Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Search results for: 16s rDNA

68 High Expression Levels and Amplification of rRNA Genes in a Mentally Retarded Child with 13p+: A Familial Case Study

Authors: Irina S. Kolesnikova, Alexander A. Dolskiy, Natalya A. Lemskaya, Yulia V. Maksimova, Asia R. Shorina, Alena S. Telepova, Alexander S. Graphodatsky, Dmitry V. Yudkin

Abstract:

A cytogenetic and molecular genetic study of the family with a male child who had mental retardation and autistic features revealed an abnormal chromosome 13 bearing an enlarged p-arm with amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in a boy and his father. Cytogenetic analysis using standard G-banding and FISH with labeled rDNA probes revealed an abnormal chromosome 13 with an enlarged p-arms due to rDNA amplification in a male child, who had clinically confirmed mental retardation and an autistic behavior. This chromosome is evidently inherited from the father, who has morphologically the same chromosome, but is healthy. The karyotype of the mother was normal. Ag-NOR staining showed brightly stained large whole-p-arm nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in a child and normal-sized NORs in his father with 13p+-NOR-amount mosaicism. qRT-PCR with specific primers showed highly increased levels of 18S, 28S and 5,8 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in the patient’s blood samples compared to a normal healthy control donor. Both patient’s father and mother had no elevated levels of rRNAs expression. Thus, in this case, rRNA level seems to correlate with mental retardation in familial individuals with 13p+. Our findings of rRNA overexpression in a patient with mental retardation and his parents may show a possible link between the karyotype (p-arm enlargement due to rDNA amplification), rDNA functionality (rRNA overexpression), functional changes in the brain and mental retardation. The study is supported by Russian Science Foundation Grant 15-15-10001.

Keywords: mental retardation, ribosomal DNA–rDNA, ribosomal RNA–rRNA, nucleolus organizer region–NOR, chromosome 13

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67 Halal Authentication for Some Product Collected from Jordanian Market Using Real-Time PCR

Authors: Omar S. Sharaf

Abstract:

The mitochondrial 12s rRNA (mt-12s rDNA) gene for pig-specific was developed to detect material from pork species in different products collected from Jordanian market. The amplification PCR products of 359 bp and 531 bp were successfully amplified from the cyt b gene of pig the amplification product using mt-12S rDNA gene were successfully produced a single band with a molecular size of 456 bp. In the present work, the PCR amplification of mtDNA of cytochrome b has been shown as a suitable tool for rapid detection of pig DNA. 100 samples from different dairy, gelatin and chocolate based products and 50 samples from baby food formula were collected and tested to a presence of any pig derivatives. It was found that 10% of chocolate based products, 12% of gelatin and 56% from dairy products and 5.2% from baby food formula showed single band from mt-12S rDNA gene.

Keywords: halal food, baby infant formula, chocolate based products, PCR, Jordan

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66 Identification of Cellulose-Hydrolytic Thermophiles Isolated from Sg. Klah Hot Spring Based on 16S rDNA Gene Sequence

Authors: M. J. Norashirene, Y. Zakiah, S. Nurdiana, I. Nur Hilwani, M. H. Siti Khairiyah, M. J. Muhamad Arif

Abstract:

In this study, six bacterial isolates of a slightly thermophilic organism from the Sg. Klah hot spring, Malaysia were successfully isolated and designated as M7T55D1, M7T55D2, M7T55D3, M7T53D1, M7T53D2 and M7T53D3 respectively. The bacterial isolates were screened for their cellulose hydrolytic ability on Carboxymethlycellulose agar medium. The isolated bacterial strains were identified morphologically, biochemically and molecularly with the aid of 16S rDNA sequencing. All of the bacteria showed their optimum growth at a slightly alkaline pH of 7.5 with a temperature of 55°C. All strains were Gram-negative, non-spore forming type, strictly aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-positive with the ability to produce thermostable cellulase. Based on BLASTn results, bacterial isolates of M7T55D2 and M7T53D1 gave the highest homology (97%) with similarity to Tepidimonas ignava while isolates M7T55D1, M7T55D3, M7T53D2 and M7T53D3 showed their closest homology (97%-98%) with Tepidimonas thermarum. These cellulolytic thermophiles might have a commercial potential to produce valuable thermostable cellulase.

