Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6517

Search results for: RF energy harvesting

6517 Demonstration of Powering up Low Power Wireless Sensor Network by RF Energy Harvesting System

Authors: Lim Teck Beng, Thiha Kyaw, Poh Boon Kiat, Lee Ngai Meng


This work presents discussion on the possibility of merging two emerging technologies in microwave; wireless power transfer (WPT) and RF energy harvesting. The current state of art of the two technologies is discussed and the strength and weakness of the two technologies is also presented. The equivalent circuit of wireless power transfer is modeled and explained as how the range and efficiency can be further increased by controlling certain parameters in the receiver. The different techniques of harvesting the RF energy from the ambient are also extensive study. Last but not least, we demonstrate that a low power wireless sensor network (WSN) can be power up by RF energy harvesting. The WSN is designed to transmit every 3 minutes of information containing the temperature of the environment and also the voltage of the node. One thing worth mention is both the sensors that are used for measurement are also powering up by the RF energy harvesting system.

Keywords: energy harvesting, wireless power transfer, wireless sensor network and magnetic coupled resonator

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6516 Performance Assessment in a Voice Coil Motor for Maximizing the Energy Harvesting with Gait Motions

Authors: Hector A. Tinoco, Cesar Garcia-Diaz, Olga L. Ocampo-Lopez


In this study, an experimental approach is established to assess the performance of different beams coupled to a Voice Coil Motor (VCM) with the aim to maximize mechanically the energy harvesting in the inductive transducer that is included on it. The VCM is extracted from a recycled hard disk drive (HDD) and it is adapted for carrying out experimental tests of energy harvesting. Two individuals were selected for walking with the VCM-beam device as well as to evaluate the performance varying two parameters in the beam; length of the beams and a mass addition. Results show that the energy harvesting is maximized with specific beams; however, the harvesting efficiency is improved when a mass is added to the end of the beams.

Keywords: hard disk drive, energy harvesting, voice coil motor, energy harvester, gait motions

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6515 An Electromechanical Device to Use in Road Pavements to Convert Vehicles Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy

Authors: Francisco Duarte, Adelino Ferreira, Paulo Fael


With the growing need for alternative energy sources, research into energy harvesting technologies has increased considerably in recent years. The particular case of energy harvesting on road pavements is a very recent area of research, with different technologies having been developed in recent years. However, none of them have presented high conversion efficiencies nor technical or economic viability. This paper deals with the development of a mechanical system to implement on a road pavement energy harvesting electromechanical device, to transmit energy from the device surface to an electrical generator. The main goal is to quantify the energy harvesting, transmission and conversion efficiency of the proposed system and compare it with existing systems. Conclusions about the system’s efficiency are presented.

Keywords: road pavement, energy harvesting, energy conversion, system modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
6514 Cooperative Communication of Energy Harvesting Synchronized-OOK IR-UWB Based Tags

Authors: M. A. Mulatu, L. C. Chang, Y. S. Han


Energy harvesting tags with cooperative communication capabilities are emerging as possible infrastructure for internet of things (IoT) applications. This paper studies about the \ cooperative transmission strategy for a network of energy harvesting active networked tags (EnHANTs), that is adapted to the available energy resource and identification request. We consider a network of EnHANT-equipped objects to communicate with the destination either directly or by cooperating with neighboring objects. We formulate the the problem as a Markov decision process (MDP) under synchronised On/Off keying (S-OOK) pulse modulation format. The simulation results are provided to show the the performance of the cooperative transmission policy and compared against the greedy and conservative policies of single-link transmission.

Keywords: cooperative communication, transmission strategy, energy harvesting, Markov decision process, value iteration

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6513 Rectenna Modeling Based on MoM-GEC Method for RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Soulayma Smirani, Mourad Aidi, Taoufik Aguili


Energy harvesting has arisen as a prominent research area for low power delivery to RF devices. Rectennas have become a key element in this technology. In this paper, electromagnetic modeling of a rectenna system is presented. In our approach, a hybrid technique was demonstrated to associate both the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and MoM-GEC (the method of moments combined with the generalized equivalent circuit technique). Auxiliary sources were used in order to substitute specific electronic devices. Therefore, a simple and controllable model is obtained. Also, it can easily be interconnected to form different topologies of rectenna arrays for more energy harvesting. At last, simulation results show the feasibility and simplicity of the proposed rectenna model with high precision and computation efficiency.

