Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 844

Search results for: corrosion inhibitors

844 Corrosion Fatigue of Al-Mg Alloy 5052 in Sodium Chloride Solution Contains Some Inhibitors

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Eldwaib


In this study, Al-Mg alloy 5052 was used as the testing material. Corrosion fatigue life was studied for the alloy in 3.5% NaCl (pH=1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11), and 3.5% NaCl (pH=1) with inhibitors. The compound inhibitors were composed mainly of phosphate (PO4³-), adding a certain proportion of other nontoxic inhibitors so as to select alternatives to environmentally hazardous chromate (Cr2O7²-). The inhibitors were sodium dichromate Na2Cr2O7, sodium phosphate Na3PO4, sodium molybdate Na2MoO4, and sodium citrate Na3C6H5O7. The total amount of inhibiting pigments was at different concentrations (250,500,750, and 1000 ppm) in the solutions. Corrosion fatigue behavior was studied by using plane-bending corrosion fatigue machine with stress ratio R=0.5 and under the constant frequency of 13.3 Hz. Results show that in 3.5% NaCl the highest fatigue life (number of cycles to failure Nf) is obtained at pH=5 where the oxide film on aluminum has very low solubility, and the lowest number of cycles is obtained at pH=1, where the media is too aggressive (extremely acidic). When the concentration of inhibitor increases the cycles to failure increase. The surface morphology and fracture section of the specimens had been characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Keywords: Al-Mg alloy 5052, corrosion, fatigue, inhibitors

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843 Investigation of the Inhibition Effect of 2,3-Diaminopyridine on Mild Steel Corrosion in Solution Simulating Water of Pores Concrete in Absence and Presence of Chloride Ions

Authors: Fatiha Benghanem, Mokhtar Berarma, Saida Keraghel, Ali Ourari


Corrosion is the result of the reaction between a material and its environment. Steel in concrete is protected from corrosion by a passive film promoted by concrete alkalinity. For the initiation of corrosion, this protective film must be destroyed and this can be mainly done in two ways: by the attack of chlorides on the steel or by carbonation of the cover concrete due the reaction with carbon dioxide, which causes reduction in the alkalinity of concrete. The literature reports several ways to decrease or to prevent reinforcement corrosion. Among them, the use of corrosion inhibitors has been an envisaged solution. Two approaches are generally used to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors for concrete application; one uses simulated pore solution testing , and the other uses actual concrete or mortar specimens. Both methods are some times used in conjunction. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 2,3-diaminopyridine as a corrosion inhibitors of steel in alkaline media which simulate the electrolyte in the concrete pores. The effectiveness of this compound as corrosion inhibitor was investigated by measuring the corrosion potentials, the polarization curves and the corrosion current densities of steel with and without chlorides. The study of corrosion inhibition by this compound led to the conclusion that he has low rates of inhibition in the absence of aggressive ions and high rates in their presence. This type of organic compounds are promoting for the protection of armatures in concrete.

Keywords: corrosion, inhibitors, mild steel, conjunction

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842 Ionic Liquids as Corrosion Inhibitors in CO2 Capture Systems

Authors: A. Acidi, A. Abbaci


We present the viability of using thermally stable, practically non-volatile ionic liquids as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous monoethanolamine system. Carbon steel 1020, which widely used as construction material in CO2 capture plants, has been taken as a test material. Corrosion inhibition capacities of typical room-temperature ionic liquids constituting imidazolium cation in concentration range ≤ 3% by weight in CO2 capture applications were investigated. Electrochemical corrosion experiments using the potentiodynamic polarization technique for measuring corrosion current were carried out. The results show that ionic liquids possess ability to suppressing severe operational problems of corrosion in typical CO2 capture plants.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, carbon steel, monoethanolamine, corrosion rate, ionic liquids, tafel fit

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841 Electrochemical Studies of Some Schiff Bases on the Corrosion of Steel in H2SO4 Solution

Authors: Ahmed A. Farag, M. A. Hgazy


The influence of three Schiff bases (SB-I, SB-II, and SB-III) on the corrosion of carbon steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of the Schiff bases and follow the trend: SB-III > SB-II > SB-I. Tafel polarization measurements revealed that the three tested inhibitors function as anodic inhibitors. The thermodynamic parameters Kads and ΔGºads are calculated and discussed. The Langmuir isotherm equation was found to provide an accurate description of the adsorption behaviour of the investigated Schiff bases. Depending on the results, the inhibitive mechanism was proposed.

