.70 ± 9.92, and majority of them (80%) were of age group of 25-50 years and Male (56.7%). After education intervention programme there is significant change in the QOL in all the four domains i.e. Physical (p=0.008), Psychological (p=0.019), Social (p=0.046) and Environmental (p=0.032) using student t-test at 0.05 level of significance. There is significant (p= 0.016) difference in the mean QOL scores of pre-test and post-test. High QOL scores in post-test after education intervention programme may reflective of the effectiveness of planned education interventions programme.

Keywords: AIDS, Telephone, Health Service, Nepal

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1340 Valorization of Marine Seaweed Biomass: Furanic Platform Chemicals and Beyond

Authors: Pankaj Kumar, Sanjay Kumar, Saikat Dutta, Devendra S. Rawat, Jitendra K. Pandey


Exploding demand for various types of fuels and gradually growing impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide have forced the researchers to search biofuels in general and algae-based biofuels in particular. However, strain identification in terms of fuel productivity and over all economics of fuel generation remains a debatable challenge. Utilization of marine biomass, especially the ones important in the Indian subcontinent, in forming furanic fuels and specialty chemicals would likely to be a better value-addition pathway. Seaweed species e.g. Ulva, Sarconema, and Gracilaria species have been found more productive than land-based biomass sources due to their higher growth rate. Additionally, non-recalcitrant nature of marine biomass unlike lignocellulosics has attracted much attention in recent years towards producing bioethanol. Here we report the production of renewable, biomass-derived platform molecules such as furfural and 5-(chloromethyl) furfural (CMF) from a seaweed species which are abundant marine biomass. These products have high potential for synthetic upgradation into various classes of value-added compounds such as fuels, fuel-additives, and monomers for polymers, solvents, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: seaweeds, ulva, furan, CMF

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1339 High Altitude Glacier Surface Mapping in Dhauliganga Basin of Himalayan Environment Using Remote Sensing Technique

Authors: Ashutosh Tiwari, Aayushi Pandey, Manoj Kumar Pandey, Kireet Kumar


Glaciers play an important role in climate change and are sensitive phenomena of global climate change scenario. Glaciers in Himalayas are unique as they are predominantly valley type and are located in tropical, high altitude regions. These glaciers are often covered with debris which greatly affects ablation rate of glaciers and work as a sensitive indicator of glacier health. The aim of this study is to map high altitude Glacier surface with a focus on glacial lake and debris estimation using different techniques in Nagling glacier of dhauliganga basin in Himalayan region. Different Image Classification techniques i.e. thresholding on different band ratios and supervised classification using maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) have been used on high resolution sentinel 2A level 1c satellite imagery of 14 October 2017.Here Near Infrared (NIR)/Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) ratio image was used to extract the glaciated classes (Snow, Ice, Ice Mixed Debris) from other non-glaciated terrain classes. SWIR/BLUE Ratio Image was used to map valley rock and Debris while Green/NIR ratio image was found most suitable for mapping Glacial Lake. Accuracy assessment was performed using high resolution (3 meters) Planetscope Imagery using 60 stratified random points. The overall accuracy of MLC was 85 % while the accuracy of Band Ratios was 96.66 %. According to Band Ratio technique total areal extent of glaciated classes (Snow, Ice ,IMD) in Nagling glacier was 10.70 km2 nearly 38.07% of study area comprising of 30.87 % Snow covered area, 3.93% Ice and 3.27 % IMD covered area. Non-glaciated classes (vegetation, glacial lake, debris and valley rock) covered 61.93 % of the total area out of which valley rock is dominant with 33.83% coverage followed by debris covering 27.7 % of the area in nagling glacier. Glacial lake and Debris were accurately mapped using Band ratio technique Hence, Band Ratio approach appears to be useful for the mapping of debris covered glacier in Himalayan Region.