Keywords: computational electromagnetics, MoM-GEC method, rectennas, RF energy harvesting

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6512 Piezoelectric Micro-generator Characterization for Energy Harvesting Application

Authors: José E. Q. Souza, Marcio Fontana, Antonio C. C. Lima


This paper presents analysis and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-generator for energy harvesting application. A low-cost experimental prototype was designed to operate as piezoelectric micro-generator in the laboratory. An input acceleration of 9.8m/s2 using a sine signal (peak-to-peak voltage: 1V, offset voltage: 0V) at frequencies ranging from 10Hz to 160Hz generated a maximum average power of 432.4μW (linear mass position = 25mm) and an average power of 543.3μW (angular mass position = 35°). These promising results show that the prototype can be considered for low consumption load application as an energy harvesting micro-generator.

Keywords: piezoelectric, micro-generator, energy harvesting, cantilever beam

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6511 How to Capitalize on BioCNG at a Wastewater Plant

Authors: William G. "Gus" Simmons


Municipal and industrial wastewater plants across our country utilize anaerobic digestion as either primary treatment or as a means of waste sludge treatment and reduction. The emphasis on renewable energy and clean energy over the past several years, coupled with increasing electricity costs and increasing consumer demands for efficient utility operations has led to closer examination of the potential for harvesting the energy value of the biogas produced by anaerobic digestion. Although some facilities may have already come to the belief that harvesting this energy value is not practical or a top priority as compared to other capital needs and initiatives at the wastewater plant, we see that many are seeing biogas, and an opportunity for additional revenues, go up in flames as they continue to flare. Conversely, few wastewater plants under progressive and visionary leadership have demonstrated that harvesting the energy value from anaerobic digestion is more than “smoke and hot air”. From providing thermal energy to adjacent or on-campus operations to generating electricity and/or transportation fuels, these facilities are proving that energy harvesting can not only be profitable, but sustainable. This paper explores ways in which wastewater treatment plants can increase their value and import to the communities they serve through the generation of clean, renewable energy; also presented the processes in which these facilities moved from energy and cost sinks to sparks of innovation and pride in the communities in which they operate.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, harvesting energy, biogas, renewable energy, sustainability

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6510 Theoretical and Numerical Investigation of a Tri-Stable Nonlinear Energy Harvesting System in Rotational Motion for Low Frequency Environment

Authors: Mei Xutao, Nakano Kimihiko


In order to enhance the energy harvesting efficiency, this paper presents a novel tri-stable energy harvesting system (TEHS), which is realized by the effect of magnetic force, in rotational motion to scavenge vibration energy. The device is meant to provide the power supply for wireless autonomous systems in low-frequency environment. The nonlinear TEHS is composed of the cantilever beam which is mounted on a rotating hub and partially covered by piezoelectric patch, a tip mass magnet in the end and two fixed magnets. A theoretical investigation using the Lagrangian formulation is derived to describe the motion of the energy harvesting system and the output voltage. Additionally, several numerical simulations were carried out to characterize the system under different external excitations and to validate its performance. The results demonstrated that TEHS owns a wide range of frequency of snap-through and high output voltage compared with the bi-stable energy harvesting system (BEHS). Moreover, some sets of experimental validations will be performed in the future work because the experimental setup is in the configuration now.

Keywords: piezoelectric beam, rotational motion, snap-through, tri-stable energy harvester

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6509 Multifunctional Composite Structural Elements for Sensing and Energy Harvesting

Authors: Amir H. Alavi, Kaveh Barri, Qianyun Zhang


This study presents a new generation of lightweight and mechanically tunable structural composites with sensing and energy harvesting functionalities. This goal is achieved by integrating metamaterial and triboelectric energy harvesting concepts. Proof-of-concept polymeric beam prototypes are fabricated using 3D printing methods based on the proposed concept. Experiments and theoretical analyses are conducted to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of the designed multifunctional beams. The results show that these integrated structural elements can serve as nanogenerators and distributed sensing mediums without a need to incorporating any external sensing modules and electronics. The feasibility of design self-sensing and self-powering structural elements at multiscale for next generation infrastructure systems is further discussed.

Keywords: multifunctional structures, composites, metamaterial, triboelectric nanogenerator, sensors, structural health monitoring, energy harvesting

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6508 Development of a Mathematical Theoretical Model and Simulation of the Electromechanical System for Wave Energy Harvesting

Authors: P. Valdez, M. Pelissero, A. Haim, F. Muiño, F. Galia, R. Tula


As a result of the studies performed on the wave energy resource worldwide, a research project was set up to harvest wave energy for its conversion into electrical energy. Within this framework, a theoretical model of the electromechanical energy harvesting system, developed with MATLAB’s Simulink software, will be provided. This tool recreates the site conditions where the device will be installed and offers valuable information about the amount of energy that can be harnessed. This research provides a deeper understanding of the utilization of wave energy in order to improve the efficiency of a 1:1 scale prototype of the device.