Keywords: cellulase, cellulolytic, thermophiles, 16S rDNA gene

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65 Isolation and Molecular IdentıFıCation of Polyethylene Degrading Bacteria From Soil and Degradation Detection by FTIR Analysis

Authors: Morteza Haghi, Cigdem Yilmazbas, Ayse Zeynep Uysal, Melisa Tepedelen, Gozde Turkoz Bakirci

Abstract:

Today, the increase in plastic waste accumulation is an inescapable consequence of environmental pollution; the disposal of these wastes has caused a significant problem. Variable methods have been utilized; however, biodegradation is the most environmentally friendly and low-cost method. Accordingly, the present study aimed to isolate the bacteria capable of biodegradation of plastics. In doing so, we applied the liquid carbon-free basal medium (LCFBM) prepared with deionized water for the isolation of bacterial species obtained from soil samples taken from the Izmir Menemen region. Isolates forming biofilms on plastic were selected and named (PLB3, PLF1, PLB1B) and subjected to a degradation test. FTIR analysis, 16s rDNA amplification, sequencing, identification of isolates were performed. Finally, at the end of the process, a mass loss of 16.6% in PLB3 isolate and 25% in PLF1 isolate was observed, while no mass loss was detected in PLB1B isolate. Only PLF1 and PLB1B created transparent zones on plastic texture. Considering the FTIR result, PLB3 changed plastic structure by 13.6% and PLF1 by 17%, while PLB1B did not change the plastic texture. According to the 16s rDNA sequence analysis, FLP1, PLB1B, and PLB3 isolates were identified as Streptomyces albogriseolus, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively.

Keywords: polyethylene, biodegradation, bacteria, 16s rDNA, FTIR

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64 Systematics of Water Lilies (Genus Nymphaea L.) Using 18S rDNA Sequences

Authors: M. Nakkuntod, S. Srinarang, K.W. Hilu

Abstract:

Water lily (Nymphaea L.) is the largest genus of Nymphaeaceae. This family is composed of six genera (Nuphar, Ondinea, Euryale, Victoria, Barclaya, Nymphaea). Its members are nearly worldwide in tropical and temperate regions. The classification of some species in Nymphaea is ambiguous due to high variation in leaf and flower parts such as leaf margin, stamen appendage. Therefore, the phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rDNA were constructed to delimit this genus. DNAs of 52 specimens belonging to water lily family were extracted using modified conventional method containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The results showed that the amplified fragment is about 1600 base pairs in size. After analysis, the aligned sequences presented 9.36% for variable characters comprising 2.66% of parsimonious informative sites and 6.70% of singleton sites. Moreover, there are 6 regions of 1-2 base(s) for insertion/deletion. The phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood with high bootstrap support indicated that genus Nymphaea was a paraphyletic group because of Ondinea, Victoria and Euryale disruption. Within genus Nymphaea, subgenus Nymphaea is a basal lineage group which cooperated with Euryale and Victoria. The other four subgenera, namely Lotos, Hydrocallis, Brachyceras and Anecphya were included the same large clade which Ondinea was placed within Anecphya clade due to geographical sharing.

Keywords: nrDNA, phylogeny, taxonomy, waterlily

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63 Evaluation of the Physico-Chemical and Microbial Properties of the Compost Leachate (CL) to Assess Its Role in the Bioremediation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Authors: Omaima A. Sharaf, Tarek A. Moussa, Said M. Badr El-Din, H. Moawad

Abstract:

Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose great environmental and human health concerns for their widespread occurrence, persistence, and carcinogenic properties. PAHs releases due to anthropogenic activities to the wider environment have led to higher concentrations of these contaminants than would be expected from natural processes alone. This may result in a wide range of environmental problems that can accumulate in agricultural ecosystems, which threatened to become a negative impact on sustainable agricultural development. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical, and microbial properties of the compost leachate (CL) to assess its role as nutrient and microbial source (biostimulation/bioaugmentation) for developing a cost-effective bioremediation technology for PAHs contaminated sites. Material and Methods: PAHs-degrading bacteria were isolated from CL that was collected from a composting site located in central Scotland, UK. Isolation was carried out by enrichment using phenanthrene (PHR), pyrene (PYR) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The isolates were characterized using a variety of phenotypic and molecular properties. Six different isolates were identified based on the difference in morphological and biochemical tests. The efficiency of these isolates in PAHs utilization was assessed. Further analysis was performed to define taxonomical status and phylogenic relation between the most potent PAHs-utilizing bacterial strains and other standard strains, using molecular approach by partial 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Results indicated that the 16S rDNA sequence analysis confirmed the results of biochemical identification, as both of biochemical and molecular identification of the isolates assigned them to Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes faecalis, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Providenicia which were identified as the prominent PAHs-utilizers isolated from CL. Conclusion: This study indicates that the CL samples contain a diverse population of PAHs-degrading bacteria and the use of CL may have a potential for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated sites.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, physico-chemical analyses, compost leachate, microbial and biochemical analyses, phylogenic relations, 16S rDNA sequence analysis

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62 Isolation, Identification and Characterization of the Bacteria and Yeast from the Fermented Stevia Extract

Authors: Asato Takaishi, Masashi Nasuhara, Ayuko Itsuki, Kenichi Suga

Abstract:

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a composite plant native to Paraguay. Stevia sweetener is derived from a hot water extract of Stevia (Stevia extract), which has some effects such as histamine decomposition, antioxidative effect, and blood sugar level-lowering function. The steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract are considered to contribute to these effects. In addition, these effects increase by the fermentation. However, it takes a long time for fermentation of Stevia extract and the fermentation liquid sometimes decays during the fermentation process because natural fermentation method is used. The aim of this study is to perform the fermentation of Stevia extract in a shorter period, and to produce the fermentation liquid in stable quality. From the natural fermentation liquid of Stevia extract, the four strains of useful (good taste) microorganisms were isolated using dilution plate count method and some properties were determined. The base sequences of 16S rDNA and 28S rDNA revealed three bacteria (two Lactobacillus sp. and Microbacterium sp.) and one yeast (Issatchenkia sp.). This result has corresponded that several kinds of lactic bacterium such as Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus buchneri were isolated from Stevia leaves. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometory (LC/MS/MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine the contents of steviol glycosides and neutral sugars. When these strains were cultured in the sterile Stevia extract, the steviol and stevioside were increased in the fermented Stevia extract. So, it was suggested that the rebaudioside A and the mixture of steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract were decomposed into stevioside and steviol by microbial metabolism.

Keywords: fermentation, lactobacillus, Stevia, steviol glycosides, yeast

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61 Assessment of Lactic Acid Bacteria of Probiotic Potentials in Dairy Produce in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rashad R. Al-Hindi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria and evaluate their therapeutic and food preservation importance. Ninety-three suspected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from thirteen different raw and fermented milk of indigenous sources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The identification of forty-six selected LAB strains and genetic relatedness were performed based on 16S rDNA gene sequence comparison. The LAB counts in certain samples were higher under microaerobic than anaerobic conditions. The identified LAB belonged to genera Enterococcus (16 strains), Lactobacillus (9 strains), Weissella (10 strains), Streptococcus (8 strains) and Lactococcus (3 strains). Phylogenetic tree generated from the full-length (~1.6 kb) sequences confirmed previous findings. Utilization of shorter 16S rDNA sequences (~1.0 kb) also discriminated among strains of which V2 region was the most effective. None of the strains exhibited resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics or undesirable hemolytic activity, while they differed in other probiotic characteristics, e.g., tolerance to acidic pH, resistance to bile salt, and antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the isolates Lactobacillus casei MSJ1, Lactobacillus casei Dwan5, Lactobacillus plantarum EyLan2 and Enterococcus faecium Gail-BawZir8 are likely the best probiotic LAB and we speculate that studying the synergistic effects of bacterial combinations might result in the occurrence of more effective probiotic potential. We argue that the raw and fermented milk of animals hosted in Saudi Arabia, especially stirred yogurt (Laban) made from camel milk, are rich in LAB with promising probiotics potential.