Keywords: band ratio, Dhauliganga basin, glacier mapping, Himalayan region, maximum likelihood classifier (MLC), Sentinel-2 satellite image

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1338 A Sub-Scalar Approach to the MIPS Architecture

Authors: Kumar Sambhav Pandey, Anamika Singh


The continuous researches in the field of computer architecture basically aims at accelerating the computational speed and to gain enhanced performance. In this era, the superscalar, sub-scalar concept has not gained enough attention for improving the computation performance. In this paper, we have presented a sub-scalar approach to utilize the parallelism present with in the data while processing. The main idea is to split the data into individual smaller entities and these entities are processed with a defined known set of instructions. This sub-scalar approach to the MIPS architecture can bring out significant improvement in the computational speedup. MIPS-I is the basic design taken in consideration for the development of sub-scalar MIPS64 for increasing the instruction level parallelism (ILP) and resource utilization.

Keywords: Processor, dataword, MIPS, sub-scalar

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1337 Genetic Analysis of Iron, Phosphorus, Potassium and Zinc Concentration in Peanut

Authors: NARENDRA KUMAR, Ajay B. C., Meena H. N., Dagla M. C., Makwana A. D., Bera S. K., Kalariya K. A., Singh A. L.


The high-energy value, protein content and minerals makes peanut a rich source of nutrition at comparatively low cost. Basic information on genetics and inheritance of these mineral elements is very scarce. Hence, in the present study inheritance (using additive-dominance model) and association of mineral elements was studied in two peanut crosses. Dominance variance (H) played an important role in the inheritance of P, K, Fe and Zn in peanut pods. Average degree of dominance for most of the traits was greater than unity indicating over dominance for these traits. Significant associations were also observed among mineral elements both in F2 and F3 generations but pod yield had no associations with mineral elements (with few exceptions). Di-allele/bi-parental mating could be followed to identify high yielding and mineral dense segregates.

Keywords: correlation, dominance variance, mineral elements, peanut

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1336 Environmental Aspects in the Job Performed by Supervisors Working in Industries

Authors: Mahesh Chandra Paliwal, Ajay Kumar Jain


Supervisors working in the industries must have the knowledge and skills for performing their job for environmental protection and sustainable development. A survey of thirty industries was conducted to know the roles of supervisors related to environmental protection and sustainable development. A questionnaire was prepared based on the discussion with the environmental experts. The findings of the study show that supervisors must be aware of practices followed for good housekeeping, water management, waste management, maintenance of effluent treatment plants, monitoring pollution control level to perform their job to save the environment. These aspects must be incorporated in diploma curriculum so that the diploma pass outs may use this knowledge and skills in the industries.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Water management, Waste Management, Environmental protection, Curriculum

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1335 Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management Practice on Cultivation Scented Rice Varieties- a Better Approach for Resource Conservation

Authors: Damini Thawait, Amit Kumar Patel, M. C. Bhambri, Srishti Pandey


The experiment was carried out at Raipur during rainy season of 2012. The experiment revealed that the performance of Dubraj was comparatively better than that of badshah bhog, Vishnu bhog and bisni. The number of grains panicle-1, number of filled grains panicle-1 were comparable in Dubraj and badshah bhog. Among the different nutrient, application of 80:50:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1(50% Inorganic+50% Organic) gave better performance in all the above characters. It is revealed that the variety Dubraj fertilized with 80:50:40 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1(50% Inorganic+50% Organic) gave the good yield attributing characters along with highest yield.

Keywords: chemical fertilizers, Yield, scented rice, organic manures, varieties

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1334 ANFIS Based Technique to Estimate Remnant Life of Power Transformer by Predicting Furan Contents

Authors: Zakir Husain, Priyesh Kumar Pandey, R. K. Jarial


Condition monitoring and diagnostic is important for testing of power transformer in order to estimate the remnant life. Concentration of furan content in transformer oil can be a promising indirect measurement of the aging of transformer insulation. The oil gets contaminated mainly due to ageing. The present paper introduces adaptive neuro fuzzy technique to correlate furanic compounds obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) test and remnant life of the power transformer. The results are obtained by conducting HPLC test at TIFAC-CORE lab, NIT Hamirpur on thirteen power transformer oil samples taken from Himachal State Electricity Board, India.

