Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 87

Search results for: lubrication

87 The Lubrication Regimes Recognition of a Pressure-Fed Journal Bearing by Time and Frequency Domain Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signals

Authors: S. Hosseini, M. Ahmadi Najafabadi, M. Akhlaghi

Abstract:

The health of the journal bearings is very important in preventing unforeseen breakdowns in rotary machines, and poor lubrication is one of the most important factors for producing the bearing failures. Hydrodynamic lubrication (HL), mixed lubrication (ML), and boundary lubrication (BL) are three regimes of a journal bearing lubrication. This paper uses acoustic emission (AE) measurement technique to correlate features of the AE signals to the three lubrication regimes. The transitions from HL to ML based on operating factors such as rotating speed, load, inlet oil pressure by time domain and time-frequency domain signal analysis techniques are detected, and then metal-to-metal contacts between sliding surfaces of the journal and bearing are identified. It is found that there is a significant difference between theoretical and experimental operating values that are obtained for defining the lubrication regions.

Keywords: acoustic emission technique, pressure fed journal bearing, time and frequency signal analysis, metal-to-metal contact

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
86 Improving Lubrication Efficiency at High Sliding Speeds by Plasma Surface Texturing

Authors: Wei Zha, Jingzeng Zhang, Chen Zhao, Ran Cai, Xueyuan Nie

Abstract:

Cathodic plasma electrolysis (CPE) is used to create surface textures on cast iron samples for improving the tribological properties. Micro craters with confined size distribution were successfully formed by CPE process. These craters can generate extra hydrodynamic pressure that separates two sliding surfaces, increase the oil film thickness and accelerate the transition from boundary to mixed lubrication. It was found that the optimal crater size was 1.7 μm, at which the maximum lubrication efficiency was achieved. The Taguchi method was used to optimize the process parameters (voltage and roughness) for CPE surface texturing. The orthogonal array and the signal-to-noise ratio were employed to study the effect of each process parameter on the coefficient of friction. The results showed that with higher voltage and lower roughness, the lower friction coefficient can be obtained, and thus the lubrication can be more efficiently used for friction reduction.

Keywords: cathodic plasma electrolysis, friction, lubrication, plasma surface texturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
85 Performance of Slot-Entry Hybrid Worn Journal Bearing under Turbulent Lubrication

Authors: Nathi Ram, Saurabh K. Yadav

Abstract:

In turbomachinery, the turbulent flow occurs due to the use of high velocity of low kinematic viscosity lubricants and used in many industrial applications. In the present work, the performance of symmetric slot-entry hybrid worn journal bearing under laminar and turbulent lubrication has been investigated. For turbulent lubrication, the Reynolds equation has been modified using Constantinescu turbulent model. This modified equation has been solved using the finite element method. The effect of turbulent lubrication on bearing’s performance has been presented for symmetric hybrid journal bearing. The slot-entry hybrid worn journal bearing under turbulent/laminar regimes have been investigated. It has been observed that the stiffness and damping coefficients are more for the bearing having slot width ratio (SWR) of 0.25 than the bearing with SWR of 0.5 and 0.75 under the turbulent regime. Further, it is also observed that for constant wear depth parameter, stability threshold speed gets increased for bearing operates at slot width ratio 0.25 under turbulent lubrication.

Keywords: hydrostatic bearings, journal bearings, restrictors, turbulent flow models, finite element technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
84 Induced Bone Tissue Temperature in Drilling Procedures: A Comparative Laboratory Study with and without Lubrication

Authors: L. Roseiro, C. Veiga, V. Maranha, A. Neto, N. Laraqi, A. Baïri, N. Alilat

Abstract:

In orthopedic surgery there are various situations in which the surgeon needs to implement methods of cutting and drilling the bone. With this type of procedure the generated friction leads to a localized increase in temperature, which may lead to the bone necrosis. Recognizing the importance of studying this phenomenon, an experimental evaluation of the temperatures developed during the procedure of drilling bone has been done. Additionally the influence of the use of the procedure with / without additional lubrication during drilling of bone has also been done. The obtained results are presented and discussed and suggests an advantage in using additional lubrication as a way to minimize the appearance of bone tissue necrosis during bone drilling procedures.