Keywords: fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, Saudi Arabia

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60 Interpersonal Variation of Salivary Microbiota Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

Authors: Manjula Weerasekera, Chris Sissons, Lisa Wong, Sally Anderson, Ann Holmes, Richard Cannon

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The aim of this study was to characterize bacterial population and yeasts in saliva by Polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and measure yeast levels by culture. PCR-DGGE was performed to identify oral bacteria and yeasts in 24 saliva samples. DNA was extracted and used to generate DNA amplicons of the V2–V3 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene using PCR. Further universal primers targeting the large subunit rDNA gene (25S-28S) of fungi were used to amplify yeasts present in human saliva. Resulting PCR products were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using Universal mutation detection system. DGGE bands were extracted and sequenced using Sanger method. A potential relationship was evaluated between groups of bacteria identified by cluster analysis of DGGE fingerprints with the yeast levels and with their diversity. Significant interpersonal variation of salivary microbiome was observed. Cluster and principal component analysis of the bacterial DGGE patterns yielded three significant major clusters, and outliers. Seventeen of the 24 (71%) saliva samples were yeast positive going up to 10³ cfu/mL. Predominately, C. albicans, and six other species of yeast were detected. The presence, amount and species of yeast showed no clear relationship to the bacterial clusters. Microbial community in saliva showed a significant variation between individuals. A lack of association between yeasts and the bacterial fingerprints in saliva suggests the significant ecological person-specific independence in highly complex oral biofilm systems under normal oral conditions.

Keywords: bacteria, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, oral biofilm, yeasts

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59 One Species into Five: Nucleo-Mito Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Species in 'Frankliniella Schultzei Complex': Vector for Tospoviruses

Authors: Vikas Kumar, Kailash Chandra, Kaomud Tyagi

Abstract:

The insect order Thysanoptera includes small insects commonly called thrips. As insect vectors, only thrips are capable of Tospoviruses transmission (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) affecting various crops. Currently, fifteen species of subfamily Thripinae (Thripidae) have been reported as vectors for tospoviruses. Frankliniella schultzei, which is reported as act as a vector for at least five tospovirses, have been suspected to be a species complex with more than one species. It is one of the historical unresolved issues where, two species namely, F. schultzei Trybom and F. sulphurea Schmutz were erected from South Africa and Srilanaka respectively. These two species were considered to be valid until 1968 when sulphurea was treated as colour morph (pale form) and synonymised under schultzei (dark form) However, these two have been considered as valid species by some of the thrips workers. Parallel studies have indicated that brown form of schultzei is a vector for tospoviruses while yellow form is a non-vector. However, recent studies have shown that yellow populations have also been documented as vectors. In view of all these facts, it is highly important to have a clear understanding whether these colour forms represent true species or merely different populations with different vector carrying capacities and whether there is some hidden diversity in 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex'. In this study, we aim to study the 'Frankliniella schultzei species complex' with molecular spectacles with DNA data from India and Australia and Africa. A total of fifty-five specimens was collected from diverse locations in India and Australia. We generated molecular data using partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (mtCOI) and 28S rRNA gene. For COI dataset, there were seventy-four sequences, out of which data on fifty-five was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. All the four different tree construction methods: neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis, yielded the same tree topology and produced five cryptic species with high genetic divergence. For, rDNA, there were forty-five sequences, out of which data on thirty-nine was generated in the current study and others were retrieved from NCBI. The four tree building methods yielded four cryptic species with high bootstrap support value/posterior probability. Here we could not retrieve one cryptic species from South Africa as we could not generate data on rDNA from South Africa and sequence for rDNA from African region were not available in the database. The results of multiple species delimitation methods (barcode index numbers, automatic barcode gap discovery, general mixed Yule-coalescent, and Poisson-tree-processes) also supported the phylogenetic data and produced 5 and 4 Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) for mtCOI and 28S dataset respectively. These results of our study indicate the likelihood that F. sulphurea may be a valid species, however, more morphological and molecular data is required on specimens from type localities of these two species and comparison with type specimens.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, species complex, thrips, species delimitation

