Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2098

Search results for: radiation dose

2098 Reduction of Physician's Radiation Dose during Cardiac Catheterization Procedures Using Lead-Free Sterile Radiation Shields

Authors: Mohammad O. Diab, Sahera A. Saleh, Mustapha M. Dichari, Nijez Aloulou, Omar Hamoui, Feras Chehade


This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of lead-free sterile radiation shield (Radionex) in the reduction of physician's exposure dose during interventional cardiology procedures. Cardiac catheterization procedures are often associated with high radiation doses and high levels of secondary radiation emitted by the patient's body. This study compares physician exposure dose rate during cardiac catheterization procedures done through the femoral artery with sterile radiation shielding to same procedures made without the shielding. The mean operator radiation dose rate without using the shield was found to be 18.4µSv/min compared to a mean dose rate of 5.1 µSv/min when using the shield, rendering a reduction of 72.5% of radiation received by the physician. Sterile radiation shielding is consequently an effective addition to a cardiac catheterization lab radiation protection system.

Keywords: cardiac catheterization, physician exposure dose, sterile radiation shielding, lead-free sterile radiation shields

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2097 Determining the Effectiveness of Radiation Shielding and Safe Time for Radiation Worker by Employing Monitoring of Accumulation Dose in the Operator Room of CT Scan

Authors: Risalatul Latifah, Bunawas Bunawas, Lailatul Muqmiroh, Anggraini D. Sensusiati


Along with the increasing frequency of the use of CT-Scan for radiodiagnostics purposes, it is necessary to study radiation protection. This study examined aspects of radiation protection of workers. This study tried using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) for evaluating radiation shielding and estimating safe time for workers during CT Scan examination. Six TLDs were placed on door, wall, and window inside and outside of the CT Scan room for 1 month. By using TLD monitoring, it could be seen how much radiation was exposed in the operator room. The results showed the effective dose at door, window, and wall was respectively 0.04 mSv, 0.05 mSv, and 0.04 mSv. With these values, it could be evaluated the effectiveness of radiation shielding on doors, glass and walls were respectively 90.6%, 95.5%, and 92.2%. By applying the dose constraint and the estimation of the accumulated dose for one month, radiation workers were still safe to perform the irradiation for 180 patients.

Keywords: CT scan room, TLD, radiation worker, dose constraint

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
2096 Optical Properties of N-(Hydroxymethyl) Acrylamide Polymer Gel Dosimeters for Radiation Therapy

Authors: Khalid A. Rabaeh, Belal Moftah, Ahmed A. Basfar, Akram A. Almousa


Polymer gel dosimeters are tissue equivalent martial that fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of absorbed radiation dose. Polymer gel dosimeters can uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D). A novel composition of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters based on radiation-induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) is introduced in this study for radiotherapy treatment planning. The dosimeters were irradiated by 10 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator at a constant dose rate of 600 cGy/min with doses up to 30 Gy. The polymerization degree is directly proportional to absorbed dose received by the polymer gel. UV/Vis spectrophotometer was used to investigate the degree of white color of irradiated NHMA gel which is associated to the degree of polymerization of polymer gel dosimeters. The absorbance increases with absorbed dose for all gel dosimeters in the dose range between 0 and 30 Gy. Dose rate , energy of radiation and the stability of the polymerization after irradiation were investigated. No appreciable effects of these parameters on the performance of the novel gel dosimeters were observed.

Keywords: dosimeter, gel, spectrophotometer, N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
2095 Status of Radiation Protection at Radiation Oncology, BPKM Cancer Hospital, Nepal

Authors: Surendra B. Chand, P. P. Chaurasia, M. P. Adhikari, R. N. Yadav


Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate all the safety procedures toward the radiation protection for workers in the radiation oncology department. Materials and Methods: The annual thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) reports for five years of the staffs were evaluated, radiation surveys were done in the control consoles, radiotherapy machines room and waiting areas of all machines using Aloka survey meter. Results: The five years TLD reports shows that the whole body dose of the individual staffs is found within the annual dose limit except the accidental exposures. Radiation exposures in the working areas are also safe limits. Conclusion: The radiation safety practices for radiation protection are satisfactory and the radiation workers of the departments are found working within the safe limit.

Keywords: radiation protection, safety, ICRP, dose limits, TLD, radiation devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 483
2094 Investigation of Factors Affecting the Total Ionizing Dose Threshold of Electrically Erasable Read Only Memories for Use in Dose Rate Measurement

Authors: Liqian Li, Yu Liu, Karen Colins


The dose rate present in a seriously contaminated area can be indirectly determined by monitoring radiation damage to inexpensive commercial electronics, instead of deploying expensive radiation hardened sensors. EEPROMs (Electrically Erasable Read Only Memories) are a good candidate for this purpose because they are inexpensive and are sensitive to radiation exposure. When the total ionizing dose threshold is reached, an EEPROM chip will show signs of damage that can be monitored and transmitted by less susceptible electronics. The dose rate can then be determined from the known threshold dose and the exposure time, assuming the radiation field remains constant with time. Therefore, the threshold dose needs to be well understood before this method can be used. There are many factors affecting the threshold dose, such as the gamma ray energy spectrum, the operating voltage, etc. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine how the threshold dose depends on dose rate, temperature, voltage, and duty factor. It was found that the duty factor has the strongest effect on the total ionizing dose threshold, while the effect of the other three factors that were investigated is less significant. The effect of temperature was found to be opposite to that expected to result from annealing and is yet to be understood.