Keywords: bone necrosis, bone drilling, thermography, surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
83 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Study Using Discontinuous Finite Volume Method

Authors: Prawal Sinha, Peeyush Singh, Pravir Dutt

Abstract:

Problems in elastohydrodynamic lubrication have attracted a lot of attention in the last few decades. Solving a two-dimensional problem has always been a big challenge. In this paper, a new discontinuous finite volume method (DVM) for two-dimensional point contact Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) problem has been developed and analyzed. A complete algorithm has been presented for solving such a problem. The method presented is robust and easily parallelized in MPI architecture. GMRES technique is implemented to solve the matrix obtained after the formulation. A new approach is followed in which discontinuous piecewise polynomials are used for the trail functions. It is natural to assume that the advantages of using discontinuous functions in finite element methods should also apply to finite volume methods. The nature of the discontinuity of the trail function is such that the elements in the corresponding dual partition have the smallest support as compared with the Classical finite volume methods. Film thickness calculation is done using singular quadrature approach. Results obtained have been presented graphically and discussed. This method is well suited for solving EHL point contact problem and can probably be used as commercial software.

Keywords: elastohydrodynamic, lubrication, discontinuous finite volume method, GMRES technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
82 Pressure Distribution, Load Capacity, and Thermal Effect with Generalized Maxwell Model in Journal Bearing Lubrication

Authors: M. Guemmadi, A. Ouibrahim

Abstract:

This numerical investigation aims to evaluate how a viscoelastic lubricant described by a generalized Maxwell model, affects the pressure distribution, the load capacity and thermal effect in a journal bearing lubrication. We use for the purpose the CFD package software completed by adapted user define functions (UDFs) to solve the coupled equations of momentum, of energy and of the viscoelastic model (generalized Maxwell model). Two parameters, viscosity and relaxation time are involved to show how viscoelasticity substantially affect the pressure distribution, the load capacity and the thermal transfer by comparison to Newtonian lubricant. These results were also compared with the available published results.

Keywords: journal bearing, lubrication, Maxwell model, viscoelastic fluids, computational modelling, load capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
81 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin

Abstract:

A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
80 Hybrid Lubri-Coolants as an Alternatives to Mineral Based Emulsion in Machining Aerospace Alloy Ti-6Al-4V

Authors: Muhammad Jamil, Ning He, Wei Zhao

Abstract:

Ti-6Al-4V has poor thermal conductivity (6.7W/mK) accumulates shear and friction heat at the tool-chip interface zone. To dissipate the heat generation and friction effect, cryogenic cooling, Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), nanofluids, hybrid cryogenic-MQL, solid lubricants, etc are applied frequently to underscore their significant effect on improving the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V. Nowadays, hybrid lubri-cooling is getting attention from researchers to explore their effect on machining Ti-6Al-4V.

Keywords: hybrid lubri-cooling, tool wear, surface roughness, minimum quantity lubrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
79 Performance Evaluation and Economic Analysis of Minimum Quantity Lubrication with Pressurized/Non-Pressurized Air and Nanofluid Mixture

Authors: M. Amrita, R. R. Srikant, A. V. Sita Rama Raju

Abstract:

Water miscible cutting fluids are conventionally used to lubricate and cool the machining zone. But issues related to health hazards, maintenance and disposal costs have limited their usage, leading to application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL). To increase the effectiveness of MQL, nanocutting fluids are proposed. In the present work, water miscible nanographite cutting fluids of varying concentration are applied at cutting zone by two systems A and B. System A utilizes high pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 1ml/min. System B uses low pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 5ml/min. Their performance in machining is evaluated by measuring cutting temperatures, tool wear, cutting forces and surface roughness and compared with dry machining and flood machining. Application of nano cutting fluid using both systems showed better performance than dry machining. Cutting temperatures and cutting forces obtained by both techniques are more than flood machining. But tool wear and surface roughness showed improvement compared to flood machining. Economic analysis has been carried out in all the cases to decide the applicability of the techniques.

Keywords: economic analysis, machining, minimum quantity lubrication, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
78 Tribological Behavior of EP Additives with Different Percentage of Sulfur

Authors: Salete Martins Alves, José Josemar de Oliveira Junior

Abstract:

The current efforts on design of lubricants are based in attending the new requirement of modern equipment with the focus on the choice of base oil and additives. Nowadays, there are different types of lubricant oils’ bases, such as mineral oils, synthetic oils, re-refined oils and vegetable oils. The lubrication in the boundary condition is controlled mainly by EP additives that interact with the surface forming very thin films. Therefore, the study’s goal is to evaluate the action of three EP additives, with different percentage of sulfur, on friction and wear reduction. They were evaluated in mineral and synthetic oils. Lubricants were prepared with synthetic and mineral oils and added 3 % and 5 % of EP additives. The friction and wear characteristics were studied using HFRR test. In this test, a normal load of 10 N was applied at a frequency of 20 Hz. The analysis of results has appointed that the percentage of sulfur in mineral oil has influenced on wear reduction. However, synthetic oil had good performance with low sulfur content.