Keywords: electromechanical device, modeling, renewable energy, sea wave energy, simulation

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6507 Design Analysis of Solar Energy Panels for Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Cyril Agochi Okorowo


More than ever human activity relating to uncontrolled greenhouse gas (GHG) and its effects on the earth is gaining greater attention in the global academic and policy discussions. Activities of man have greatly influenced climate change over the years as a result of a consistent increase in the use of fossil fuel energy. Scientists and researchers globally are making significant and devoted efforts towards the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies that are harmless to the environment. One of such energy is solar energy with its source from the sun. There are currently two primary ways of harvesting this energy from the sun: through photovoltaic (PV) panels and through thermal collectors. This work discusses solar energy as the abundant renewable energy in the tropical Nigeria, processes of harvesting the energy and recommends solar energy as an alternative means of electric power generation in a time the demand for power in Nigeria supersedes supply.

Keywords: analysis, energy, design, solar

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6506 Energy Harvesting with Zinc Oxide Based Nanogenerator: Design and Simulation Using Comsol-4.3 Software

Authors: Akanksha Rohit, Ujjwala Godavarthi, Anshua Mukherjee


Nanotechnology is one of the promising sustainable solutions in the era of miniaturization due to its multidisciplinary nature. The most interesting aspect about nanotechnology is its wide ranging applications from electronics to military and biomedical. It tries to connect individuals more closely to the environment. In this paper, concept of parasitic energy harvesting is used in designing nanogenerators using COMSOL 4.3 software. The output of the nanogenerator is optimized using following constraints: ease of availability of the material, fabrication process and cost of the material. The nanogenerator is optimized using ZnO based nanowires, PMMA as insulator and aluminum and silicon as metal electrodes. The energy harvested from the model can be used to power nanobots, several other biomedical sensors and eventually to replace batteries. Thus, advancements in this field can be very challenging but it is the future of the nano era.

Keywords: zinc oxide, piezoelectric, PMMA, parasitic energy harvesting, renewable energy engineering

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6505 Solar Energy: The Alternative Electric Power Resource in Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi


More than ever human activity relating to uncontrolled greenhouse gas (GHG) and its effects on the earth is gaining greater attention in the global academic and policy discussions. Activities of man has greatly influenced climate change over the years as a result of consistent increase in the use of fossil fuel energy. Scientists and researchers globally are making significant and devoted efforts towards the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies that are harmless to the environment. One of such energy is solar energy with its source from the sun. There are currently two primary ways of harvesting this energy from the sun: through photovoltaic (PV) panels and through thermal collectors. This work discuses solar energy the abundant renewable energy in the tropical Nigeria, processes of harvesting and recommends same as an alternative means of electric power generation in a time the demand for power supersedes supply.

Keywords: electric, power, renewable energy, solar energy, sun, tropical

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
6504 Optimization of Energy Harvesting Systems for RFID Applications

Authors: P. Chambe, B. Canova, A. Balabanian, M. Pele, N. Coeur


To avoid battery assisted tags with limited lifetime batteries, it is proposed here to replace them by energy harvesting systems, able to feed from local environment. This would allow total independence to RFID systems, very interesting for applications where tag removal from its location is not possible. Example is here described for luggage safety in airports, and is easily extendable to similar situation in terms of operation constraints. The idea is to fix RFID tag with energy harvesting system not only to identify luggage but also to supply an embedded microcontroller with a sensor delivering luggage weight making it impossible to add or to remove anything from the luggage during transit phases. The aim is to optimize the harvested energy for such RFID applications, and to study in which limits these applications are theoretically possible. Proposed energy harvester is based on two energy sources: piezoelectricity and electromagnetic waves, so that when the luggage is moving on ground transportation to airline counters, the piezo module supplies the tag and its microcontroller, while the RF module operates during luggage transit thanks to readers located along the way. Tag location on the luggage is analyzed to get best vibrations, as well as harvester better choice for optimizing the energy supply depending on applications and the amount of energy harvested during a period of time. Effects of system parameters (RFID UHF frequencies, limit distance between the tag and the antenna necessary to harvest energy, produced voltage and voltage threshold) are discussed and working conditions for such system are delimited.