Keywords: adaptive neuro fuzzy technique, furan compounds, remnant life, transformer oil

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1333 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra


Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, Adsorption, granular activated carbon, phenol

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1332 Extraction of Cellulose Nanofibrils from Pulp Using Enzymatic Pretreatment and Evaluation of Their Papermaking Potential

Authors: S. P. Singh, ajay kumar singh, Arvind Kumar


Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have shown potential of their extensive use in various fields, including papermaking, due to their unique characteristics. In this study, CNF’s were prepared by fibrillating the pulp obtained from raw materials e.g. bagasse, hardwood and softwood using enzymatic pretreatment followed by mechanical refining. These nanofibrils, when examined under FE-SEM, show that partial fibrillation on fiber surface has resulted in production of nanofibers. Mixing these nanofibers with the unrefined and normally refined fibers show their reinforcing effect. This effect is manifested in observing the improvement in the physical and mechanical properties e.g. tensile index and burst index of paper. Tear index, however, was observed to decrease on blending with nanofibers. The optical properties of paper sheets made from blended fibers showed no significant change in comparison to those made from only mechanically refined pulp. Mixing of normal pulp fibers with nanofibers show increase in ºSR and consequent decrease in drainage rate. These changes observed in mechanical, optical and other physical properties of the paper sheets made from nanofibrils blended pulp have been tried to explain considering the distribution of the nanofibrils alongside microfibrils in the fibrous network. Since usually, paper/boards with higher strength are observed to have diminished optical properties which is a drawback in their quality, the present work has the potential for developing paper/boards having improved strength alongwith undiminished optical properties utilising the concepts of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Keywords: enzymatic pretreatment, mechanical refining, nanofibrils, paper properties

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1331 Solving Crimes through DNA Methylation Analysis

Authors: Ajay Kumar Rana


Predicting human behaviour, discerning monozygotic twins or left over remnant tissues/fluids of a single human source remains a big challenge in forensic science. Recent advances in the field of DNA methylations which are broadly chemical hallmarks in response to environmental factors can certainly help to identify and discriminate various single-source DNA samples collected from the crime scenes. In this review, cytosine methylation of DNA has been methodologically discussed with its broad applications in many challenging forensic issues like body fluid identification, race/ethnicity identification, monozygotic twins dilemma, addiction or behavioural prediction, age prediction, or even authenticity of the human DNA. With the advent of next-generation sequencing techniques, blooming of DNA methylation datasets and together with standard molecular protocols, the prospect of investigating and solving the above issues and extracting the exact nature of the truth for reconstructing the crime scene events would be undoubtedly helpful in defending and solving the critical crime cases.

Keywords: Forensics, Human identification, DNA Methylation, differentially methylated regions

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1330 Power Integrity Analysis of Power Delivery System in High Speed Digital FPGA Board

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey


Power plane noise is the most significant source of signal integrity (SI) issues in a high-speed digital design. In this paper, power integrity (PI) analysis of multiple power planes in a power delivery system of a 12-layer high-speed FPGA board is presented. All 10 power planes of HSD board are analyzed separately by using 3D Electromagnetic based PI solver, then the transient simulation is performed on combined PI data of all planes along with voltage regulator modules (VRMs) and 70 current drawing chips to get the board level power noise coupling on different high-speed signals. De-coupling capacitors are placed between power planes and ground to reduce power noise coupling with signals.

Keywords: Power integrity, Electromagnetic Simulation, power-aware signal integrity analysis, channel simulation

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1329 Endeavor to Develop Immunological and Hematological Early Diagnostic Marker to Check the Conversion of Asymptomatic to Symptomatic Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Vahab Ali, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Vidhya Nand Rabidas, Devendra Prasad Yadav