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58 A Genetic Identification of Candida Species Causing Intravenous Catheter-Associated Candidemia in Heart Failure Patients

Authors: Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Shirin Sadat Hashemi Fesharaki, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Bahar Salmanian

Abstract:

Introduction: Intravenous catheter-associated fungal infection as nosocomial infection continue to be a deep problem among hospitalized patients, decreasing quality of life and adding healthcare costs. The capacity of catheters in the spread of candidemia in heart failure patients is obvious. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and genetic identification of Candida species in heart disorder patients. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in Tehran Hospital of Cardiology Center (Tehran, Iran, 2014) during 1.5 years on the patients hospitalized for at least 7 days and who had central or peripheral vein catheter. Culture of catheters, blood and skin of the location of catheter insertion were applied for detecting Candida colonies in 223 patients. Identification of Candida species was made on the basis of a combination of various phenotypic methods and confirmed by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region amplified from the genomic DNA using PCR and the NCBI BLAST. Results: Of the 223 patients samples tested, we identified totally 15 Candida isolates obtained from 9 (4.04%) catheter cultures, 3 (1.35%) blood cultures and 2 (0.90%) skin cultures of the catheter insertion areas. On the base of ITS region sequencing, out of nine Candida isolates from catheter, 5(55.6%) C. albicans, 2(22.2%) C. glabrata, 1(11.1%) C. membranifiaciens and 1 (11.1%) C. tropicalis were identified. Among three Candida isolates from blood culture, C. tropicalis, C. carpophila and C. membranifiaciens were identified. Non-candida yeast isolated from one blood culture was Cryptococcus albidus. One case of C. glabrata and one case of Candida albicans were isolated from skin culture of the catheter insertion areas in patients with positive catheter culture. In these patients, ITS region of rDNA sequence showed a similarity between Candida isolated from the skin and catheter. However, the blood samples of these patients were negative for fungal growth. We report two cases of catheter-related candidemia caused by C. membranifiaciens and C. tropicalis on the base of genetic similarity of species isolated from blood and catheter which were treated successfully with intravenous fluconazole and catheter removal. In phenotypic identification methods, we could only identify C. albicans and C. tropicalis and other yeast isolates were diagnosed as Candida sp. Discussion: Although more than 200 species of Candida have been identified, only a few cause diseases in humans. There is some evidence that non-albicans infections are increasing. Many risk factors, including prior antibiotic therapy, use of a central venous catheter, surgery, and parenteral nutrition are considered to be associated with candidemia in hospitalized heart failure patients. Identifying the route of infection in candidemia is difficult. Non-albicans candida as the cause of candidemia is increasing dramatically. By using conventional method, many non-albicans isolates remain unidentified. So, using more sensitive and specific molecular genetic sequencing to clarify the aspects of epidemiology of the unknown candida species infections is essential. The positive blood and catheter cultures for candida isolates and high percentage of similarity of their ITS region of rDNA sequence in these two patients confirmed the diagnosis of intravenous catheter-associated candidemia.

Keywords: catheter-associated infections, heart failure patient, molecular genetic sequencing, ITS region of rDNA, Candidemia

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57 Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Culturable Unusual Actinomycetes from Solomon Islands Marine Sediments: Isolation and Characterisation of Bioactive Compounds

Authors: Ahilya Singh, Brad Carte, Ramesh Subramani, William Aalbersberg

Abstract:

A total of 37 actinomycete strains were purified from 25 Solomon Islands marine sediments using four different types of isolation media. Among them, 54% of the strains had obligate requirement of seawater for growth. The ethyl acetate extract of 100 ml fermentation product of each strain was screened for antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant human pathogens and cytotoxic activity against brine shrimps. A total of 67% of the ethyl acetate extracts showed antimicrobial and/or cytotoxic activities. A strain F-1915 was selected for isolation and evaluation of bioactive compound(s) based on its bioactive properties and chemical profile analysis using the LC-MS. The strain F-1915 was identified to have 96% sequence similarity to Streptomyces violaceusniger on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences using BLAST analysis. The 16S rDNA revealed that the strain F-1915 is a new member of MAR4 clade of actinomycetes. The MAR4 clade is an interesting clade of actinomycetes known for the production of pharmaceutically important hybrid isoprenoid compounds. The ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation product of this strain was purified by silica gel column chromatography and afforded the isolation of one bioactive pure compound. Based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectral data of compound 1 it was identified as a new mono-brominated phenazinone, Marinophenazimycin A, a structure which has already been studied by external collaborators at Scripps Institution of Oceanography but is yet to be published. Compound 1 displayed significant antimicrobial activity against drug resistant human pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of compound 1 was against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was about 1.9 μg/ml and MIC recorded against Amphotericin Resistant Candida albicans (ARCA) was about 0.24 μg/ml. The bioactivity of compound 1 against ARCA was found to be better than the standard antifungal agent amphotericin B. Compound 1 however did not show any cytotoxic activity against brine shrimps.

Keywords: actinomycetes, antimicrobial activity, brominated phenazine, MAR4 clade, marine natural products, multidrug resistent, 1D and 2D NMR

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56 Actinomycetes from Protected Forest Ecosystems of Assam, India: Diversity and Antagonistic Activity

Authors: Priyanka Sharma, Ranjita Das, Mohan C. Kalita, Debajit Thakur

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Background: Actinomycetes are the richest source of novel bioactive secondary metabolites such as antibiotics, enzymes and other therapeutically useful metabolites with diverse biological activities. The present study aims at the antimicrobial potential and genetic diversity of culturable Actinomycetes isolated from protected forest ecosystems of Assam which includes Kaziranga National Park (26°30˝-26°45˝N and 93°08˝-93°36˝E), Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary (26º12˝-26º16˝N and 91º58˝-92º05˝E) and Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary (26˚40˝-26˚45˝N and 94˚20˝-94˚25˝E) which are located in the North-eastern part of India. Northeast India is a part of the Indo-Burma mega biodiversity hotspot and most of the protected forests of this region are still unexplored for the isolation of effective antibiotic-producing Actinomycetes. Thus, there is tremendous possibility that these virgin forests could be a potential storehouse of novel microorganisms, particularly Actinomycetes, exhibiting diverse biological properties. Methodology: Soil samples were collected from different ecological niches of the protected forest ecosystems of Assam and Actinomycetes were isolated by serial dilution spread plate technique using five selective isolation media. Preliminary screening of Actinomycetes for an antimicrobial activity was done by spot inoculation method and the secondary screening by disc diffusion method against several test pathogens, including multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The strains were further screened for the presence of antibiotic synthetic genes such as type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I), type II polyketide synthases (PKS-II) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) genes. Genetic diversity of the Actinomycetes producing antimicrobial metabolites was analyzed through 16S rDNA-RFLP using Hinf1 restriction endonuclease. Results: Based on the phenotypic characterization, a total of 172 morphologically distinct Actinomycetes were isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity by spot inoculation method on agar medium. Among the strains tested, 102 (59.3%) strains showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria, 98 (56.97%) against Gram-negative bacteria, 92 (53.48%) against Candida albicans MTCC 227 and 130 (75.58%) strains showed activity against at least one of the test pathogens. Twelve Actinomycetes exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity in the secondary screening. The taxonomic identification of these twelve strains by 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that Streptomyces was found to be the predominant genus. The PKS-I, PKS-II and NRPS genes detection indicated diverse bioactive products of these twelve Actinomycetes. Genetic diversity by 16S rDNA-RFLP indicated that Streptomyces was the dominant genus amongst the antimicrobial metabolite producing Actinomycetes. Conclusion: These findings imply that Actinomycetes from the protected forest ecosystems of Assam, India, are a potential source of bioactive secondary metabolites. These areas are as yet poorly studied and represent diverse and largely unscreened ecosystem for the isolation of potent Actinomycetes producing antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Detailed characterization of the bioactive Actinomycetes as well as purification and structure elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the potent Actinomycetes is the subject of ongoing investigation. Thus, to exploit Actinomycetes from such unexplored forest ecosystems is a way to develop bioactive products.