Keywords: RFID tag, energy harvesting, piezoelectric, EM waves

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6503 Electromechanical-Traffic Model of Compression-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System

Authors: Saleh Gareh, B. C. Kok, H. H. Goh


Piezoelectric energy harvesting has advantages over other alternative sources due to its large power density, ease of applications, and capability to be fabricated at different scales: macro, micro, and nano. This paper presents an electromechanical-traffic model for roadway compression-based piezoelectric energy harvesting system. A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) electromechanical model has been developed for the piezoelectric energy harvesting unit to define its performance in power generation under a number of external excitations on road surface. Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-5H) is selected as the piezoelectric material to be used in this paper due to its high Piezoelectric Charge Constant (d) and Piezoelectric Voltage Constant (g) values. The main source of vibration energy that has been considered in this paper is the moving vehicle on the road. The effect of various frequencies on possible generated power caused by different vibration characteristics of moving vehicle has been studied. A single unit of circle-shape Piezoelectric Cymbal Transducer (PCT) with diameter of 32 mm and thickness of 0.3 mm be able to generate about 0.8 mW and 3 mW of electric power under 4 Hz and 20 Hz of excitation, respectively. The estimated power to be generated for multiple arrays of PCT is approximately 150 kW/ km. Thus, the developed electromechanical-traffic model has enormous potential to be used in estimating the macro scale of roadway power generation system.

Keywords: piezoelectric energy harvesting, cymbal transducer, PZT (lead zirconate titanate), 2-DOF

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6502 Study of Linear Generator for Vibration Energy Harvesting of Frequency more than 50Hz

Authors: Seong-Jin Cho, Jin Ho Kim


Energy harvesting is the technology which gathers and converts external energies such as light, vibration and heat which are disposed into reusable electrical energy and uses such electrical energy. The vibration energy harvesting is very interesting technology because it produces very high density of energy and unaffected by the climate. Vibration energy can be harvested by the electrostatic, electromagnetic and piezoelectric systems. The electrostatic system has low energy conversion efficiency, and the piezoelectric system is expensive and needs the frequent maintenance because it is made of piezoelectric ceramic. On the other hand, the electromagnetic system has a long life time and high harvesting efficiency, and it is relatively cheap. The electromagnetic harvesting system includes the linear generator and the rotary-type generator. The rotary-type generators require the additional mechanical conversion device if it uses linear motion of vibration. But, the linear generator uses directly linear motion of vibration without a mechanical conversion device, and it has uncomplicated structure and light weight compared with the rotary-type generator. Therefore, the linear electromagnetic generator can be useful in using vibration energy harvesting. The pole transformer systems need electricity sensor system for sending voltage and power information to administrator. Therefore, the battery is essential, and its regular maintenance of replacement is required. In case of the transformer of high location in mountainous areas, the person can’t easily access it resulting in high maintenance cost. To overcome these problems, we designed and developed the linear electromagnetic generator which can replace battery in electricity sensor system for sending voltage and power information of the pole transformer. And, it uses vibration energy of frequency more than 50 Hz by the pole transformer. In order to analyze the electromagnetic characteristics of small linear electric generator, a commercial electromagnetic finite element analysis program "MAXWELL" was used. Then, through the actual production and experiment of linear generator, we confirmed output power of linear generator.

Keywords: energy harvesting, frequency, linear generator, experiment

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6501 Antenna for Energy Harvesting in Wireless Connected Objects

Authors: Nizar Sakli, Chayma Bahar, Chokri Baccouch, Hedi Sakli


If connected objects multiply, they are becoming a challenge in more than one way. In particular by their consumption and their supply of electricity. A large part of the new generations of connected objects will only be able to develop if it is possible to make them entirely autonomous in terms of energy. Some manufacturers are therefore developing products capable of recovering energy from their environment. Vital solutions in certain contexts, such as the medical industry. Energy recovery from the environment is a reliable solution to solve the problem of powering wireless connected objects. This paper presents and study a optically transparent solar patch antenna in frequency band of 2.4 GHz for connected objects in the future standard 5G for energy harvesting and RF transmission.

Keywords: antenna, IoT, solar cell, wireless communications

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6500 MEMS based Vibration Energy Harvesting: An overview

Authors: Gaurav Prabhudesai, Shaurya Kaushal, Pulkit Dubey, B. D. Pant


The current race of miniaturization of circuits, systems, modules and networks has resulted in portable and mobile wireless systems having tremendous capabilities with small volume and weight. The power drivers or the power pack, electrically driving these modules have also reduced in proportion. Normally, the power packs in these mobile or fixed systems are batteries, rechargeable or non-rechargeable, which need regular replacement or recharging. Another approach to power these modules is to utilize the ambient energy available for electrical driving to make the system self-sustained. The current paper presents an overview of the different MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) based techniques used for the harvesting of vibration energy to electrically drive a WSN (wireless sensor network) or a mobile module. This kind of system would have enormous applications, the most significant one, may be in cell phones.