Keywords: boundary lubrication, EP additives, sulfur, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
77 Wear Resistance and Mechanical Performance of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Influenced by Temperature Change

Authors: Juan Carlos Baena, Zhongxiao Peng

Abstract:

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is extensively used in industrial and biomedical fields. The slippery nature of UHMWPE makes this material suitable for surface bearing applications, however, the operational conditions limit the lubrication efficiency, inducing boundary and mixed lubrication in the tribological system. The lack of lubrication in a tribological system intensifies friction, contact stress and consequently, operating temperature. With temperature increase, the material’s mechanical properties are affected, and the lifespan of the component is reduced. The understanding of how mechanical properties and wear performance of UHMWPE change when the temperature is increased has not been clearly identified. The understanding of the wear and mechanical performance of UHMWPE at different temperature is important to predict and further improve the lifespan of these components. This study evaluates the effects of temperature variation in a range of 20 °C to 60 °C on the hardness and the wear resistance of UHMWPE. A reduction of the hardness and wear resistance was observed with the increase in temperature. The variation of the wear rate increased 94.8% when the temperature changed from 20 °C to 50 °C. Although hardness is regarded to be an indicator of the material wear resistance, this study found that wear resistance decreased more rapidly than hardness with the temperature increase, evidencing a low material stability of this component in a short temperature interval. The reduction of the hardness was reflected by the plastic deformation and abrasion intensity, resulting in a significant wear rate increase.

Keywords: hardness, surface bearing, tribological system, UHMWPE, wear

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76 Development of Graph-Theoretic Model for Ranking Top of Rail Lubricants

Authors: Subhash Chandra Sharma, Mohammad Soleimani

Abstract:

Selection of the correct lubricant for the top of rail application is a complex process. In this paper, the selection of the proper lubricant for a Top-Of-Rail (TOR) lubrication system based on graph theory and matrix approach has been developed. Attributes influencing the selection process and their influence on each other has been represented through a digraph and an equivalent matrix. A matrix function which is called the Permanent Function is derived. By substituting the level of inherent contribution of the influencing parameters and their influence on each other qualitatively, a criterion called Suitability Index is derived. Based on these indices, lubricants can be ranked for their suitability. The proposed model can be useful for maintenance engineers in selecting the best lubricant for a TOR application. The proposed methodology is illustrated step–by-step through an example.

Keywords: lubricant selection, top of rail lubrication, graph-theory, Ranking of lubricants

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75 Hybrid Quasi-Steady Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Model for Studying the Behavior of Oil in Water Emulsions Used in Machining Tool Cooling and Lubrication

Authors: W. Hasan, H. Farhat, A. Alhilo, L. Tamimi

Abstract:

Oil in water (O/W) emulsions are utilized extensively for cooling and lubricating cutting tools during parts machining. A robust Lattice Boltzmann (LBM) thermal-surfactants model, which provides a useful platform for exploring complex emulsions’ characteristics under variety of flow conditions, is used here for the study of the fluid behavior during conventional tools cooling. The transient thermal capabilities of the model are employed for simulating the effects of the flow conditions of O/W emulsions on the cooling of cutting tools. The model results show that the temperature outcome is slightly affected by reversing the direction of upper plate (workpiece). On the other hand, an important increase in effective viscosity is seen which supports better lubrication during the work.

Keywords: hybrid lattice Boltzmann method, Gunstensen model, thermal, surfactant-covered droplet, Marangoni stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
74 Diagnosis of the Lubrification System of a Gas Turbine Using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

Authors: H. Mahdjoub, B. Hamaidi, B. Zerouali, S. Rouabhia

Abstract:

The issue of fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) has gained widespread industrial interest in process condition monitoring applications. Accordingly, the use of neuro-fuzzy technic seems very promising. This paper treats a diagnosis modeling a strategic equipment of an industrial installation. We propose a diagnostic tool based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The neuro-fuzzy network provides an abductive diagnosis. Moreover, it takes into account the uncertainties on the maintenance knowledge by giving a fuzzy characterization of each cause. This work was carried out with real data of a lubrication circuit from the gas turbine. The machine of interest is a gas turbine placed in a gas compressor station at South Industrial Centre (SIC Hassi Messaoud Ouargla, Algeria). We have defined the zones of good and bad functioning, and the results are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method.