Keywords: Schiff bases, corrosion inhibitors, EIS, adsorption

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840 Amino Acid Derivatives as Green Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in 1M HCl: Electrochemical, Surface and Density Functional Theory Studies

Authors: Jiyaul Haque, Vandana Srivastava, M. A. Quraishi


The amino acids based corrosion inhibitors 2-(3-(carboxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium-1-yl) acetate (Z-1),2-(3-(1-carboxyethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium-1-yl) propanoate (Z-2) and 2-(3-(1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium-1-yl)-3- phenylpropanoate (Z-3) were synthesized by the reaction of amino acids, glyoxal and formaldehyde, and characterized by the FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The corrosion inhibition performance of synthesized inhibitors was studied by electrochemical (EIS and PDP), surface and DFT methods. The results show, the studied Z-1, Z-2 and Z-3 are effective inhibitors, showed the maximum inhibition efficiency of 88.52 %, 89.48 and 96.08% at concentration 200ppm, respectively. The results of potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) study showed that Z-1 act as a cathodic inhibitor, while Z-2 and Z-3 act as mixed type inhibitors. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies showed that zwitterions inhibit the corrosion through adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of synthesized zwitterions on the mild steel surface was followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The formation of zwitterions film on mild steel surface was confirmed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The quantum chemical parameters were used to study the reactivity of inhibitors and supported the experimental results. An inhibitor adsorption model is proposed.

Keywords: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, green corrosion inhibitors, mild steel, SEM, quantum chemical calculation, zwitterions

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839 Characterization the Internal Corrosion Behavior by Using Natural Inhibitor in Crude Oil of Low Carbon Steel Pipeline

Authors: Iman Adnan Annon, Kadhim F. Alsultan


This study investigate the internal corrosion of low carbon steel pipelines in the crude oil, as well as prepare and use natural and locally available plant as a natural corrosion inhibiter, the nature extraction achieved by two types of solvents in order to show the solvent effect on inhibition process, the first being distilled water and the second is diethyl ether. FT-IR spectra and using a chemical reagents achieved to detection the presence of many active groups and the presence of tannins, phenols, and alkaloids in the natural extraction. Some experiments were achieved to estimate the performance of a new inhibitor, one of these tests include corrosion measurement by simple immersion in crude oil within and without inhibitors which added in different amounts 30,40,50and 60 ppm at tow temperature 300 and 323k, where the best inhibition efficiencies which get when added the inhibitors in a critical amounts or closest to it, since for the aqueous extract (EB-A) the inhibition efficiency reached (94.4) and (86.71)% at 300 and 323k respectively, and for diethyl ether extract (EB-D) reached (82.87) and (84.6)% at 300 and 323k respectively. Optical microscopy examination have been conducted to evaluate the corrosion nature where it show a clear difference in the topography of the immersed samples surface after add the inhibitors at two temperatures. The results show that the new corrosion inhibitor is not only equivalent to a chemical inhibitor but has greatly improvement properties such as: high efficiency, low cost, non-toxic, easily to produce, and nonpolluting as compared with chemical inhibitor.

Keywords: corrosion in pipeline, inhibitors, crude oil, carbon steel, types of solvent

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838 Inhibition of Pipelines Corrosion Using Natural Extracts

Authors: Eman Alzahrani, Hala M. Abo-Dief, Ashraf T. Mohamed


The present work is aimed at examining carbon steel oil pipelines corrosion using three natural extracts (Eruca Sativa, Rosell and Mango peels) that are used as inhibitors of different concentrations ranging from 0.05-0.1wt. %. Two sulphur compounds are used as corrosion mediums. Weight loss method was used for measuring the corrosion rate of the carbon steel specimens immersed in technical white oil at 100ºC at various time intervals in absence and presence of the two sulphur compounds. The corroded specimens are examined using the chemical wear test, scratch test and hardness test. The scratch test is carried out using scratch loads from 0.5 Kg to 2.0 Kg. The scratch width is obtained at various scratch load and test conditions. The Brinell hardness test is carried out and investigated for both corroded and inhibited specimens. The results showed that three natural extracts can be used as environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors.