Keywords: EEPROM, ionizing radiation, radiation effects on electronics, total ionizing dose, wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
2093 The Analysis of Personalized Low-Dose Computed Tomography Protocol Based on Cumulative Effective Radiation Dose and Cumulative Organ Dose for Patients with Breast Cancer with Regular Chest Computed Tomography Follow up

Authors: Okhee Woo


Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate 2-year cumulative effective radiation dose and cumulative organ dose on regular follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with breast cancer and to establish personalized low-dose CT protocol. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was performed on the patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed and managed consistently on the basis of routine breast cancer follow-up protocol between 2012-01 and 2016-06. Based on ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) 103, the cumulative effective radiation doses of each patient for 2-year follow-up were analyzed using the commercial radiation management software (Radimetrics, Bayer healthcare). The personalized effective doses on each organ were analyzed in detail by the software-providing Monte Carlo simulation. Results: A total of 3822 CT scans on 490 patients was evaluated (age: 52.32±10.69). The mean scan number for each patient was 7.8±4.54. Each patient was exposed 95.54±63.24 mSv of radiation for 2 years. The cumulative CT radiation dose was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.00). The HER-2 positive patients were more exposed to radiation compared to estrogen or progesterone receptor positive patient (p = 0.00). There was no difference in the cumulative effective radiation dose with different age groups. Conclusion: To acknowledge how much radiation exposed to a patient is a starting point of management of radiation exposure for patients with long-term CT follow-up. The precise and personalized protocol, as well as iterative reconstruction, may reduce hazard from unnecessary radiation exposure.

Keywords: computed tomography, breast cancer, effective radiation dose, cumulative organ dose

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2092 Calculation of Organs Radiation Dose in Cervical Carcinoma External Irradiation Beam Using Day’s Methods

Authors: Yousif M. Yousif Abdallah, Mohamed E. Gar-Elnabi, Abdoelrahman H. A. Bakary, Alaa M. H. Eltoum, Abdelazeem K. M. Ali


The study was established to measure the amount of radiation outside the treatment field in external beam radiation therapy using day method of dose calculation, the data was collected from 89 patients of cervical carcinoma in order to determine if the dose outside side the irradiation treatment field for spleen, liver, both kidneys, small bowel, large colon, skin within the acceptable limit or not. The cervical field included mainly 4 organs which are bladder, rectum part of small bowel and hip joint these organ received mean dose of (4781.987±281.321), (4736.91±331.8), (4647.64±387.1) and (4745.91±321.11) respectively. The mean dose received by outfield organs was (77.69±15.24cGy) to large colon, (93.079±12.31cGy) to right kidney (80.688±12.644cGy) to skin, (155.86±17.69cGy) to small bowel. This was more significant value noted.

Keywords: radiation dose, cervical carcinoma, day’s methods, radiation medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
2091 Estimation of Effective Radiation Dose Following Computed Tomography Urography at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria

Authors: Idris Garba, Aisha Rabiu Abdullahi, Mansur Yahuza, Akintade Dare


Background: CT urography (CTU) is efficient radiological examination for the evaluation of the urinary system disorders. However, patients are exposed to a significant radiation dose which is in a way associated with increased cancer risks. Objectives: To determine Computed Tomography Dose Index following CTU, and to evaluate organs equivalent doses. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried at a tertiary institution located in Kano northwestern. Ethical clearance was sought and obtained from the research ethics board of the institution. Demographic, scan parameters and CT radiation dose data were obtained from patients that had CTU procedure. Effective dose, organ equivalent doses, and cancer risks were estimated using SPSS statistical software version 16 and CT dose calculator software. Result: A total of 56 patients were included in the study, consisting of 29 males and 27 females. The common indication for CTU examination was found to be renal cyst seen commonly among young adults (15-44yrs). CT radiation dose values in DLP, CTDI and effective dose for CTU were 2320 mGy cm, CTDIw 9.67 mGy and 35.04 mSv respectively. The probability of cancer risks was estimated to be 600 per a million CTU examinations. Conclusion: In this study, the radiation dose for CTU is considered significantly high, with increase in cancer risks probability. Wide radiation dose variations between patient doses suggest that optimization is not fulfilled yet. Patient radiation dose estimate should be taken into consideration when imaging protocols are established for CT urography.