Keywords: fault detection and diagnosis, lubrication system, turbine, ANFIS, training, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
73 Effect of Realistic Lubricant Properties on Thermal Electrohydrodynamic Lubrication Behavior in Circular Contacts

Authors: Puneet Katyal, Punit Kumar

Abstract:

A great deal of efforts has been done in the field of thermal effects in electrohydrodynamic lubrication (TEHL) during the last five decades. The focus was primarily on the development of an efficient numerical scheme to deal with the computational challenges involved in the solution of TEHL model; however, some important aspects related to the accurate description of lubricant properties such as viscosity, rheology and thermal conductivity in EHL point contact analysis remain largely neglected. A few studies available in this regard are based upon highly complex mathematical models difficult to formulate and execute. Using a simplified thermal EHL model for point contacts, this work sheds some light on the importance of accurate characterization of the lubricant properties and demonstrates that the computed TEHL characteristics are highly sensitive to lubricant properties. It also emphasizes the use of appropriate mathematical models with experimentally determined parameters to account for correct lubricant behaviour.

Keywords: TEHL, shear thinning, rheology, conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
72 Friction and Wear Characteristics of Pongamia Oil Based Blended Lubricant at Different Load and Sliding Distance

Authors: Yashvir Singh

Abstract:

Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non -toxic and environmental friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of Pongamia oil (PO) contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, PO was blended in the ratios 15, 30 and 50% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms were abrasive and the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 15% PO, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. With increase in load, viscosity of all the bio-lubricants increases and meets the ISO VG 100 requirement at 40 oC except PB 50. The addition of PO in the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear scar diameter during the test. It has been concluded that the PB 15 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.

Keywords: friction, load, pongamia oil, sliding velocity, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
71 The Effect of Bearing Surface Finish on the Engine's Lubrication System Performance

Authors: Kudakwashe Diana Nyamugure

Abstract:

Engine design has evolved to suit new industry standards of smaller compact designs that operate at high temperatures and even higher stress loads. Research has proven that the interaction of the bearing surface and the lubrication film is affected by the bearing's surface texture, geometry, and dimensional tolerances. The challenge now for the automotive manufacturing industry is to understand which processes can be applied on bearing surfaces to reduce the 65% energy loss in engines, 15% of which is caused by friction. This paper will discuss a post grinding process known as microfinishing which optimises the characteristics of a manufactured surface such as roughness, profile, and waviness. Microfinishing is becoming an increasing trend within the automotive industry and has so far been applied on high performance and mass production crank or cam bearing surfaces in bid of friction reduction and extended engine service life. In the near future, microfinishing will be applied to more engine components because of the stringent environmental regulations demands on fuel consumption, reliability, power, and service life of engine components.

Keywords: bearings, tribology, friction reduction, energy efficiency

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70 Argon/Oxygen Plasma Surface Modification of Biopolymers for Improvement of Wettability and Wear Resistance

Authors: Binnur Sagbas

Abstract:

Artificial joint replacements such as total knee and total hip prosthesis have been applied to the patients who affected by osteoarthritis. Although different material combinations are used for these joints, biopolymers are most commonly preferred materials especially for acetabular cup and tibial component of hip and knee joints respectively. The main limitation that shortens the service life of these prostheses is wear. Wear is complicated phenomena and it must be considered with friction and lubrication. In this study, micro wave (MW) induced argon+oxygen plasma surface modification were applied on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and vitamin E blended UHMWPE (VE-UHMWPE) biopolymer surfaces to improve surface wettability and wear resistance of the surfaces. Contact angel measurement method was used for determination of wettability. Ball-on-disc wear test was applied under 25% bovine serum lubrication conditions. The results show that surface wettability and wear resistance of both material samples were increased by plasma surface modification.

Keywords: artificial joints, plasma surface modification, UHMWPE, vitamin E, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
69 Tribological Behavior of Pongamia Oil Based Biodiesel Blended Lubricant at Different Load

Authors: Yashvir Singh, Amneesh Singla, Swapnil Bhurat

Abstract:

Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non toxic, and environmentally-friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of ponagamia biodiesel contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, Ponagamia oil based biodiesel were blended in the ratios 5, 10, and 20% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 2.5 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms was the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 5 and 10% Ponagamia oil based biodiesel, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. The addition of 5 and 10% Ponagamia oil based biodiesel with the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear rate during the test. It has been concluded that the PBO 5 and PBO 10 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 2.5 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.