Keywords: energy harvesting, WSN, MEMS, piezoelectrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
6499 Efficient Energy Extraction Circuit for Impact Harvesting from High Impedance Sources

Authors: Sherif Keddis, Mohamed Azzam, Norbert Schwesinger


Harvesting mechanical energy from footsteps or other impacts is a possibility to enable wireless autonomous sensor nodes. These can be used for a highly efficient control of connected devices such as lights, security systems, air conditioning systems or other smart home applications. They can also be used for accurate location or occupancy monitoring. Converting the mechanical energy into useful electrical energy can be achieved using the piezoelectric effect offering simple harvesting setups and low deflections. The challenge facing piezoelectric transducers is the achievable amount of energy per impact in the lower mJ range and the management of such low energies. Simple setups for energy extraction such as a full wave bridge connected directly to a capacitor are problematic due to the mismatch between high impedance sources and low impedance storage elements. Efficient energy circuits for piezoelectric harvesters are commonly designed for vibration harvesters and require periodic input energies with predictable frequencies. Due to the sporadic nature of impact harvesters, such circuits are not well suited. This paper presents a self-powered circuit that avoids the impedance mismatch during energy extraction by disconnecting the load until the source reaches its charge peak. The switch is implemented with passive components and works independent from the input frequency. Therefore, this circuit is suited for impact harvesting and sporadic inputs. For the same input energy, this circuit stores 150% of the energy in comparison to a directly connected capacitor to a bridge rectifier. The total efficiency, defined as the ratio of stored energy on a capacitor to available energy measured across a matched resistive load, is 63%. Although the resulting energy is already sufficient to power certain autonomous applications, further optimization of the circuit are still under investigation in order to improve the overall efficiency.

Keywords: autonomous sensors, circuit design, energy harvesting, energy management, impact harvester, piezoelectricity

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6498 Development of a Harvest Mechanism for the Kahramanmaraş Chili Pepper

Authors: O. E. Akay, E. Güzel, M. T. Özcan


The pepper has quite a rich variety. The development of a single harvesting machine for all kinds of peppers is a difficult research topic. By development of harvesting mechanisms, we could be able to facilitate the pepper harvesting problems. In this study, an experimental harvesting machine was designed for chili pepper. Four-bar mechanism was used for the design of the prototype harvesting machine. At the result of harvest trials, 80% of peppers were harvested and 8% foreign materials were collected. These results have provided some tips on how to apply to large-scale pepper Four-bar mechanism of the harvest machine.

Keywords: kinematic simulation, four bar linkage, harvest mechanization, pepper harvest

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6497 Harvesting Energy from Lightning Strikes

Authors: Vaishakh Medikeri


Lightning, the marvelous, spectacular and the awesome truth of nature is one of the greatest energy sources left unharnessed since ages. A single lightning bolt of lightning contains energy of about 15 billion joules. This huge amount of energy cannot be harnessed completely but partially. This paper proposes to harness the energy from lightning strikes. Throughout the globe the frequency of lightning is 40-50 flashes per second, totally 1.4 billion flashes per year; all of these flashes carrying an average energy of about 15 billion joules each. When a lightning bolt strikes the ground, tremendous amounts of energy is transferred to earth which propagates in the form of concentric circular energy waves. These waves have a frequency of about 7.83Hz. Harvesting the lightning bolt directly seems impossible, but harvesting the energy waves produced by the lightning is pretty easier. This can be done using a tricoil energy harnesser which is a new device which I have invented. We know that lightning bolt seeks the path which has minimum resistance down to the earth. For this we can make a lightning rod about 100 meters high. Now the lightning rod is attached to the tricoil energy harnesser. The tricoil energy harnesser contains three coils whose centers are collinear and all the coils are parallel to the ground. The first coil has one of its ends connected to the lightning rod and the other end grounded. There is a secondary coil wound on the first coil with one of its end grounded and the other end pointing to the ground and left unconnected and placed a little bit above the ground so that this end of the coil produces more intense currents, hence producing intense energy waves. The first coil produces very high magnetic fields and induces them in the second and third coils. Along with the magnetic fields induced by the first coil, the energy waves which are currents also flow through the second and the third coils. The second and the third coils are connected to a generator which in turn is connected to a capacitor which stores the electrical energy. The first coil is placed in the middle of the second and the third coil. The stored energy can be used for transmission of electricity. This new technique of harnessing the lightning strikes would be most efficient in places with more probability of the lightning strikes. Since we are using a lightning rod sufficiently long, the probability of cloud to ground strikes is increased. If the proposed apparatus is implemented, it would be a great source of pure and clean energy.