Keywords: Actinomycetes, antimicrobial activity, forest ecosystems, RFLP

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55 Molecular Biomonitoring of Bacterial Pathogens in Wastewater

Authors: Desouky Abd El Haleem, Sahar Zaki

Abstract:

This work was conducted to develop a one-step multiplex PCR system for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of three different bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp, directly in wastewater without prior isolation on selective media. As a molecular confirmatory test after isolation of the pathogens by classical microbiological methods, PCR-RFLP of their amplified 16S rDNA genes was performed. It was observed that the developed protocols have significance impact in the ability to detect sensitively, rapidly and specifically the three pathogens directly in water within short-time, represents a considerable advancement over more time-consuming and less-sensitive methods for identification and characterization of these kinds of pathogens.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp.

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54 Phylogenetic Characterization of Atrazine-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soil in Eastern Thailand

Authors: Sawangjit Sopid

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In this study sugarcane field soils with a long history of atrazine application in Chachoengsao and Chonburi provinces have been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. For the atrazine degrading bacteria isolation, the soils used in this study named ACS and ACB were inoculated in MS-medium containing atrazine. Six short rod and gram-negative bacterial isolates, which were able to use this herbicide as a sole source of nitrogen, were isolated and named as ACS1, ACB1, ACB3, ACB4, ACB5 and ACB6. From the 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis, the isolated bacteria ACS1 and ACB4 were identified as Rhizobium sp. with 89.1-98.7% nucleotide identity, ACB1 and ACB5 were identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. with 91.0-92.8% nucleotide identity, whereas ACB3 and ACB6 were Klebsiella sp. with 97.4-97.8% nucleotide identity.

Keywords: atrazine-degrading bacteria, bioremediation, Thai isolates, bacteria

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53 Effective Removal of Tetrodotoxin with Fiber Mat Containing Activated Charcoal

Authors: Min Sik Kim, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

From 2013, small eel farms, which are located in Han River Estuary, South Korea suffer damage because of unknown massive perish. In the middle of discussion that the cause of perish could be environmental changes or waste water, a large amount of unknown nemertean was discovered during that time. Some nemerteans are known releasing neurotoxin substance. In this study, we isolated intestinal bacteria using selective media and conducted 16s rDNA microbial identification by gene alignment. As a result, there was a type of bacteria producing TTX, blocks sodium-channel inducing organism’s death. TTX production from the bacteria was confirmed by ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. Additionally, the activated-charcoal which has an ability to absorb small molecules like toxin was applied to fibrous mesh to prevent ingestion of aquatic organisms and increase applicable area. The viability of zebrafish in the water with TTX and charcoal fiber mat were not decreased meaning it could be used for solving the perishing problem in fish farm.

Keywords: nemertean, TTX, fiber mat, activated charcoal, zebrafish

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52 Binding of Avian Excreta-Derived Enteroccoci to a Streptococcocus mutans: Implications for Avian to Human Transmission

Authors: Richard K. Jolley, Jonathan A. Coffman

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Since Enterococci has been implicated in oral disease, we hypothesized the transmission of avian Enterococci to humans via fecal-oral transmission facilitated by adherence to dental plaque. To demonstrate the capability of Enterococci to bind to a dental plaque we filtered avian excreta and incubated the filtrate on a sucrose-induced, Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The biofilm was washed several times with a detergent to remove bacteria binding non-specifically to the biofilm, DNA was isolated from the biofilm, 16S rDNA was amplified, sequenced by Ion Torrent DNA sequencing and analyzed with bioinformatics. Enterococci and other known bacterial pathogens were shown to adhere to the biofilm. Culturing the washed biofilm with Bile Esculin Azide (BEA) agar also confirmed the presence of Enterococci as verified with Sanger sequencing. The results suggest that Enteroccoci in avian excreta has the ability to adhere to human dental plaque and may be a mechanism of entry when humans encounter contaminated aerosols, water or food.