Keywords: friction, load, pongamia oil blend, sliding velocity, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
68 Enhancing Single Channel Minimum Quantity Lubrication through Bypass Controlled Design for Deep Hole Drilling with Small Diameter Tool

Authors: Yongrong Li, Ralf Domroes

Abstract:

Due to significant energy savings, enablement of higher machining speed as well as environmentally friendly features, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) has been used for many machining processes efficiently. However, in the deep hole drilling field (small tool diameter D < 5 mm) and long tool (length L > 25xD) it is always a bottle neck for a single channel MQL system. The single channel MQL, based on the Venturi principle, faces a lack of enough oil quantity caused by dropped pressure difference during the deep hole drilling process. In this paper, a system concept based on a bypass design has explored its possibility to dynamically reach the required pressure difference between the air inlet and the inside of aerosol generator, so that the deep hole drilling demanded volume of oil can be generated and delivered to tool tips. The system concept has been investigated in static and dynamic laboratory testing. In the static test, the oil volume with and without bypass control were measured. This shows an oil quantity increasing potential up to 1000%. A spray pattern test has demonstrated the differences of aerosol particle size, aerosol distribution and reaction time between single channel and bypass controlled single channel MQL systems. A dynamic trial machining test of deep hole drilling (drill tool D=4.5mm, L= 40xD) has been carried out with the proposed system on a difficult machining material AlSi7Mg. The tool wear along a 100 meter drilling was tracked and analyzed. The result shows that the single channel MQL with a bypass control can overcome the limitation and enhance deep hole drilling with a small tool. The optimized combination of inlet air pressure and bypass control results in a high quality oil delivery to tool tips with a uniform and continuous aerosol flow.

Keywords: deep hole drilling, green production, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL), near dry machining

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67 Simple and Effective Method of Lubrication and Wear Protection

Authors: Buddha Ratna Shrestha, Jimmy Faivre, Xavier Banquy

Abstract:

By precisely controlling the molecular interactions between anti-wear macromolecules and bottle-brush lubricating molecules in the solution state, we obtained a fluid with excellent lubricating and wear protection capabilities. The reason for this synergistic behavior relies on the subtle interaction forces between the fluid components which allow the confined macromolecules to sustain high loads under shear without rupture. Our results provide rational guides to design such fluids for virtually any type of surfaces. The lowest friction coefficient and the maximum pressure that it can sustain is 5*10-3 and 2.5 MPa which is close to the physiological pressure. Lubricating and protecting surfaces against wear using liquid lubricants is a great technological challenge. Until now, wear protection was usually imparted by surface coatings involving complex chemical modifications of the surface while lubrication was provided by a lubricating fluid. Hence, we here research for a simple, effective and applicable solution to the above problem using surface force apparatus (SFA). SFA is a powerful technique with sub-angstrom resolution in distance and 10 nN/m resolution in interaction force while performing friction experiment. Thus, SFA is used to have the direct insight into interaction force, material and friction at interface. Also, we always know the exact contact area. From our experiments, we found that by precisely controlling the molecular interactions between anti-wear macromolecules and lubricating molecules, we obtained a fluid with excellent lubricating and wear protection capabilities. The reason for this synergistic behavior relies on the subtle interaction forces between the fluid components which allow the confined macromolecules to sustain high loads under shear without rupture. The lowest friction coefficient and the maximum pressure that it can sustain in our system is 5*10-3 and 2.5 GPA which is well above the physiological pressure. Our results provide rational guides to design such fluids for virtually any type of surfaces. Most importantly this process is simple, effective and applicable method of lubrication and protection as until now wear protection was usually imparted by surface coatings involving complex chemical modifications of the surface. Currently, the frictional data that are obtained while sliding the flat mica surfaces are compared and confirmed that a particular mixture of solution was found to surpass all other combination. So, further we would like to confirm that the lubricating and antiwear protection remains the same by performing the friction experiments in synthetic cartilages.

Keywords: bottle brush polymer, hyaluronic acid, lubrication, tribology

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66 On a Determination of Residual Stresses and Wear Resistance of Thermally Sprayed Stainless Steel Coating

Authors: Merzak Laribi, Abdelmadjid Kasser

Abstract:

Thermal spraying processes are widely used to produce coatings on original constructions as well as in repair and maintenance of long standing structures. A lot of efforts forwarding to develop thermal spray coatings technology have been focused on improving mechanical characteristics, minimizing residual stress level and reducing porosity of the coatings. The specific aim of this paper is to determine either residual stresses distribution or wear resistance of stainless steel coating thermally sprayed on a carbon steel substrate. Internal stresses determination was performed using an extensometric method in combination with a simultaneous progressive electrolytic polishing. The procedure consists of measuring micro-deformations using a bi-directional extensometric gauges glued on the substrate side of the materials. Very thin layers of the deposits are removed by electrochemical polishing across the sample surface. Micro-deformations are instantaneously measured, leading to residual stresses calculation after each removal. Wear resistance of the coating has been determined using a ball-on-plate tribometer. Friction coefficient is instantaneously measured during the tribological test. Attention was particularly focused on the influence of a post-annealing at 850 °C for one hour in vacuum either on the residual stresses distribution or on the wear resistance behavior under specific wear and lubrication conditions. The obtained results showed that the microstructure of the obtained arc sprayed stainless steel coating is classical. It is homogeneous and contains un-melted particles, metallic oxides and also pores and micro-cracks. The internal stresses are in compression in the coating. They are more or less scattered between -50 and -270 MPa on the surface and decreased more at the interface. The value at the surface of the substrate is about –700 MPa, partially due to the molten particles impact with the substrate. The post annealing has reduced the residual stresses in both coating and surface of the steel substrate so that the hole material becomes more relaxed. Friction coefficient has an average value of 0.3 and 0.4 respectively for non annealed and annealed specimen. It is rather oil lubrication which is really benefit so that friction coefficient is decreased to about 0.06.

Keywords: residual stresses, wear resistance, stainless steel, coating, thermal spraying, annealing, lubrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
65 Investigation of the Possibility of Using Carbon Onion Nanolubrication with DLC Cutting Tool to Reduce the Machining Power Consumption

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, M. Sayuti, M. Hamdi

Abstract:

Due to rapid consumption of world's fossil fuel resources and impracticality of large-scale application and production of renewable energy, the significance of energy efficiency improvement of current available energy modes has been widely realized by both industry and academia. In the CNC machining field, the key solution for this issue is by increasing the effectiveness of the existing lubrication systems as it could reduce the power required to overcome the friction component in machining process. For more improvement, introducing the nanolubrication could produce much less power consumption as the rolling action of billions units of nanoparticle in the tool chip interface could reduce the cutting forces significantly. In this research, the possibility of using carbon onion nanolubrication with DLC cutting tool is investigated to reduce the machining power consumption. Carbon onion nanolubrication has been successfully developed with high tribology performance and mixed with ordinary mineral oil. The proper sonification method is used to provide a way to mix and suspend the particles thoroughly and efficiently. Furthermore, Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) cutting tool is used and expected to play significant role in reducing friction and cutting forces and increasing abrasion resistance. The results showed significant reduction of the cutting force and the working power compared with the other conditions of using carbon black and normal lubrication systems.

Keywords: carbon onion, nanolubrication, machining power consumption, DLC cutting tool

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64 Capillary Wave Motion and Atomization Induced by Surface Acoustic Waves under the Navier-Slip Condition at the Wall

Authors: Jaime E. Munoz, Jose C. Arcos, Oscar E. Bautista, Ivan E. Campos

Abstract:

The influence of slippage phenomenon over the destabilization and atomization mechanisms induced via surface acoustic waves on a Newtonian, millimeter-sized, drop deposited on a hydrophilic substrate is studied theoretically. By implementing the Navier-slip model and a lubrication-type approach into the equations which govern the dynamic response of a drop exposed to acoustic stress, a highly nonlinear evolution equation for the air-liquid interface is derived in terms of the acoustic capillary number and the slip coefficient. By numerically solving such an evolution equation, the Spatio-temporal deformation of the drop's free surface is obtained; in this context, atomization of the initial drop into micron-sized droplets is predicted at our numerical model once the acoustically-driven capillary waves reach a critical value: the instability length. Our results show slippage phenomenon at systems with partial and complete wetting favors the formation of capillary waves at the free surface, which traduces in a major volume of liquid being atomized in comparison to the no-slip case for a given time interval. In consequence, slippage at the wall possesses the capability to affect and improve the atomization rate for a drop exposed to a high-frequency acoustic field.