Keywords: CT urography, cancer risks, effective dose, radiation exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2090 Occupational Cumulative Effective Doses of Radiation Workers in Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar

Authors: Omar Bobes, Abeer Al-Attar, Mohammad Hassan Kharita, Huda Al-Naemi


The number of radiological examinations has increased steadily in recent years. As a result, the risk of possible radiation-induced consequential damage also increases through continuous, lifelong, and increasing exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore, radiation dose monitoring in medicine became an essential element of medical practice. In this study, the occupational cumulative doses for radiation workers in Hamad medical corporation in Qatar have been assessed for a period of five years. The number of monitored workers selected for this study was 555 (out of a total of 1250 monitored workers) who have been working continuously -with no interruption- with ionizing radiation over the past five years from 2015 to 2019. The aim of this work is to examine the occupational groups and the activities where the higher radiation exposure occurred and in what order of magnitude. The most exposed group was the nuclear medicine technologist staff, with an average cumulative dose of 8.4 mSv. The highest individual cumulative dose was 9.8 mSv recorded for the PET-CT technologist category.

Keywords: cumulative dose, effective dose, monitoring, occupational exposure, dosimetry

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2089 The Effect of Varying Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Resolution and Field-of-View Centralization on the Effective Radiation Dose

Authors: Fatima M. Jadu, Asmaa A. Alzahrani, Maha A. Almutairi, Salma O. Al-Amoudi, Mawya A. Khafaji


Introduction: Estimating the potential radiation risk for a widely used imaging technique such as cone beam CT (CBCT) is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying two CBCT technical factors, the voxel size (VOX) and the Field-of-View (FOV) centralization, on the radiation dose. Methodology: The head and neck slices of a RANDO® man phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories) were used with nanoDot™ OSLD dosimeters to measure the absorbed radiation dose at 25 predetermined sites. Imaging was done using the i-CAT® (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, PA, USA) CBCT unit. The VOX was changed for every three cycles of exposures from 0.2mm to 0.3mm and then 0.4mm. Then the FOV was centered on the maxilla and mandible alternatively while holding all other factors constant. Finally, the effective radiation dose was calculated for each view and voxel setting. Results: The effective radiation dose was greatest when the smallest VOX was chosen. When the FOV was centered on the maxilla, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the eyes and parotid glands. While on the mandible, the highest radiation doses were recorded in the sublingual and submandibular glands. Conclusion: Minor variations in the CBCT exposure factors significantly affect the effective radiation dose and thus the radiation risk to the patient. Therefore, extreme care must be taken when choosing these parameters especially for vulnerable patients such as children.

Keywords: CBCT, cone beam CT, effective dose, field of view, mandible, maxilla, resolution, voxel

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
2088 Comparison of Breast Surface Doses for Full-Field Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Using Breast Phantoms

Authors: Chia-Hui Chen, Chien-Kuo Wang


Background: Full field digital mammography (FFDM) is widely used in diagnosis of breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Hence, the radiation dose delivered to the patients involved in an imaging protocol is of utmost concern. Aim: To compare the surface radiation dose (ESD) of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) by using breast phantoms. Method: We analyzed the average entrance surface dose (ESD) of FFDM and DBT by using breast phantoms. Optically Stimulated luminescent Dosimeters (OSLD) were placed in a tissue-equivalent Breast phantom at difference sites of interest. Absorbed dose measurements were obtained after digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) exposures. Results: An automatic exposure control (AEC) is proposed for surface dose measurement during DBT and FFDM. The mean ESD values for DBT and FFDM were 6.37 mGy and 3.51mGy, respectively. Using of OSLD measured for surface dose during DBT and FFDM. There were 19.87 mGy and 11.36 mGy, respectively. The surface exposure dose of DBT could possibly be increased by two times with FFDM. Conclusion: The radiation dose from DBT was higher than that of FFDM and the difference in dose between AEC and OSLD measurements at phantom surface.

Keywords: full-field digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, surface dose

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2087 Predicting Dose Level and Length of Time for Radiation Exposure Using Gene Expression

Authors: Chao Sima, Shanaz Ghandhi, Sally A. Amundson, Michael L. Bittner, David J. Brenner


In a large-scale radiologic emergency, potentially affected population need to be triaged efficiently using various biomarkers where personal dosimeters are not likely worn by the individuals. It has long been established that radiation injury can be estimated effectively using panels of genetic biomarkers. Furthermore, the rate of radiation, in addition to dose of radiation, plays a major role in determining biological responses. Therefore, a better and more accurate triage involves estimating both the dose level of the exposure and the length of time of that exposure. To that end, a large in vivo study was carried out on mice with internal emitter caesium-137 (¹³⁷Cs). Four different injection doses of ¹³⁷Cs were used: 157.5 μCi, 191 μCi, 214.5μCi, and 259 μCi. Cohorts of 6~7 mice from the control arm and each of the dose levels were sacrificed, and blood was collected 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after injection for microarray RNA gene expression analysis. Using a generalized linear model with penalized maximum likelihood, a panel of 244 genes was established and both the doses of injection and the number of days after injection were accurately predicted for all 155 subjects using this panel. This has proven that microarray gene expression can be used effectively in radiation biodosimetry in predicting both the dose levels and the length of exposure time, which provides a more holistic view on radiation exposure and helps improving radiation damage assessment and treatment.