Keywords: inhibition, natural extract, oil pipelines corrosion, sulphur compounds

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837 Inhibition Effect of Natural Junipers Extract towards Steel Corrosion in HCl Solution

Authors: L. Bammou, M. Belkhaouda R. Salghi, L. Bazzi, B. Hammouti


Steel and steel-based alloys of different grades steel are extensively used in numerous applications where acid solutions are widely applied such as industrial acid pickling, industrial acid cleaning and oil-well acidizing. The use of chemical inhibitors is one of the most practical methods for the protection against corrosion in acidic media. Most of the excellent acid inhibitors are organic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur. The use of non-toxic inhibitors called green or eco-friendly environmental inhibitors is one of the solutions possible to prevent the corrosion of the material. These advantages have incited us to draw a large part of program of our laboratory to examine natural substances as corrosion inhibitors such as: prickly pear seed oil, Argan oil, Argan extract, Fennel oil, Rosemary oil, Thymus oil, Lavender oil, Jojoba oil, Pennyroyal Mint oil, and Artemisia. In the present work, we investigate the corrosion inhibition of steel in 1 M HCl by junipers extract using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The result obtained of junipers extract (JE) shows excellent inhibition properties for the corrosion of C38 steel in 1M HCl at 298K, and the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing of the JE concentration. The inhibitor efficiencies determined by weight loss, Tafel polarisation and EIS methods are in reasonable agreement. Based on the polarisation results, the investigated junipers extract can be classified as mixed inhibitor. The calculated structural parameters show increase of the obtained Rct values and decrease of the capacitance, Cdl, with JE concentration increase. It is suggested to attribute this to the increase of the thickness of the adsorption layer at steel surface. The adsorption model obeys to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption process is a spontaneous and exothermic process.

Keywords: corrosion inhibition, steel, friendly inhibitors, Tafel polarisation

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836 Analysis of Some Produced Inhibitors for Corrosion of J55 Steel in NaCl Solution Saturated with CO₂

Authors: Ambrish Singh


The corrosion inhibition performance of pyran (AP) and benzimidazole (BI) derivatives on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ was investigated by electrochemical, weight loss, surface characterization, and theoretical studies. The electrochemical studies included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), and electrochemical frequency modulation trend (EFMT). Surface characterization was done using contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) studies were done using Gaussian and Materials Studio softwares. All the studies suggested the good inhibition by the synthesized inhibitors on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ due to the formation of a protective film on the surface. Molecular dynamic simulation was applied to search for the most stable configuration and adsorption energies for the interaction of the inhibitors with Fe (110) surface.

Keywords: corrosion, inhibitor, EFM, AFM, DFT, MD

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835 Investigation of Acidizing Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches

Authors: Ambrish Singh


The corrosion inhibition performance of pyran derivatives (AP) on mild steel in 15% HCl was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, weight loss, contact angle, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, DFT and molecular dynamic simulation. The adsorption of APs on the surface of mild steel obeyed Langmuir isotherm. The potentiodynamic polarization study confirmed that inhibitors are mixed type with cathodic predominance. Molecular dynamic simulation was applied to search for the most stable configuration and adsorption energies for the interaction of the inhibitors with Fe (110) surface. The theoretical data obtained are, in most cases, in agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: acidizing inhibitor, pyran derivatives, DFT, molecular simulation, mild steel, EIS

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834 Green Corrosion Inhibitor from Essential Oil of Linseed for Aluminum in Na2CO3 Solution

Authors: L. Bazzi, E. Azzouyahar, A. Lamiri, M. Essahli


Effect of addition of linseed oil (LSO) on the corrosion of aluminium in 0.1 M Na2CO3 has been studied by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with inhibitor content to attain 70% for LSO at 4g/L. Inhibition efficiency E (%) obtained from the various methods is in good agreement. The temperature effect on the corrosion behavior of aluminium was studied by potentiodynamic technique in the range from 298 to 308 K.

Keywords: aluminum, corrosion, green inhibitors, carbonate, linseed oil

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833 Zamzam Water as Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel Rebar in Rainwater and Simulated Acid Rain

Authors: Ahmed A. Elshami, Stephanie Bonnet, Abdelhafid Khelidj


Corrosion inhibitors are widely used in concrete industry to reduce the corrosion rate of steel rebar which is present in contact with aggressive environments. The present work aims to using Zamzam water from well located within the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam as corrosion inhibitor for steel in rain water and simulated acid rain. The effect of Zamzam water was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Potentiodynamic polarization techniques in Department of Civil Engineering - IUT Saint-Nazaire, Nantes University, France. Zamzam water is considered to be one of the most important steel corrosion inhibitor which is frequently used in different industrial applications. Results showed that zamzam water gave a very good inhibition for steel corrosion in rain water and simulated acid rain.