A diagnostic marker for asymptomatic subject becomes a crucial need for advocating early prophylactic majors to control protozoal infection. The main issue in epidemiological affected regions is the presence of an asymptomatic individual that might potentially convert to a symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The epidemiological study has been conducted at highly VL endemic Moriyama village in Patna district, Bihar, India that covers total population of 1540 individuals. Here, 1104(74.02%) people had been randomly screened and only 46 (4.17%) asymptomatic individuals were found sero-positive by the rK39 test. After taking signed informed consent form, blood samples were collected from 46 asymptomatic subjects for further hematological and immunological tests. Total leukocyte count, hemoglobin (gm%), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet count and interleukin-10 (IL-10) had been included as diagnostic markers. Interestingly only 5 (10.86%) individuals showed their asymptomatic conversion into symptomatic VL patients during quarterly surveillance. In overall analysis only two markers are suggestive for disease conversion that is hemoglobin (gm%) and IL-10. In all the infected patients, both the mean decrease in hemoglobin and mean increase of IL-10 was 19.23% from its normal value. The results might suggest that hematological and immunological changes would become helpful for early diagnosis of asymptomatic to symptomatic VL conversion.

Keywords: Diagnosis, epidemiological, asymptomatic, interleukin-10, symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis, hemoglobin (gm%)

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1328 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Surya Suman


Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.

Keywords: ELISA, seroprevalence, HSV, co-Infection, Rubella, viral infectivity

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1327 Lubricating Grease from Waste Cooking Oil and Waste Motor Sludge

Authors: Aseem Rajvanshi, Pankaj Kumar Pandey


Increase in population has increased the demand of energy to fulfill all its needs. This will result in burden on fossil fuels especially crude oil. Waste oil due to its disposal problem creates environmental degradation. In this context, this paper studies utilization of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge for making lubricating grease. Experimental studies have been performed by variation in time and concentration of mixture of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge. The samples were analyzed using penetration test (ASTM D-217), dropping point (ASTM D-566), work penetration (ASTM D-217) and copper strip test (ASTM D-408). Among 6 samples, sample 6 gives the best results with a good drop point and a fine penetration value. The dropping point and penetration test values were found to be 205 °C and 315, respectively. The penetration value falls under the category of NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) consistency number 1.

Keywords: crude oil, copper strip corrosion test, dropping point, penetration test

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1326 Simulation of Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B in Annular Photocatalytic Reactor

Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Ajay Bansal


Simulation of a photocatalytic reactor helps in understanding the complex behavior of the photocatalytic degradation. Simulation also aids the designing and optimization of the photocatalytic reactor. Lack of simulation strategies is a huge hindrance in the commercialization of the photocatalytic technology. With the increased performance of computational resources, and development of simulation software, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is becoming an affordable engineering tool to simulate and optimize reactor designs. In the present paper, a CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model for simulating the performance of an immobilized-titanium dioxide based annular photocatalytic reactor was developed. The computational model integrates hydrodynamics, species mass transport, and chemical reaction kinetics using a commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3.26. The CFD model was based on the intrinsic kinetic parameters determined experimentally in a perfectly mixed batch reactor. Rhodamine B, a complex organic compound, was selected as a test pollutant for photocatalytic degradation. It was observed that CFD could become a valuable tool to understand and improve the photocatalytic systems.

Keywords: Simulation, titanium dioxide, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), annular photocatalytic reactor

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1325 Numerical Solution of a Mathematical Model of Vortex Using Projection Method: Applications to Tornado Dynamics

Authors: Jagdish Prasad Maurya, Sanjay Kumar Pandey


Inadequate understanding of the complex nature of flow features in tornado vortex is a major problem in modelling tornadoes. Tornadoes are violent atmospheric phenomenon that appear all over the world. Modelling tornadoes aim to reduce the loss of the human lives and material damage caused by the tornadoes. Dynamics of tornado is investigated by a numerical technique, the improved version of the projection method. In this paper, authors solve the problem for axisymmetric tornado vortex by the said method that uses a finite difference approach for getting an accurate and stable solution. The conclusions drawn are that large radial inflow velocity occurs near the ground that leads to increase the tangential velocity. The increased velocity phenomenon occurs close to the boundary and absolute maximum wind is obtained near the vortex core. The results validate previous numerical and theoretical models.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Navier-Stokes equations, mathematical model, tornado

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1324 Species Profiling of Scarab Beetles with the Help of Light Trap in Western Himalayan Region of Uttarakhand