Keywords: caesium-137, gene expression microarray, multivariate responses prediction, radiation biodosimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
2086 Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a HPGe Detector Shield

Authors: M. Sharifi, M. Mirzaii, F. Bolourinovin, H. Yousefnia, M. Akbari, K. Yousefi-Mojir


A multilayer passive shield composed of low-activity lead (Pb), copper (Cu), tin (Sn) and iron (Fe) was designed and manufactured for a coaxial HPGe detector placed at a surface laboratory for reducing background radiation and radiation dose to the personnel. The performance of the shield was evaluated and efficiency curves of the detector were plotted by using of the various standard sources in different distances. Monte Carlo simulations and a set of TLD chips were used for dose estimation in two distances of 20 and 40 cm. The results show that the shield reduced background spectrum and the personnel dose more than 95%.

Keywords: HPGe shield, background count, personnel dose, efficiency curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2085 Radiation Dose and Associated Exposure Parameters in Selected MDCT Scanners in Multiphase Scan of Abdomen-Pelvic Region: A Clinical Study

Authors: P. Sathyathas, H. M. I. S. W. Herath, T. Amalraj, U. J. M. A. L. Jayasinghe


Over two thirds of medical radiation can now be attributed to Computed Tomography (CT). There is little information on amount of radiation received from multiphase CT scan of abdomen- pelvic region in clinical practice. We sought to estimate the radiation dose and associated exposure parameters in the multiphase abdomen - pelvic scan of Multideteror Computed Tomography (MDCT) studies in clinical practice. This was a retrospective cross sectional studies describing radiation dose associated with main exposure parameters in diagnostic multiphase abdomen - pelvic scans performed on 152 consecutive patients by two different sixteen slice CT scanners. Patient information, exposure parameters of CTDI (volume), DLP, kVp, mAs and pitch were recorded for every phases of abdomen- a pelvic study from dose report of MDCT scanners (MDCTs). Age of patients range from 14 years to 87 years in both MDCT scanners. Overall CTDI (volume) median was 63.8 (±10.4) mGy for a multiphase abdominal-pelvic scan with scanner A while it was 35.4 (±15.6) mGy for scanner B. Patients' effective dose for multiphase abdomen - pelvic CT scan range from 8.2 mSv to 58 mSv. Median effective dose for patients, who underwent multiphase abdomen- pelvis scan with scanner A and B were 38.5 (± 8.2) mSv and 21.3 (± 8.6) mSv respectively. Median value of exposure parameters of mAs, kVp and pitch, were 150 (±29.7), 130 (±15.3) and 1.3 (±0.1) respectively in scanner A. In scanner B; they were 60 (±14.5), 120 and 1. The median effective dose for patients between multiphase abdomen-pelvic scan of both MDCT, a significant different (P<0.05) was observed. Multiphase abdomen – pelvic scan of clinical study shows significant different of effective dose with reference level of phantom studies (8-14mSv) and it depends on the type of vendors.

Keywords: abdomen-pelvic region, computed tomography, exposure parameters, radiation dose

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2084 The Use of the Matlab Software as the Best Way to Recognize Penumbra Region in Radiotherapy

Authors: Alireza Shayegan, Morteza Amirabadi


The y tool was developed to quantitatively compare dose distributions, either measured or calculated. Before computing ɣ, the dose and distance scales of the two distributions, referred to as evaluated and reference, are re-normalized by dose and distance criteria, respectively. The re-normalization allows the dose distribution comparison to be conducted simultaneously along dose and distance axes. Several two-dimensional images were acquired using a Scanning Liquid Ionization Chamber EPID and Extended Dose Range (EDR2) films for regular and irregular radiation fields. The raw images were then converted into two-dimensional dose maps. Transitional and rotational manipulations were performed for images using Matlab software. As evaluated dose distribution maps, they were then compared with the corresponding original dose maps as the reference dose maps.