Keywords: Zamzam water, corrosion inhibitor, rain water, simulated acid rain

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832 Performance of Non-toxic, Corrosion Resistant, and Lubricious Metalworking Fluids under Machining

Authors: Ajay Pratap Singh Lodhi, Deepak Kumar


Vegetable oil-based environmentally friendly metalworking fluids (MWFs) are formulated. The tribological performance, cytotoxicity, and corrosion resistance of the formulated fluids (FFs) are evaluated and benchmarked with commercial mineral oil-based MWFs (CF). Results show that FFs exhibited better machining characteristics (roughness, cutting forces, and surface morphology) during machining than CF. MTT assay and Live dead cell assay confirm the cytocompatibility nature of the FFs relative to the toxic CF. Electrochemical analysis shows that FFs and CF exhibited comparable corrosion current density.

Keywords: corrosion inhibitors, cytotoxicity, machining, MTT assay, Taguchi method, vegetable oil

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831 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release for Stainless Steel between Artificial Saliva and Breadfruit Leaf Extracts

Authors: Mirna Febriani


The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is the leaves of breadfruit. The method used for this research using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric test. The results showed that the difference of chromium ion releases on soaking in saliva and breadfruit leaf extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statically calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed the significant difference. The conclusion of this study shows that breadfruit leaf extract can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, breadfruit leaf

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830 Nanoparticle Based Green Inhibitor for Corrosion Protection of Zinc in Acidic Medium

Authors: Neha Parekh, Divya Ladha, Poonam Wadhwani, Nisha Shah


Nano scaled materials have attracted tremendous interest as corrosion inhibitor due to their high surface area on the metal surfaces. It is well known that the zinc oxide nanoparticles have higher reactivity towards aqueous acidic solution. This work presents a new method to incorporate zinc oxide nanoparticles with white sesame seeds extract (nano-green inhibitor) for corrosion protection of zinc in acidic medium. The morphology of the zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated by TEM and DLS. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor was determined by Gravimetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Gravimetric measurements suggested that nano-green inhibitor is more effective than green inhibitor. Furthermore, with the increasing temperature, inhibition efficiency increases for both the inhibitors. In addition, it was established the Temkin adsorption isotherm fits well with the experimental data for both the inhibitors. The effect of temperature and Temkin adsorption isotherm revealed Chemisorption mechanism occurring in the system. The activation energy (Ea) and other thermodynamic parameters for inhibition process were calculated. The data of EIS showed that the charge transfer controls the corrosion process. The surface morphology of zinc metal (specimen) in absence and presence of green inhibitor and nano-green inhibitor were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. The outcomes indicated a formation of a protective layer over zinc metal (specimen).

Keywords: corrosion, green inhibitor, nanoparticles, zinc

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829 Corrosion Control of Carbon Steel Surface by Phosphonic Acid Nano-Layers

Authors: T. Abohalkuma, J. Telegdi


Preparation, characterization, and application of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) formed by fluorophosphonic and undecenyl phosphonic acids on carbon steel surfaces as anticorrosive nanocoatings were demonstrated. The anticorrosive efficacy of these SAM layers was followed by atomic force microscopy, as the change in the surface morphology caused by layer deposition and corrosion processes was monitored. The corrosion process was determined by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization, whereas the surface wettability of the carbon steel samples was tested with the use of static and dynamic contact angle measurements. Results showed that both chemicals produced good protection against corrosion as they performed as anodic inhibitors, especially with increasing the time of layer formation, which results in a more compact molecular film. According to the atomic force microscope (AFM) images, the fluoro-phosphonic acid self-assembled molecular layer can control the general as well as the pitting corrosion, but the SAM layers of the undecenyl-phosphonic acid cannot inhibit the pitting corrosion. The AFM and the contact angle measurements confirmed the results achieved by electrochemical measurements.