Keywords: generator, lightning rod, tricoil energy harnesser, harvesting energy

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6496 Energy Reclamation in Micro Cavitating Flow

Authors: Morteza Ghorbani, Reza Ghorbani


Cavitation phenomenon has attracted much attention in the mechanical and biomedical technologies. Despite the simplicity and mostly low cost of the devices generating cavitation bubbles, the physics behind the generation and collapse of these bubbles particularly in micro/nano scale has still not well understood. In the chemical industry, micro/nano bubble generation is expected to be applicable to the development of porous materials such as microcellular plastic foams. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the presence of micro/nano bubbles on a surface reduced the adsorption of proteins. Thus, the micro/nano bubbles could act as antifouling agents. Micro and nano bubbles were also employed in water purification, froth floatation, even in sonofusion, which was not completely validated. Small bubbles could also be generated using micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation. In this study, compared to the studies available in the literature, we are proposing a novel approach in micro scale utilizing the energy produced during the interaction of the spray affected by the hydrodynamic cavitating flow and a thin aluminum plate. With a decrease in the size, cavitation effects become significant. It is clearly shown that with the aid of hydrodynamic cavitation generated inside the micro/mini-channels in addition to the optimization of the distance between the tip of the microchannel configuration and the solid surface, surface temperatures can be increased up to 50C under the conditions of this study. The temperature rise on the surfaces near the collapsing small bubbles was exploited for energy harvesting in small scale, in such a way that miniature, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly energy-harvesting devices can be developed. Such devices will not require any external power and moving parts in contrast to common energy-harvesting devices, such as those involving piezoelectric materials and micro engine. Energy harvesting from thermal energy has been widely exploited to achieve energy savings and clean technologies. We are proposing a cost effective and environmentally friendly solution for the growing individual energy needs thanks to the energy application of cavitating flows. The necessary power for consumer devices, such as cell phones and laptops, can be provided using this approach. Thus, this approach has the potential for solving personal energy needs in an inexpensive and environmentally friendly manner and can trigger a shift of paradigm in energy harvesting.

Keywords: cavitation, energy, harvesting, micro scale

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6495 Parametrization of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Systems

Authors: Yannick Verbelen, Tim Dekegel, Ann Peeters, Klara Stinders, Niek Blondeel, Sam De Winne, An Braeken, Abdellah Touhafi


Matching an embedded electronic application with a cantilever vibration energy harvester remains a difficult endeavour due to the large number of factors influencing the output power. In the presented work, complementary balanced energy harvester parametrization is used as a methodology for simplification of harvester integration in electronic applications. This is achieved by a dual approach consisting of an adaptation of the general parametrization methodology in conjunction with a straight forward harvester benchmarking strategy. For this purpose, the design and implementation of a suitable user friendly cantilever energy harvester benchmarking platform is discussed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by applying the methodology to a commercially available Mide V21BL vibration energy harvester, with excitation amplitude and frequency as variables.

Keywords: vibration energy harvesting, piezoelectrics, harvester parametrization, complementary balanced energy harvesting

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6494 Current Harvesting Methods for Jatropha curcas L.

Authors: Luigi Pari, Alessandro Suardi, Enrico Santangelo


In the last decade Jatropha curcas L. (an oleaginous crop native to Central America and part of South America) has raised particular interest owing to of its properties and uses. Its capsules may contain up to 40% in oil and can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. The harvesting phase is made difficult by the physiological traits of the specie, because fruits are in bunches and do not ripen simultaneously. Three harvesting methodologies are currently diffused and differ for the level of mechanization applied: manual picking, semi-mechanical harvesting, and mechanical harvesting. The manual picking is the most common in the developing countries but it is also the most time consuming and inefficient. Mechanical harvesting carried out with modified grape harvesters has the higher productivity, but it is very costly as initial investment and requires appropriate schemes of cultivation. The semi-mechanical harvesting method is achieved with shaker tools employed to facilitate the fruit detachment. This system resulted much cheaper than the fully mechanized one and quite flexible for small and medium scale applications, but it still requires adjustments for improving the productive performance. CRA-ING, within the European project Jatromed ( has carried out preliminary studies on the applicability of such approach, adapting an olive shaker to harvest Jatropha fruits. The work is a survey of the harvesting methods currently available for Jatropha, show the pros and cons of each system, and highlighting the criteria to be considered for choosing one respect another. The harvesting of Jatropha curcas L. remains a big constrains for the spread of the species as energy crop. The approach pursued by CRA-ING can be considered a good compromise between the fully mechanized harvesters and the exclusive manual intervention. It is an attempt to promote a sustainable mechanization suited to the social context of developing countries by encouraging the concrete involvement of local populations.