Keywords: energetic electron, gamma function, penumbra, Matlab software

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
2083 Comparison of Radiation Dosage and Image Quality: Digital Breast Tomosynthesis vs. Full-Field Digital Mammography

Authors: Okhee Woo


Purpose: With increasing concern of individual radiation exposure doses, studies analyzing radiation dosage in breast imaging modalities are required. Aim of this study is to compare radiation dosage and image quality between digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Methods and Materials: 303 patients (mean age 52.1 years) who studied DBT and FFDM were retrospectively reviewed. Radiation dosage data were obtained by radiation dosage scoring and monitoring program: Radimetrics (Bayer HealthCare, Whippany, NJ). Entrance dose and mean glandular doses in each breast were obtained in both imaging modalities. To compare the image quality of DBT with two-dimensional synthesized mammogram (2DSM) and FFDM, 5-point scoring of lesion clarity was assessed and the better modality between the two was selected. Interobserver performance was compared with kappa values and diagnostic accuracy was compared using McNemar test. The parameters of radiation dosages (entrance dose, mean glandular dose) and image quality were compared between two modalities by using paired t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: For entrance dose and mean glandular doses for each breasts, DBT had lower values compared with FFDM (p-value < 0.0001). Diagnostic accuracy did not have statistical difference, but lesion clarity score was higher in DBT with 2DSM and DBT was chosen as a better modality compared with FFDM. Conclusion: DBT showed lower radiation entrance dose and also lower mean glandular doses to both breasts compared with FFDM. Also, DBT with 2DSM had better image quality than FFDM with similar diagnostic accuracy, suggesting that DBT may have a potential to be performed as an alternative to FFDM.

Keywords: radiation dose, DBT, digital mammography, image quality

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2082 Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. C. Chen, C. Shih, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, Y. Chiang


In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).

Keywords: RADionuclide, transport, removal, and dose estimation (RADTRAD), symbolic nuclear analysis package (SNAP), dose, PWR

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2081 Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Growth of Ulva Pertusa Kjellman Seedling

Authors: HengJiang Cai, RuiJin Zhang, JinSong Gui


Enhanced UV-B (280-320nm) radiation resulting from ozone depletion was one of the global environmental problems. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on marine macro-algae were exposed to be the greatest in shallow intertidal environments because the macro-alga was often at or above the water during low tide. Ulva pertusa Kjellman was belonged to Chlorophyta (Phylum), Ulvales (Order), Ulvaceae (Family) which was widely distributed in the western Pacific coast, and the resources were extremely rich in China. Therefore, the effects of UV-B radiation on the growth of Ulva pertusa seedling were studied in this research. Ulva pertusa seedling appearances were mainly characterized by rod shapes and tadpole shapes. The percentage of rod shapes was 90.68%±2.50%. UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth of Ulva pertusa seedling, and the growth inhibition was more significant with the increased doses of UV-B radiation treatment. The relative inhibition rates of Ulva pertusa seedling length were16.11%, 24.98%and 39.04% respectively on the 30th day at different doses (30.96, 61.92 and 123.84 Jm-2d-1) of UV-B radiation. Ulva pertusa seedling had emerged death under UV-B radiation, and the death rates were increased with the increased doses of UV-B radiation treatment. Physiology and biochemistry of Ulva pertusa seedling could be affected by UV-B radiation treatment. The SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity was increased at low-dose UV-B radiation (30.96 Jm-2d-1), while was decreased at high-dose UV-B radiation (61.92 and 123.84 Jm-2d-1). UV-B radiation could inhibit CAT (catalase) activity all the while. It speculated that the reasons for growth inhibition and death of Ulva pertusa seedling were excess ROS (reactive oxygen species), which produced by UV-B radiation.

Keywords: growth, physiology and biochemistry, Ulva pertusa Kjellman, UV-B radiation

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2080 Evolution of Cord Absorbed Dose during Larynx Cancer Radiotherapy, with 3D Treatment Planning and Tissue Equivalent Phantom

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Amir Hossein Goodarzi, Majid Azarniush


Radiation doses to tissues and organs were measured using the anthropomorphic phantom as an equivalent to the human body. When high-energy X-rays are externally applied to treat laryngeal cancer, the absorbed dose at the laryngeal lumen is lower than given dose because of air space which it should pass through before reaching the lesion. Specially in case of high-energy X-rays, the loss of dose is considerable. Three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions have been computed for high-energy photon radiation therapy of laryngeal and hypo pharyngeal cancers, using a coaxial pair of opposing lateral beams in fixed positions. Treatment plans obtained under various conditions of irradiation.

Keywords: 3D treatment planning, anthropomorphic phantom, larynx cancer, radiotherapy

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2079 Measurement of IMRT Dose Distribution in Rando Head and Neck Phantom using EBT3 Film

Authors: Pegah Safavi, Mehdi Zehtabian, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi


Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Radiation therapy is one of the main choices for cancer treatment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is a new type of radiation therapy technique available for vital structures such as the parathyroid glands. It is very important to check the accuracy of the delivered IMRT treatment because any mistake may lead to more complications for the patient. This paper describes an experiment to determine the accuracy of a dose measured by EBT3 film. To test this method, the EBT3 film on the head and neck of the Rando phantom was irradiated by an IMRT device and the irradiation was repeated twice. Finally, the dose designed by the irradiation system was compared with the dose measured by the EBT3 film. Using this criterion, the accuracy of the EBT3 film was evaluated. When using this criterion, a 95% agreement was reached between the planned treatment and the measured values.