Keywords: nanolayers, corrosion, phosphonic acids, coatings

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828 Evaluation of Pelargonium Extract and Oil as Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in Acidic Chloride Solutions and Pharmacological Properties

Authors: Ahmed Chetouani


Corrosion is a natural occurring process where it can be defined as the deterioration of materials properties due to its interaction with its environment. Corrosion can lead to failures in plant infrastructure and machines which are usually costly to repair. In terms of loss of contaminated products which will cause environmental damage and possibly costly in terms of human health. The driving force that causes metals to corrode is due to the natural consequence of their temporary existence in metallic form. There is a growing trend in utilizing plant extracts and pharmaceutical compounds as corrosion inhibitors. Exquisite identification of the essential oil of aerial parts of Pelargonium was obtained using hydrodistillation and identification using GC (gas chromatography) and GC/MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The oil was predominated by Citronellol (22.8%). The inhibitory effect of essential oil and extract of Pelargonium was estimated on the corrosion of mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid (HCl) using weight loss, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization curves. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the essential oil and extract of Pelargonium. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in 1M HCl with addition of essential oil and extract was also studied and the thermodynamic parameters were determined and discussed. Values of inhibition efficiency were calculated from weight loss, Tafel polarization curves, and EIS. All results are in good agreement. Polarization curves showed that essential oil and extract of Pelargonium behave as mixed type inhibitors in hydrochloric acid. The results obtained showed that the essential oil and extract of Pelargonium could serve as an effective inhibitor of the corrosion of mild steel in Hydrochloric acid solution. To avoid any surprise of toxicity, the majority compounds have been studied by using POM analyses.

Keywords: corrosion inhibition, mild steel, pelargonium oil, extract, electrochemical system, hydrodistillation, side effects, POM Analyses

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827 Walnut (Juglans Regia) Extracts: Investigation of Antioxidant Effect, Total Phenols and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity

Authors: N. Saki, S. Nalbantoglu, M. Akin, G. Arabaci


Walnut has a great range of phenolic profile and it is used in Asia and Africa for treatment of many diseases and cancer. Phenolic compounds play a number of crucial roles in complex metabolism of plants and of also fruit trees. Consumption of certain phenolics in the food is considered beneficial for human nutrition. Phenolic compounds known as anti-radical inactivators with their high antioxidant activities and these activities play an important role in inhibition of multi-metal corrosion. Many common corrosion inhibitors that are still in use today are health hazards. Therefore, there is still an increased attention directed towards the development of environmentally compatible, nonpolluting corrosion inhibitors. The present study reports the total phenols content, antioxidant potentials and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the walnut (Juglans regia L.) produced in Turkey. The anti-tyrosinase activity was investigated for walnut at 2 h extraction time and all extracts exhibited tyrosinase activity. The results of this study suggested that walnut can be used as an excellent, easily accessible source of natural antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Juglans Regia, total phenols, tyrosinase activity

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826 Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I

Authors: M. F. Alrubaie, S. A. Salih, W. A. Abbas


Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.

Keywords: chloride attack, chloride environments, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion resistance, durability, SIFCON, slurry infiltrated fiber concrete

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825 High-Temperature Corrosion of Weldment of Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si Steel in N2/H2O/H2S-Mixed Gas

Authors: Sang Hwan Bak, Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee


Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si-0.2C steel was welded and corroded at 600, 700 and 800oC for 20 h in 1 atm of N2/H2S/H2O-mixed gas in order to characterize the high-temperature corrosion behavior of the welded joint. Corrosion proceeded fast and almost linearly. It increased with an increase in the corrosion temperature. H2S formed FeS owing to sulfur released from H2S. The scales were fragile and nonadherent.

Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si steel, corrosion, welding, sulfidation, H2S gas

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824 The Effect of the Proportion of Carbon on the Corrosion Rate of Carbon-Steel

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Ahmed A. Hablous, Mofied M. Elnemry


The carbon steel is of one of the most common mineral materials used in engineering and industrial applications in order to have access to the required mechanical properties, especially after the change of carbon ratio, but this may lead to stimulate corrosion. It has been used in models of solids with different carbon ratios such as 0.05% C, 0.2% C, 0.35% C, 0.5% C, and 0.65% C and have been studied using three testing durations which are 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks and among different corrosion environments such as atmosphere, fresh water, and salt water. This research is for the purpose of finding the effect of the carbon content on the corrosion resistance of steels in different corrosion medium by using the weight loss technique as a function of the corrosion resistance. The results that have been obtained through this research shows that a correlation can be made between corrosion rates and steel's carbon content, and the corrosion resistance decreases with the increase in carbon content.