Keywords: capillary instability, lubrication theory, navier-slip condition, SAW atomization

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
63 Theoretical Analysis of the Existing Sheet Thickness in the Calendering of Pseudoplastic Material

Authors: Muhammad Zahid

Abstract:

The mechanical process of smoothing and compressing a molten material by passing it through a number of pairs of heated rolls in order to produce a sheet of desired thickness is called calendering. The rolls that are in combination are called calenders, a term derived from kylindros the Greek word for the cylinder. It infects the finishing process used on cloth, paper, textiles, leather cloth, or plastic film and so on. It is a mechanism which is used to strengthen surface properties, minimize sheet thickness, and yield special effects such as a glaze or polish. It has a wide variety of applications in industries in the manufacturing of textile fabrics, coated fabrics, and plastic sheeting to provide the desired surface finish and texture. An analysis has been presented for the calendering of Pseudoplastic material. The lubrication approximation theory (LAT) has been used to simplify the equations of motion. For the investigation of the nature of the steady solutions that exist, we make use of the combination of exact solution and numerical methods. The expressions for the velocity profile, rate of volumetric flow and pressure gradient are found in the form of exact solutions. Furthermore, the quantities of interest by engineering point of view, such as pressure distribution, roll-separating force, and power transmitted to the fluid by the rolls are also computed. Some results are shown graphically while others are given in the tabulated form. It is found that the non-Newtonian parameter and Reynolds number serve as the controlling parameters for the calendering process.

Keywords: calendering, exact solutions, lubrication approximation theory, numerical solutions, pseudoplastic material

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62 Predictions of Dynamic Behaviors for Gas Foil Bearings Operating at Steady-State Based on Multi-Physics Coupling Computer Aided Engineering Simulations

Authors: Tai Yuan Yu, Pei-Jen Wang

Abstract:

A simulation scheme of rotational motions for predictions of bump-type gas foil bearings operating at steady-state is proposed; and, the scheme is based on multi-physics coupling computer aided engineering packages modularized with computational fluid dynamic model and structure elasticity model to numerically solve the dynamic equation of motions of a hydrodynamic loaded shaft supported by an elastic bump foil. The bump foil is assumed to be modelled as infinite number of Hookean springs mounted on stiff wall. Hence, the top foil stiffness is constant on the periphery of the bearing housing. The hydrodynamic pressure generated by the air film lubrication transfers to the top foil and induces elastic deformation needed to be solved by a finite element method program, whereas the pressure profile applied on the top foil must be solved by a finite element method program based on Reynolds Equation in lubrication theory. As a result, the equation of motions for the bearing shaft are iteratively solved via coupling of the two finite element method programs simultaneously. In conclusion, the two-dimensional center trajectory of the shaft plus the deformation map on top foil at constant rotational speed are calculated for comparisons with the experimental results.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, fluid structure interaction multi-physics simulations, gas foil bearing, load capacity

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61 Design and Development of Engine Valve Train Wear Test Rig for the Assessment of Valve Train Tribochemistry

Authors: V. Manjunath, C. V. Chandrashekara

Abstract:

Ecosystem authority calls for the use of lubricants with less effect on the nature in terms of exhaust emission, while engine user demands more mileage per liter of fuel without any compromise on engine durability. From this viewpoint, engine manufacturers require the optimum combination of materials and lubricant additive package to minimize friction and wear in the engine components like piston, crankshaft and valve train etc. The demands are placed for requirements to operate at higher speeds, loads, temperature and for extended replacement intervals of engine oil. Besides, it is necessary to accurately predict the lubricant life or the replacement interval to prevent lubrication and valve-train components failure. Experimental tribology evaluation of new engine oils requires large amount of time and energy. Hence low cost bench test is necessary for industries and original equipment manufacturing companies (OEM) to study the performance of lubricants. The present work outlines the procedure for the design and development of a valve train wear rig (MCR) to simulate the ASTMD-6891 and to develop new engine test for Indian automobile sector to evaluate lubricants for Indian automobile market. In order to improve the lubrication between cam and follower of internal combustion engine, the influence of materials or oils viscosity and additives on the friction and wear characteristics are examined with test rig by increasing the contact load at two different revolution speed. From the experimentation following results are made obvious. Temperature, Torque, speed and wear plots are used to validate the data obtained from the newly developed multi-cam cam rig (MCR) with follower against a cast iron camshaft. Camshaft lobe wear is measured at seven different locations on cam profile. Tribofilm formed using 5W-30 oil is evaluated and correlated with the standard test results.