Keywords: EBT3, phantom, accuracy, cancer, IMRT

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2078 Effect of Acute Dose of Mobile Phone Radiation on Life Cycle ‎of the Mosquito, Culex univittatus

Authors: Fatma H. Galal, Alaaeddeen M. Seufi


Due to the increasing usage of mobile phone, experiments were designed to investigate ‎the effect of acute dose exposure on the mosquito life cycle. 50 tubes (5 ml size) ‎containing 3 ml water and a first instar larva of the mosquito, Culex univittatus were put ‎between two mobile cell phones switched on talking mode for 4 continuous hours. A ‎control group of tubes (unexposed to radiation) were used. Larval and pupal durations ‎were calculated. Furthermore, adult emergence and sex ratio were observed for both ‎treated and control larvae. Results indicated that the employed dose of radiation reduced ‎total larval duration to about half the value of control. 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval ‎durations were reduced significantly by mobile radiation when compared to controls. ‎Meanwhile pupal duration was elongated significantly by mobile radiation when ‎compared to control. Sex ratio was significantly shifted in favor of females in the case of ‎radiated mosquitoes. Successful adult emergence was decreased significantly in the case ‎of radiated insects when compared to controls. Molecular studies to investigate the ‎effects of mobile radiation on insects and other model organisms are going on.‎

Keywords: mosquito, mobilr radiation, larval and pupal durations, sex ratio

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2077 A Study on the Annual Doses Received by the Workers of Some Medical Practices

Authors: Eltayeb Hamad Elneel Yousif


This paper describes occupational radiation doses of workers in non-destructive testing (NDT) and some medical practices during the year 2007. The annual doses received by the workers of a public hospital are presented in this report. The Department is facilitated with HARSHAW Reader model 6600 and assigned the rule of personal monitoring to contribute in controlling and reducing the doses received by radiation workers. TLD cards with two TLD chips type LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) were calibrated to measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Around 150 medical radiation workers were monitored throughout the year. Each worker received a single TLD card worn on the chest above lead apron and returned for laboratory reading every two months. The average annual doses received by the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology were evaluated. The annual doses for individual radiation workers ranged between 0.55-4.42 mSv, 0.48-1.86 mSv, and 0.48-0.91 mSv for the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology, respectively. The mean dose per worker was 1.29±1, 1.03±0.4, and 0.69±0.2 mSv, respectively. The results showed compliance with international dose limits. Our results reconfirm the importance of personal dosimetry service in assuring the radiation protection of medical staff in developing countries.

Keywords: radiation medicine, non-destructive testing, TLD, public hospital

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2076 Assessment of the Radiation Absorbed Dose Produced by Lu-177, Ra-223, AC-225 for Metastatic Prostate Cancer in a Bone Model

Authors: Maryam Tajadod


The treatment of cancer is one of the main challenges of nuclear medicine; while cancer begins in an organ, such as the breast or prostate, it spreads to the bone, resulting in metastatic bone. In the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy, the determination of the involved tissues’ dose is one of the important steps in the treatment protocol. Comparing absorbed doses for Lu-177 and Ra-223 and Ac-225 in the bone marrow and soft tissue of bone phantom with evaluating energetic emitted particles of these radionuclides is the important aim of this research. By the use of MCNPX computer code, a model for bone phantom was designed and the values of absorbed dose for Ra-223 and Ac-225, which are Alpha emitters & Lu-177, which is a beta emitter, were calculated. As a result of research, in comparing gamma radiation for three radionuclides, Lu-177 released the highest dose in the bone marrow and Ra-223 achieved the lowest level. On the other hand, the result showed that although the figures of absorbed dose for Ra and Ac in the bone marrow are near to each other, Ra spread more energy in cortical bone. Moreover, The alpha component of the Ra-223 and Ac-225 have very little effect on bone marrow and soft tissue than a beta component of the lu-177 and it leaves the highest absorbed dose in the bone where the source is located.

Keywords: bone metastases, lutetium-177, radium-223, actinium-225, absorbed dose

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2075 Comparative Study between the Absorbed Dose of 67ga-Ecc and 68ga-Ecc

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, S. Shanesazzadeh, A.Lahooti, A. R. Jalilian


In this study, 68Ga-ECC and 67Ga-ECC were both prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 97% in less than 30 min. The biodistribution data for 68Ga-ECC showed the extraction of the most of the activity from the urinary tract. The absorbed dose was estimated based on biodistribution data in mice by the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) method. Comparison between human absorbed dose estimation for these two agents indicated the values of approximately ten-fold higher after injection of 67Ga-ECC than 68Ga-ECC in the most organs. The results showed that 68Ga-ECC can be considered as a more potential agent for renal imaging compared to 67Ga-ECC.