Authors: Ajay Kumar Pandey


White grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), locally known as Kurmula, Pagra, Chinchu, is a major destructive pest in western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand state of India. Various crops like cereals (up land paddy, wheat, and barley), vegetables (capsicum, cabbage, tomato, cauliflower, carrot etc) and some pulse (like pigeon pea, green gram, black gram) are grown with limited availability of primary resources. Among the various limitations in successful cultivation of these crops, white grub has been proved a major constraint in for all crops grown in hilly area. The losses incurred due to white grubs are huge in case of commercial crops like sugarcane, groundnut, potato, maize and upland rice. Moreover, it has been proved major constraint in potato production in mid and higher hills of India. Adults emerge in May-June following the onset of monsoon and thereafter defoliate the apple, apricot, plum, and walnut during night while 2nd and 3rd instar grubs feed on live roots of cultivated as well as non cultivated crops from August to January. Survey was conducted in hilly (Pauri and Tehri) as well as plain area (Haridwar district) of Uttarakhand state. Collection of beetle was done from various locations from August to September of five consecutive years with the help of light trap and directly from host plant. The grub was also collected by excavating one square meter area from different locations and reared in laboratory to find out adult. During the collection, the diseased or dead cadaver were also collected and brought in the laboratory and identified the causal organisms. Total 25 species of white grub was identified out of which Holotrichia longipennis, Anomala dimidiata, Holotrichia lineatopennis, Maladera insanabilis, Brahmina sp. make complex problem in different area of Uttarakhand where they cause severe damage to various crops. During the survey, it was observed that white grubs beetles have variation in preference of host plant, even in choice of fruit and leaves of host plant. It was observed that, a white grub species, which identified as Lepidiota mansueta Burmeister., was causing severe havoc to sugarcane crop grown in major sugarcane growing belt of Haridwar district. The study also revealed that Bacillus cereus, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Steinernema, Heterorhabditis are major disease causing agents in immature stage of white grub under rain-fed condition of Uttarakhand which caused 15.55 to 21.63 percent natural mortality of grubs with an average of 18.91 percent. However, among the microorganisms, B. cereus found to be significantly more efficient (7.03 percent mortality) then the entomopathogenic fungi (3.80 percent mortality) and nematodes (3.20 percent mortality).

Keywords: profiling, Uttarakhand, Lepidiota, whitegrub

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1323 Design of Compact Dual-Band Planar Antenna for WLAN Systems

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey


A compact planar monopole antenna with dual-band operation suitable for wireless local area network (WLAN) application is presented in this paper. The antenna occupies an overall area of 18 ×12 mm2. The antenna is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and it combines two folded strips, which radiates at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. In the proposed antenna, by optimally selecting the antenna dimensions, dual-band resonant modes with a much wider impedance matching at the higher band can be produced. Prototypes of the obtained optimized design have been simulated using EM solver. The simulated results explore good dual-band operation with -10 dB impedance bandwidths of 50 MHz and 2400 MHz at bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz, respectively, which cover the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands. Good antenna performances such as radiation patterns and antenna gains over the operating bands have also been observed. The antenna with a compact size of 18×12×1.6 mm3 is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Simulation, wireless local area network (WLAN), dual-band, CPW antenna

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1322 Characterization of Vegetable Wastes and Its Potential Use for Hydrogen and Methane Production via Dark Anaerobic Fermentation

Authors: M. Suresh Kumar, Ajay Dwivedi, A. N. Vaidya


The problem of fruit and vegetable waste management is a grave one and with ever increasing need to feed the exponentially growing population, more and more solid waste in the form of fruit and vegetables waste are generated and its management has become one of the key issues in protection of environment. Energy generation from fruit and vegetables waste by dark anaerobic fermentation is a recent an interesting avenue effective management of solid waste as well as for generating free and cheap energy. In the present study 17 vegetables were characterized for their physical as well as chemical properties, these characteristics were used to determine the hydrogen and methane potentials of vegetable from various models, and also lab scale batch experiments were performed to determine their actual hydrogen and methane production capacity. Lab scale batch experiments proved that vegetable waste can be used as effective substrate for bio hydrogen and methane production, however the expected yield of bio hydrogen and methane was much lower than predicted by models, this was due to the fact that other vital experimental parameters such as pH, total solids content, food to microorganism ratio was not optimized.