Keywords: ASTMD-6891, multi-cam rig (MCR), 5W-30, cam-profile

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60 Effects of Additional Pelvic Floor Exercise on Sexual Function, Quality of Life and Pain Intensity in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Emel Sonmezer, Hayri Baran Yosmaoglu

Abstract:

The negative impact of chronic pain syndromes on sexual function has been reported in several studies; however, the influences of treatment strategies on sexual dysfunction have not been evaluated widely. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pelvic floor exercise on sexual dysfunction in female patients with chronic low back pain. Forty-two patient with chronic low back pain were enrolled this study. Subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 received conventional physiotherapy consist of heat therapy, ergonomic education, William flexion exercise during 6 weeks. Group 2 received pelvic floor exercises in addition to conventional physiotherapy. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used for the assessment of sexual function. Pain intensity was assessed with Visual Analogue Scale. Quality of life was assessed with World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale. All measurements were taken before and after treatment. In conventional physiotherapy group; there were significant improvement in pain intensity (p= 0,003), physical health (p=0,011), psychological health (p=0,042) subscales of quality of life scale, arousal (p=0,042), lubrication (p=0,028) and pain (p= 0,034) subscales of FSFI. In additional pelvic floor exercise group; there were significant improvement in pain intensity (p= 0,005), physical health (p=0,012) psychological health (p=0,039) subscales of quality of life scale, arousal (p=0,024), lubrication (p=0,011), orgasm (p=0,035) and pain (p= 0,015) subscales and total score (p=0,016) of FSFI. Total FSFI score (p=0,025) and orgasm (p=0,017) subscale of FSFI were significantly higher for the additional pelvic floor exercise group than the conventional physiotherapy group.The outcome of this study suggested that conventional physiotherapy may contribute to improve pain, quality of life and some parameters of the sexual function in patients with low back pain. Although additional pelvic floor exercise did not reveal more treatment effect in terms of quality of life and pain intensity, it caused significant improvement in sexual function. It is recommended that pelvic floor exercise should be added to treatment programs in order to manage sexual dysfunction more effectively in patients with chronic low back pain.

Keywords: physiotherapy, chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, pelvic floor

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59 A Modelling of Main Bearings in the Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

Authors: Marcin Szlachetka, Rafal Sochaczewski, Lukasz Grabowski

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the load simulations of main bearings in a two-stroke Diesel engine. A model of an engine lubrication system with connections of its main lubrication nodes, i.e., a connection of its main bearings in the engine block with the crankshaft, a connection of its crankpins with its connecting rod and a connection of its pin and its piston has been created for our calculations performed using the AVL EXCITE Designer. The analysis covers the loads given as a pressure distribution in a hydrodynamic oil film, a temperature distribution on the main bush surfaces for the specified radial clearance values as well as the impact of the force of gas on the minimum oil film thickness in the main bearings depending on crankshaft rotational speeds and temperatures of oil in the bearings. One of the main goals of the research has been to determine whether the minimum thickness of the oil film at which fluid friction occurs can be achieved for each value of crankshaft speed. Our model calculates different oil film parameters, i.e., its thickness, a pressure distribution there, the change in oil temperature. Additional enables an analysis of an oil temperature distribution on the surfaces of the bearing seats. It allows verifying the selected clearances in the bearings of the main engine under normal operation conditions and extremal ones that show a significant increase in temperature above the limit value. The research has been conducted for several engine crankshaft speeds ranging from 1000 rpm to 4000 rpm. The oil pressure in the bearings has ranged 2-5 bar according to engine speeds and the oil temperature has ranged 90-120 °C. The main bearing clearance has been adopted for the calculation and analysis as 0.025 mm. The oil classified as SAE 5W-30 has been used for the simulations. The paper discusses the selected research results referring to several specific operating points and different temperatures of the lubricating oil in the bearings. The received research results show that for the investigated main bearing bushes of the shaft, the results fall within the ranges of the limit values despite the increase in the oil temperature of the bearings reaching 120˚C. The fact that the bearings are loaded with the maximum pressure makes no excessive temperature rise on the bush surfaces. The oil temperature increases by 17˚C, reaching 137˚C at a speed of 4000 rpm. The minimum film thickness at which fluid friction occurs has been achieved for each of the operating points at each of the engine crankshaft speeds. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A.’ and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, main bearings, opposing pistons, two-stroke

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58 Experimental Investigation and Numerical Simulations of the Cylindrical Machining of a Ti-6Al-4V Tree

Authors: Mohamed Sahli, David Bassir, Thierry Barriere, Xavier Roizard

Abstract:

Predicting the behaviour of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy during the turning operation was very important in the choice of suitable cutting tools and also in the machining strategies. In this study, a 3D model with thermo-mechanical coupling has been proposed to study the influence of cutting parameters and also lubrication on the performance of cutting tools. The constants of the constitutive Johnson-Cook model of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were identified using inverse analysis based on the parameters of the orthogonal cutting process. Then, numerical simulations of the finishing machining operation were developed and experimentally validated for the cylindrical stock removal stage with the finishing cutting tool.

Keywords: titanium turning, cutting tools, FE simulation, chip

Procedia PDF Downloads 75