Keywords: effective absorbed dose, ethylenecysteamine cysteine, Ga-67, Ga-68

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
2074 Directionally-Sensitive Personal Wearable Radiation Dosimeter

Authors: Hai Huu Le, Paul Junor, Moshi Geso, Graeme O’Keefe


In this paper, the authors propose a personal wearable directionally-sensitive radiation dosimeter using multiple semiconductor CdZnTe detectors. The proposed dosimeter not only measures the real-time dose rate but also provide the direction of the radioactive source. A linear relationship between radioactive source direction and the radiation intensity measured by each detectors is established and an equation to determine the source direction is derived by the authors. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed dosimeter is verified by simulation using Geant4 package. Results have indicated that in a measurement duration of about 7 seconds, the proposed dosimeter was able to estimate the direction of a 10μCi 137/55Cs radioactive source to within 2 degrees.

Keywords: dose rate, Geant4 package, radiation dosimeter, radioactive source direction

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
2073 A Study of The Factors Predicting Radiation Exposure to Contacts of Saudi Patients Treated With Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine (I-131)

Authors: Khalid A. Salman, Shereen Wagih, Tariq Munshi, Musaed Almalki, Safwan Zatari, Zahid Khan


Aim: To measure exposure levels to family members and caregivers of Saudi patients treated with low dose I131 therapy, and household radiation exposure rate to predict different factors that can affect radiation exposure. Patients and methods: All adult self dependent patients with hyperthyroidism or cancer thyroid referred for low dose radioactive I131 therapy on outpatient basis are included. Radiation protection procedures are given to the participant and family members in details. TLD’s were dispensed to each participant in sufficient quantity for his/her family members living in the household. TLD’s are collected at fifth days post-dispense from patients who agreed to have a home visit during which the household is inspected and level of radiation contamination of surfaces was measured. Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the current study, with a mean age of 43.1± 17.1 years Out of them 25 patients (78%) are females. I131 therapy was given in twenty patients (63%) for cancer thyroid of and for toxic goiter in the remaining twelve patients (37%), with an overall mean I131 dose of 24.1 ± 7.5mCi that is relatively higher in the former. The overall number of household family members and helpers of patients are 139, out of them77 are females (55.4%) & 62 are males (44.6%) with a mean age of 29.8± 17.6. The mean period of contact with the patient is 7.6 ±5.6hours. The cumulative radiation exposure shows that radiation exposure to all family members is below the exposure constraint (1mSv), with a range of 109 to 503uSv, and a mean value of 220.9±91 uSv. Numerical data shows a little higher exposure rate for family members of those who receive higher dose of I131 (patients with thyroid cancer) and household members who spent longer time with the patient, yet, the difference is statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Besides, no significant correlation was found between the degree of cumulative exposure of the family members to their gender, age, socioeconomic standard, educational level and residential factors. In the 21 home visits all data from bedrooms, reception areas and kitchens are below hazardous limits (0.5uSv/h) apart from bathrooms that give a slightly higher reading of 0.57±0.39 uSv/h in those with cancer thyroid who receive a higher radiation dose. A statistically significant difference was found between radiation exposure rate in bathrooms used by the patient versus those used by family members only, with a mean value of exposure rate of 0.701±0.21 uSv/h and 0.17±0.82 uSv/h respectively, with a p-value of 0.018 (<0.05). Conclusion: Family members of patients treated with low dose I131 on outpatient basis have a good compliance to radiation protection instruction if given properly with a cumulative radiation exposure rate evidently beyond the radiation exposure constraints of 1 mSv. Given I131 dose, hours spent with the patient, age, gender, socioeconomic standard, educational level and residential factors have no significant correlation with the cumulative radiation exposure. The patient bathroom exhibits more radiation exposure rate, needing more strict instructions for patient bathroom use and health hygiene.

Keywords: family members, radiation exposure, radioactive iodine therapy, radiation safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
2072 Current Status of Ir-192 Brachytherapy in Bangladesh

Authors: M. Safiqul Islam, Md Arafat Hossain Sarkar


Brachytherapy is one of the most important cancer treatment management systems in radiotherapy department. Brachytherapy treatment is moved into High Dose Rate (HDR) after loader from Low Dose Rate (LDR) after loader due to radiation protection advantage. HDR Brachytherapy is a highly multipurpose system for enhancing cure and achieving palliation in many common cancers disease of developing countries. High-dose rate (HDR) Brachytherapy is a type of internal radiation therapy that delivers radiation from implants placed close to or inside, the tumor(s) in the body. This procedure is very effective at providing localized radiation to the tumor site while minimizing the patient’s whole body dose. Brachytherapy has proven to be a highly successful treatment for cancers of the prostate, cervix, endometrium, breast, skin, bronchus, esophagus, and head and neck, as well as soft tissue sarcomas and several other types of cancer. For the time being in our country we have 10 new HDR Remote after loading Brachytherapy. Right now 4 HDR Brachytherapy is already installed and running for patient’s treatment out of 10 HDR Brachytherapy. Ir-192 source is more comfortable than Co-60. In that case people or expert personnel prefer Ir-192 source for different kind of cancer patients. Ir-192 are economically, more flexible and familiar in our country.