Keywords: proportion of carbon in the steel, corrosion rate, erosion, corrosion resistance in carbon-steel

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823 Effect of Soil Corrosion in Failures of Buried Gas Pipelines

Authors: Saima Ali, Pathamanathan Rajeev, Imteaz A. Monzur


In this paper, a brief review of the corrosion mechanism in buried pipe and modes of failure is provided together with the available corrosion models. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis is performed to understand the influence of corrosion model parameters on the remaining life estimation. Further, the probabilistic analysis is performed to propagate the uncertainty in the corrosion model on the estimation of the renaming life of the pipe. Finally, the comparison among the corrosion models on the basis of the remaining life estimation will be provided to improve the renewal plan.

Keywords: corrosion, pit depth, sensitivity analysis, exposure period

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822 Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel by Calcium Gluconate in Magnesium Chloride Solution

Authors: Olaitan Akanji, Cleophas Loto, Patricia Popoola, Andrei Kolesnikov


Studies involving performance of corrosion inhibitors had been identified as one of the critical research needs for improving the durability of mild steel used in various industrial applications. This paper investigates the inhibiting effect of calcium gluconate against the corrosion of mild steel in 2.5M magnesium chloride using weight loss method and linear polarization technique, calculated corrosion rates from the obtained weight loss data, potentiodynamic polarization measurements are in good agreement. Results revealed calcium gluconate has strong inhibitory effects with inhibitor efficiency increasing with increase in inhibitor concentration at ambient temperature, the efficiency of the inhibitor increased in the following order of concentrations 2%g/vol,1.5%g/vol,1%g/vol,0.5%g/vol. Further results obtained from potentiodynamics experiments had good correlation with those of the gravimetric methods, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the mild steel surface from the chloride has been found to obey Langmuir, Frumkin and Freudlich adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation confirmed the existence of an absorbed protective film on the metal surface.

Keywords: calcium gluconate, corrosion, magnesium chloride, mild steel

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821 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release Stainless Steel 18-8 between Artificial Saliva and Black Tea Leaves Extracts

Authors: Nety Trisnawaty, Mirna Febriani


The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is black tea leaves extracts. To explain the comparison of chromium ions release for stainlees steel between artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. In this research we used artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts, stainless steel wire and using Atomic Absorption Spectrophometric testing machine. The samples were soaked for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days in the artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. The results showed the difference of chromium ion release soaked in artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statistically, calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed a significant difference. The longer the duration of days, the more ion chromium were released. The conclusion of this study shows that black tea leaves extracts can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts

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820 Downhole Corrosion Inhibition Treatment for Water Supply Wells

Authors: Nayif Alrasheedi, Sultan Almutairi


Field-wide, a water supply wells’ downhole corrosion inhibition program is being applied to maintain downhole component integrity and keep the fluid corrosivity below 5 MPY. Batch treatment is currently used to inject the oil field chemical. This work is a case study consisting of analytical procedures used to optimize the frequency of the good corrosion inhibition treatments. During the study, a corrosion cell was fitted with a special three-electrode configuration for electrochemical measurements, electrochemical linear polarization, corrosion monitoring, and microbial analysis. This study revealed that the current practice is not able to mitigate material corrosion in the downhole system for more than three months.

Keywords: downhole corrosion inhibition, electrochemical measurements, electrochemical linear polarization, corrosion monitoring

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819 The Corrosion Resistance of the 32CrMoV13 Steel Nitriding

Authors: Okba Belahssen, Lazhar Torchane, Said Benramache, Abdelouahed Chala


This paper presents corrosion behavior of the plasma-nitrided 32CrMoV13 steel. Different kinds of samples were tested: non-treated, plasma nitrided samples. The structure of layers was determined by X-ray diffraction, while the morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behavior was evaluated by electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). The corrosion tests were carried out in acid chloride solution (HCl 1M). Experimental results showed that the nitrides ε-Fe2−3N and γ′-Fe4N present in the white layer are nobler than the substrate but may promote, by galvanic effect, a localized corrosion through open porosity. The better corrosion protection was observed for nitrided sample.