Keywords: Hydrogen, methane, vegetable waste, physico-chemical characteristics

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1321 An Analysis of Fertility Decline in India: Evidences from Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh

Authors: Ajay Kumar


Using data from census of India, sample registration system and national family health survey (NFHS-3), this paper traces spatial pattern, trends and the factors which have played their role differently in fertility transition in Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For the purpose spatial variation analysis, trend line and binary logistic regression analysis has been carried out. There exist considerable regional disparities in terms of fertility decline in northern and southern states. The pace of fertility decline has been faster in southern and coastal regions, and at a slow pace in backward northern state. In Tamil Nadu fertility declined substantially among the women of lower and higher age groups in comparison to Uttar Pradesh characterized by low literacy, low female age at marriage, poor health infrastructure and low status of women. The Study shows that Fertility rates have been higher among the most vulnerable and deprived sections of the society like Illiterate women, women belong to scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and women residing in rural areas.

Keywords: age specific fertility rate, fertility transition, replacement level, total fertility rate

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1320 An Experimental Study of Iron Smelting Techniques Used in the South East Rajasthan, with Special Reference to Nathara-Ki-Pal, Udaipur

Authors: Udaya Kumar


The aim of this paper is to discuss recent research conducted in experimental studies related to the process of the iron smelting. The paper will discuss issues related to the selection of iron ore, structure of furnace, making of tuyeres, fashioning of blowers and firing temperatures through experiments conducted recently and scientific analyses of experimental work. Experiments were conducted in order to investigate iron smelting techniques used at the Early Historic site of Nathara-Ki-Pal. (73°47’E; 24°16N is located about 70 km south-east of Udaipur city). Geographically, Nathara-Ki-Pal has located the foot hills of Aravalli’s. Iron ore and iron slag can be seen on the surface of the site. The remains of 4 broken furnaces were recovered during excavations (2007 and 2008) and the site was excavated by Prof. Pandey from the Department of Archaeology of the Institute of Rajasthan studies, Rajasthan Vidyapeeth University. This shows that the site of Nathara-Ki-Pal was a center of iron smelting. Results of experiments performed both in the field reconstruction of a bloomery furnace and in the laboratory are discussed.

Keywords: Furnace, experimental studies, smelting techniques, making of tuyeres

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1319 Synthesis and Thermoluminescence Study of Nanocrystalline Radiation Dosimeter CaSO₄:Ce/Sm/Dy

Authors: Kanika Sharma, Shaila Bahl, Pratik Kumar, S. P. Lochab, Anant Pandey, Vibha Chopra, Birendra Singh


This paper reports the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of nanocrystalline CaSO₄ activated by Ce, Sm, and Dy. TL properties are investigated by chiefly changing the dopant element and also by varying the concentration of the dopant elements (from 0.05 mol % to 0.5 mol %) so as to establish the optimized dopant concentration for each of the activators. The method of salt preparation used is the typical chemical co-precipitation method and the technique used for characterization of the prepared samples is the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. Further, the phosphors are irradiated with gamma radiation from Co-60 (1.25 MeV) source (dose range- 30 Gy to 500 Gy). The optimized concentration (vis-a-vis TL peak intensity) of activator for CaSO₄:Ce is found to be 0.2 mol %, for CaSO₄:Sm it is 0.1 mol % and for CaSO₄:Dy it is 0.2 mol %. Further, the primary study of the TL response curves for all the three phosphors confirms linearity in the studied dose range (i.e., 30 Gy to 500 Gy). Finally, CaSO₄:Dy was also studied for its energy dependence property which plays an important role in defining the utility of a phosphor for dosimetric applications. The range of doses used for the energy dependence study was from 30 Gy to 500 Gy from Cs-137 (0.662 MeV). The nano-phosphors showed potential to be used as radiation dosimeter in the studied range of gamma radiation and thus must be studied for a wider range of doses.