Keywords: Ir-192, brachytherapy, cancer treatment, prostate, cervix, endometrium, breast, skin, bronchus, esophagus, soft tissue sarcomas

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
2071 Competitive Adsorption of Al, Ga and In by Gamma Irradiation Induced Pectin-Acrylamide-(Vinyl Phosphonic Acid) Hydrogel

Authors: Md Murshed Bhuyan, Hirotaka Okabe, Yoshiki Hidaka, Kazuhiro Hara


Pectin-Acrylamide- (Vinyl Phosphonic Acid) Hydrogels were prepared from their blend by using gamma radiation of various doses. It was found that the gel fraction of hydrogel increases with increasing the radiation dose reaches a maximum and then started decreasing with increasing the dose. The optimum radiation dose and the composition of raw materials were determined on the basis of equilibrium swelling which resulted in 20 kGy absorbed dose and 1:2:4 (Pectin:AAm:VPA) composition. Differential scanning calorimetry reveals the gel strength for using them as the adsorbent. The FTIR-spectrum confirmed the grafting/ crosslinking of the monomer on the backbone of pectin chain. The hydrogels were applied in adsorption of Al, Ga, and In from multielement solution where the adsorption capacity order for those three elements was found as – In>Ga>Al. SEM images of hydrogels and metal adsorbed hydrogels indicate the gel network and adherence of the metal ions in the interpenetrating network of the hydrogel which were supported by EDS spectra. The adsorption isotherm models were studied and found that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model was well fitted with the data. Adsorption data were also fitted to different adsorption kinetic and diffusion models. Desorption of metal adsorbed hydrogels was performed in 5% nitric acid where desorption efficiency was found around 90%.

Keywords: hydrogel, gamma radiation, vinyl phosphonic acid, metal adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
2070 Assessment of Gamma Radiation Exposure of Soils Associated with Granitic Rocks in Kapıdağ Peninsula, Turkey

Authors: Buket Canbaz Öztürk, N. Füsun Çam, Günseli Yaprak, Osman Candan


The external terrestrial radiation exposure is related to the types of rock from which the soils originate. Higher radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks, such as granite, and lower levels with sedimentary rocks. Therefore, this study aims to assess the gamma radiation exposure of soils associated with granitic rocks in Kapıdağ Peninsula, Turkey. In the ongoing study, a comprehensive survey carried out systematically as a part of the environmental monitoring program on radiologic impact of the granitoid areas in Western Anatolia. The activity measurements of the gamma emitters (238U, 232Th and 40K) in the surface soil samples and the granitic rocks carried out by means of NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry system. To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the external (Hex) hazard index were calculated according to the UNSCEAR 2000 report. The corresponding absorbed dose rates in air from all natural radionuclides were always much lower than 200 nGy h-1 and did not exceed the typical range of worldwide average values noticed in the UNSCEAR (2000) report. Furthermore, the correlation between soil and granitic rock samples were utilized, and external gamma radiation exposure distribution was mapped in Kapıdağ Peninsula.

Keywords: external absorbed dose, granitic rocks, Kapıdağ Peninsula, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
2069 Effective Dose and Size Specific Dose Estimation with and without Tube Current Modulation for Thoracic Computed Tomography Examinations: A Phantom Study

Authors: S. Gharbi, S. Labidi, M. Mars, M. Chelli, F. Ladeb


The purpose of this study is to reduce radiation dose for chest CT examination by including Tube Current Modulation (TCM) to a standard CT protocol. A scan of an anthropomorphic male Alderson phantom was performed on a 128-slice scanner. The estimation of effective dose (ED) in both scans with and without mAs modulation was done via multiplication of Dose Length Product (DLP) to a conversion factor. Results were compared to those measured with a CT-Expo software. The size specific dose estimation (SSDE) values were obtained by multiplication of the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) with a conversion size factor related to the phantom’s effective diameter. Objective assessment of image quality was performed with Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) measurements in phantom. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results showed including CARE Dose 4D; ED was lowered by 48.35% and 51.51% using DLP and CT-expo, respectively. In addition, ED ranges between 7.01 mSv and 6.6 mSv in case of standard protocol, while it ranges between 3.62 mSv and 3.2 mSv with TCM. Similar results are found for SSDE; dose was higher without TCM of 16.25 mGy and was lower by 48.8% including TCM. The SNR values calculated were significantly different (p=0.03<0.05). The highest one is measured on images acquired with TCM and reconstructed with Filtered back projection (FBP). In conclusion, this study proves the potential of TCM technique in SSDE and ED reduction and in conserving image quality with high diagnostic reference level for thoracic CT examinations.

Keywords: anthropomorphic phantom, computed tomography, CT-expo, radiation dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 147