Keywords: plasma-nitrided, 32CrMoV13 steel, corrosion, EIS

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818 Electrochemical and Theoretical Quantum Approaches on the Inhibition of C1018 Carbon Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium Containing Chloride Using Newly Synthesized Phenolic Schiff Bases Compounds

Authors: Hany M. Abd El-Lateef


Two novel Schiff bases, 5-bromo-2-[(E)-(pyridin-3-ylimino) methyl] phenol (HBSAP) and 5-bromo-2-[(E)-(quinolin-8-ylimino) methyl] phenol (HBSAQ) have been synthesized. They have been characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques (UV–Vis, IR and NMR). Moreover, the molecular structure of HBSAP and HBSAQ compounds are determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The inhibition activity of HBSAP and HBSAQ for carbon steel in 3.5 %NaCl+0.1 M HCl for both short and long immersion time, at different temperatures (20-50 ºC), was investigated using electrochemistry and surface characterization. The potentiodynamic polarization shows that the inhibitors molecule is more adsorbed on the cathodic sites. Its efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentrations (92.8 % at the optimal concentration of 10-3 M for HBSAQ). Adsorption of the inhibitors on the carbon steel surface was found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm with physical/chemical nature of the adsorption, as it is shown also by scanning electron microscopy. Further, the electronic structural calculations using quantum chemical methods were found to be in a good agreement with the results of the experimental studies.

Keywords: carbon steel, Schiff bases, corrosion inhibition, SEM, electrochemical techniques

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817 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques Impact on Concrete Durability: A Review

Authors: Victor A. Okenyi, Kehinde A. Alawode


Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete structures remains a durability issue in structural engineering with the increasing cost of repair and maintenance. The mechanism and factors influencing reinforcement corrosion in concrete with various electrochemical monitoring techniques including non-destructive, destructive techniques and the roles of sensors have been reviewed with the aim of determining the monitoring technique that proved most effective in determining corrosion parameters and more practicable for the assessment of concrete durability. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) techniques showed great performance in evaluating corrosion kinetics and corrosion rate, respectively, while the gravimetric weight loss (GWL) technique provided accurate measurements. However, no single monitoring technique showed to be the ultimate technique, and this calls for more research work in the development of more dynamic monitoring tools capable of considering all possible corrosion factors in the corrosion monitoring process.

Keywords: corrosion, concrete structures, durability, non-destructive technique, sensor

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816 On-Plot Piping Corrosion Analysis for Gas and Oil Separation Plants (GOSPs)

Authors: Sultan A. Al Shaqaq


Corrosion is a serious challenge for a piping system in our Gas and Oil Separation Plant (GOSP) that causes piping failures. Two GOSPs (Plant-A and Plant-B) observed chronic corrosion issue with an on-plot piping system that leads to having more piping replacement during the past years. Since it is almost impossible to avoid corrosion, it is becoming more obvious that managing the corrosion level may be the most economical resolution. Corrosion engineers are thus increasingly involved in approximating the cost of their answers to corrosion prevention, and assessing the useful life of the equipment. This case study covers the background of corrosion encountered in piping internally and externally in these two GOSPs. The collected piping replacement data from year of 2011 to 2014 was covered. These data showed the replicate corrosion levels in an on-plot piping system. Also, it is included the total piping replacement with drain lines system and other service lines in plants (Plant-A and Plant-B) at Saudi Aramco facility.

Keywords: gas and oil separation plant, on-plot piping, drain lines, Saudi Aramco

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
815 Corrosion Monitoring of Weathering Steel in a Simulated Coastal-Industrial Environment

Authors: Thee Chowwanonthapunya, Junhua Dong, Wei Ke


The atmospheres in many cities along the coastal lines in the world have been rapidly changed to coastal-industrial atmosphere. Hence, it is vital to investigate the corrosion behavior of steel exposed to this kind of environment. In this present study, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrography (EIS) and film thickness measurements were applied to monitor the corrosion behavior of weathering steel covered with a thin layer of the electrolyte in a wet-dry cyclic condition, simulating a coastal-industrial environment at 25 oC and 60 % RH. The results indicate that in all cycles, the corrosion rate increases during the drying process due to an increase in anion concentration and an acceleration of oxygen diffusion enhanced by the effect of the thinning out of the electrolyte. During the wet-dry cyclic corrosion test, the long-term corrosion behavior of this steel depends on the periods of exposure. Corrosion process is first accelerated and then decelerated. The decelerating corrosion process is contributed to the formation of the protective rust, favored by the wet-dry cycle and the acid regeneration process during the rusting process.

Keywords: atmospheric corrosion, EIS, low alloy, rust

Procedia PDF Downloads 362