Keywords: Radiation Dosimetry, Thermoluminescence, Gamma Radiation, nanocrystalline

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1318 Evolutionary Prediction of the Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of Chandipura vesiculovirus and Related Viral Species

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Vahab Ali, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar


Chandipura vesiculovirus is an emerging (-) ssRNA viral entity belonging to the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, associated with fatal encephalitis in tropical regions. The multi-functionally active viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) that has been incorporated with conserved amino acid residues in the pathogens, assigned to synthesize distinct viral polypeptides. The lack of proofreading ability of the vRdRp produces many mutated variants. Here, we have performed the evolutionary analysis of 20 viral protein sequences of vRdRp of different strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus along with other viral species from genus Vesiculovirus inferred in MEGA6.06, employing the Neighbour-Joining method. The p-distance algorithmic method has been used to calculate the optimum tree which showed the sum of branch length of about 1.436. The percentage of replicate trees in which the associated taxa are clustered together in the bootstrap test (1000 replicates), is shown next to the branches. No mutation was observed in the Indian strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus. In vRdRp, 1230(His) and 1231(Arg) are actively participated in catalysis and, are found conserved in different strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus. Both amino acid residues were also conserved in the other viral species from genus Vesiculovirus. Many isolates exhibited maximum number of mutations in catalytic regions in strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus at position 26(Ser→Ala), 47 (Ser→Ala), 90(Ser→Tyr), 172(Gly→Ile, Val), 172(Ser→Tyr), 387(Asn→Ser), 1301(Thr→Ala), 1330(Ala→Glu), 2015(Phe→Ser) and 2065(Thr→Val) which make them variants under different tropical conditions from where they evolved. The result clarifies the actual concept of RNA evolution using vRdRp to develop as an evolutionary marker. Although, a limited number of vRdRp protein sequence similarities for Chandipura vesiculovirus and other species. This might endow with possibilities to identify the virulence level during viral multiplication in a host.

Keywords: Chandipura, (-) ssRNA, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, neighbour-joining method, p-distance algorithmic, evolutionary marker

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1317 Optimization of Pressure in Deep Drawing Process

Authors: Ajay Kumar Choubey, Geeta Agnihotri, C. Sasikumar, Rashmi Dwivedi


Deep-drawing operations are performed widely in industrial applications. It is very important for efficiency to achieve parts with no or minimum defects. Deep drawn parts are used in high performance, high strength and high reliability applications where tension, stress, load and human safety are critical considerations. Wrinkling is a kind of defect caused by stresses in the flange part of the blank during metal forming operations. To avoid wrinkling appropriate blank-holder pressure/force or drawbead can be applied. Now-a-day computer simulation plays a vital role in the field of manufacturing process. So computer simulation of manufacturing has much advantage over previous conventional process i.e. mass production, good quality of product, fast working etc. In this study, a two dimensional elasto-plastic Finite Element (F.E.) model for Mild Steel material blank has been developed to study the behavior of the flange wrinkling and deep drawing parameters under different Blank-Holder Pressure (B.H.P.). For this, commercially available Finite Element software ANSYS 14 has been used in this study. Simulation results are critically studied and salient conclusions have been drawn.

Keywords: Wrinkling, ANSYS, deep drawing, BHP, finite element simulation

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1316 ED Machining of Particulate Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, Sarabjeet Singh Sidhu, Ajay Batish


This paper reports the optimal process conditions for machining of three different types of metal matrix composites (MMCs): 65vol%SiC/A356.2; 10vol%SiC-5vol%quartz/Al and 30vol%SiC/A359 using PMEDM process. Metal removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR), surface roughness (SR) and surface integrity (SI) were evaluated after each trial and contributing process parameters were identified. The four responses were then collectively optimized using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and optimal process conditions were identified for each type of MMCS. The density of reinforced particles shields the matrix material from spark energy hence the high MRR and SR was observed with lowest reinforced particle. TWR was highest with Cu-Gr electrode due to disintegration of the weakly bonded particles in the composite electrode. Each workpiece was examined for surface integrity and ranked as per severity of surface defects observed and their rankings were used for arriving at the most optimal process settings for each workpiece.

Keywords: metal matrix composites (MMCS), metal removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), surface integrity (SI), tool wear rate (TWR), technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS)

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