Keywords: jatropha curcas, energy crop, harvesting, central america, south america

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6493 Optimisation of Energy Harvesting for a Composite Aircraft Wing Structure Bonded with Discrete Macro Fibre Composite Sensors

Authors: Ali H. Daraji, Ye Jianqiao


The micro electrical devices of the wireless sensor network are continuously developed and become very small and compact with low electric power requirements using limited period life conventional batteries. The low power requirement for these devices, cost of conventional batteries and its replacement have encouraged researcher to find alternative power supply represented by energy harvesting system to provide an electric power supply with infinite period life. In the last few years, the investigation of energy harvesting for structure health monitoring has increased to powering wireless sensor network by converting waste mechanical vibration into electricity using piezoelectric sensors. Optimisation of energy harvesting is an important research topic to ensure a flowing of efficient electric power from structural vibration. The harvesting power is mainly based on the properties of piezoelectric material, dimensions of piezoelectric sensor, its position on a structure and value of an external electric load connected between sensor electrodes. Larger surface area of sensor is not granted larger power harvesting when the sensor area is covered positive and negative mechanical strain at the same time. Thus lead to reduction or cancellation of piezoelectric output power. Optimisation of energy harvesting is achieved by locating these sensors precisely and efficiently on the structure. Limited published work has investigated the energy harvesting for aircraft wing. However, most of the published studies have simplified the aircraft wing structure by a cantilever flat plate or beam. In these studies, the optimisation of energy harvesting was investigated by determination optimal value of an external electric load connected between sensor electrode terminals or by an external electric circuit or by randomly splitting piezoelectric sensor to two segments. However, the aircraft wing structures are complex than beam or flat plate and mostly constructed from flat and curved skins stiffened by stringers and ribs with more complex mechanical strain induced on the wing surfaces. This aircraft wing structure bonded with discrete macro fibre composite sensors was modelled using multiphysics finite element to optimise the energy harvesting by determination of the optimal number of sensors, location and the output resistance load. The optimal number and location of macro fibre sensors were determined based on the maximization of the open and close loop sensor output voltage using frequency response analysis. It was found different optimal distribution, locations and number of sensors bounded on the top and the bottom surfaces of the aircraft wing.

Keywords: energy harvesting, optimisation, sensor, wing

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6492 Investigating the Energy Harvesting Potential of a Pitch-Plunge Airfoil Subjected to Fluctuating Wind

Authors: Magu Raam Prasaad R., Venkatramani Jagadish


Recent studies in the literature have shown that randomly fluctuating wind flows can give rise to a distinct regime of pre-flutter oscillations called intermittency. Intermittency is characterized by the presence of sporadic bursts of high amplitude oscillations interspersed amidst low-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations. The focus of this study is on investigating the energy harvesting potential of these intermittent oscillations. Available literature has by and large devoted its attention on extracting energy from flutter oscillations. The possibility of harvesting energy from pre-flutter regimes have remained largely unexplored. However, extracting energy from violent flutter oscillations can be severely detrimental to the structural integrity of airfoil structures. Consequently, investigating the relatively stable pre-flutter responses for energy extraction applications is of practical importance. The present study is devoted towards addressing these concerns. A pitch-plunge airfoil with cubic hardening nonlinearity in the plunge and pitch degree of freedom is considered. The input flow fluctuations are modelled using a sinusoidal term with randomly perturbed frequencies. An electromagnetic coupling is provided to the pitch-plunge equations, such that, energy from the wind induced vibrations of the structural response are extracted. With the mean flow speed as the bifurcation parameter, a fourth order Runge-Kutta based time marching algorithm is used to solve the governing aeroelastic equations with electro-magnetic coupling. The harnessed energy from the intermittency regime is presented and the results are discussed in comparison to that obtained from the flutter regime. The insights from this study could be useful in health monitoring of aeroelastic structures.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, energy harvesting, intermittency, randomly fluctuating flows

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6491 Functionally Graded MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Magnetic Tip Mass

Authors: M. Derayatifar, M. Packirisamy, R.B. Bhat


Role of piezoelectric energy harvesters has gained interest in supplying power for micro devices such as health monitoring sensors. In this study, in order to enhance the piezoelectric energy harvesting in capturing energy from broader range of excitation and to improve the mechanical and electrical responses, bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester beam with magnetic mass attached at the end is presented. In view of overcoming the brittleness of piezo-ceramics, functionally graded piezoelectric layers comprising of both piezo-ceramic and piezo-polymer is employed. The nonlinear equations of motions are derived using energy method and then solved analytically using perturbation scheme. The frequency responses of the forced vibration case are obtained for the near resonance case. The nonlinear dynamic responses of the MEMS scaled functionally graded piezoelectric energy harvester in this paper may be utilized in different design scenarios to increase the efficiency of the harvester.

Keywords: energy harvesting, functionally graded piezoelectric material, magnetic force, MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) piezoelectric, perturbation method

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6490 Internet of Things Edge Device Power Modelling and Optimization Simulator

Authors: Cian O'Shea, Ross O'Halloran, Peter Haigh


Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are Internet of Things (IoT) edge devices. They are becoming widely adopted in many industries, including health care, building energy management, and conditional monitoring. As the scale of WSN deployments increases, the cost and complexity of battery replacement and disposal become more significant and in time may become a barrier to adoption. Harvesting ambient energies provide a pathway to reducing dependence on batteries and in the future may lead to autonomously powered sensors. This work describes a simulation tool that enables the user to predict the battery life of a wireless sensor that utilizes energy harvesting to supplement the battery power. To create this simulator, all aspects of a typical WSN edge device were modelled including, sensors, transceiver, and microcontroller as well as the energy source components (batteries, solar cells, thermoelectric generators (TEG), supercapacitors and DC/DC converters). The tool allows the user to plug and play different pre characterized devices as well as add user-defined devices. The goal of this simulation tool is to predict the lifetime of a device and scope for extension using ambient energy sources.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, IoT, edge device, simulation, solar cells, TEG, supercapacitor, energy harvesting

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6489 Energy Harvesting and Storage System for Marine Applications

Authors: Sayem Zafar, Mahmood Rahi


Rigorous international maritime regulations are in place to limit boat and ship hydrocarbon emissions. The global sustainability goals are reducing the fuel consumption and minimizing the emissions from the ships and boats. These maritime sustainability goals have attracted a lot of research interest. Energy harvesting and storage system is designed in this study based on hybrid renewable and conventional energy systems. This energy harvesting and storage system is designed for marine applications, such as, boats and small ships. These systems can be utilized for mobile use or off-grid remote electrification. This study analyzed the use of micro power generation for boats and small ships. The energy harvesting and storage system has two distinct systems i.e. dockside shore-based system and on-board system. The shore-based system consists of a small wind turbine, photovoltaic (PV) panels, small gas turbine, hydrogen generator and high-pressure hydrogen storage tank. This dockside system is to provide easy access to the boats and small ships for supply of hydrogen. The on-board system consists of hydrogen storage tanks and fuel cells. The wind turbine and PV panels generate electricity to operate electrolyzer. A small gas turbine is used as a supplementary power system to contribute in case the hybrid renewable energy system does not provide the required energy. The electrolyzer performs the electrolysis on distilled water to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen is stored in high-pressure tanks. The hydrogen from the high-pressure tank is filled in the low-pressure tanks on-board seagoing vessels to operate the fuel cell. The boats and small ships use the hydrogen fuel cell to provide power to electric propulsion motors and for on-board auxiliary use. For shore-based system, a small wind turbine with the total length of 4.5 m and the disk diameter of 1.8 m is used. The small wind turbine dimensions make it big enough to be used to charge batteries yet small enough to be installed on the rooftops of dockside facility. The small dimensions also make the wind turbine easily transportable. In this paper, PV, sizing and solar flux are studied parametrically. System performance is evaluated under different operating and environmental conditions. The parametric study is conducted to evaluate the energy output and storage capacity of energy storage system. Results are generated for a wide range of conditions to analyze the usability of hybrid energy harvesting and storage system. This energy harvesting method significantly improves the usability and output of the renewable energy sources. It also shows that small hybrid energy systems have promising practical applications.

Keywords: energy harvesting, fuel cell, hybrid energy system, hydrogen, wind turbine

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6488 Analysis of Thermoelectric Coolers as Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Applications

Authors: Yannick Verbelen, Sam De Winne, Niek Blondeel, Ann Peeters, An Braeken, Abdellah Touhafi


The growing popularity of solid state thermoelectric devices in cooling applications has sparked an increasing diversity of thermoelectric coolers (TECs) on the market, commonly known as “Peltier modules”. They can also be used as generators, converting a temperature difference into electric power, and opportunities are plentiful to make use of these devices as thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to supply energy to low power, autonomous embedded electronic applications. Their adoption as energy harvesters in this new domain of usage is obstructed by the complex thermoelectric models commonly associated with TEGs. Low cost TECs for the consumer market lack the required parameters to use the models because they are not intended for this mode of operation, thereby urging an alternative method to obtain electric power estimations in specific operating conditions. The design of the test setup implemented in this paper is specifically targeted at benchmarking commercial, off-the-shelf TECs for use as energy harvesters in domestic environments: applications with limited temperature differences and space available. The usefulness is demonstrated by testing and comparing single and multi stage TECs with different sizes. The effect of a boost converter stage on the thermoelectric end-to-end efficiency is also discussed.

Keywords: thermoelectric cooler, TEC, complementary balanced energy harvesting, step-up converter, DC/DC converter, energy harvesting, thermal harvesting

Procedia PDF Downloads 156