Keywords: Enterococci, avian excreta, dental plaque, NGS

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51 Selection of Pichia kudriavzevii Strain for the Production of Single-Cell Protein from Cassava Processing Waste

Authors: Phakamas Rachamontree, Theerawut Phusantisampan, Natthakorn Woravutthikul, Peerapong Pornwongthong, Malinee Sriariyanun

Abstract:

A total of 115 yeast strains isolated from local cassava processing wastes were measured for crude protein content. Among these strains, the strain MSY-2 possessed the highest protein concentration (>3.5 mg protein/mL). By using molecular identification tools, it was identified to be a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii based on similarity of D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA region. In this study, to optimize the protein production by MSY-2 strain, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied. The tested parameters were the carbon content, nitrogen content, and incubation time. Here, the value of regression coefficient (R2) = 0.7194 could be explained by the model, which is high to support the significance of the model. Under the optimal condition, the protein content was produced up to 3.77 g per L of the culture and MSY-2 strain contain 66.8 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight. These results revealed the plausibility of applying the novel strain of yeast in single-cell protein production.

Keywords: single cell protein, response surface methodology, yeast, cassava processing waste

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50 Potential Probiotic Bacteria Isolated from Dairy Products of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rashad Al-Hindi

Abstract:

The aims of the study were to isolate and identify potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria due to their therapeutic and food preservation importance. Sixty-three suspected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from thirteen different raw milk and fermented milk product samples of various animal origins manufactured indigenously in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar medium and various incubation conditions. The identification of forty-six selected LAB strains was performed using molecular methods (16S rDNA gene sequencing). The LAB counts in certain samples were higher under microaerobic incubation conditions than under anaerobic conditions. The identified LAB belonged to the following genera: Enterococcus (16 strains), Lactobacillus (9 strains), Weissella (10 strains), Streptococcus (8 strains) and Lactococcus (3 strains), constituting 34.78%, 19.57%, 21.74%, 17.39% and 6.52% of the suspected isolates, respectively. This study noted that the raw milk and traditional fermented milk products of Saudi Arabia, especially stirred yogurt (Laban) made from camel milk, could be rich in LAB. The obtained LAB strains in this study will be tested for their probiotic potentials in another ongoing study.

Keywords: dairy, LAB, probiotic, Saudi Arabia

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49 Characterization of Genus Candida Yeasts Isolated from Oral Microbiota of Brazilian Schoolchildren with Different Caries Experience

Authors: D. S. V. Barbieri, R. R. Gomes, G. D. Santos, P. F. Herkert, M. Moreira, E. S. Trindade, V. A. Vicente

Abstract:

The importance of yeast infections has increased in recent decades. The monitoring of Candida yeasts has been relevant in the study of groups and populations. This research evaluated 31 Candida spp. isolates from oral microbiota of 12 Brazilian schoolchildren coinfected with Streptococcus mutans. The isolates were evaluated for their ability to form biofilm in vitro and molecularly characterized based on the sequencing of intergenic spacer regions ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 and variable domains of the large subunit (D1/D2) regions of the rDNA, as well as ABC system genotyping. The sequencing confirmed 26 lineages of Candida albicans, three Candida tropicalis, one Candida guillhermondii and one Candida glabrata. Genetic variability and differences on in biofilm formation were observed among Candida yeasts lineages. At least one Candida strain from each caries activity child was C.albicans genotype A or Candida non-albicans. C. tropicalis was associated with highest cavities rates. These results indicate that the presence of C. albicans genotype A or multi-colonization by non albicans species seem to be associates to the potentialization of caries risk.

Keywords: biofilm, Candida albicans, oral microbiota, caries

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48 Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Food

Authors: Wilailak Siripornadulsil, Siriyanapat Tasaku, Jutamas Buahorm, Surasak Siripornadulsil

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The objectives of this study were to isolate LAB from various sources, dietary supplement, Thai traditional fermented food, and freshwater fish and to characterize their potential as probiotic cultures. Out of 1,558 isolates, 730 were identified as LAB based on isolation on MRS agar supplemented with a bromocresol purple indicator and CaCO3 and gram-positive, catalase and oxidase negative characteristics. Eight isolates showed the potential probiotic properties including tolerance to acid, bile salt and heat, proteolytic, amylolytic and lipolytic activities and oxalate-degrading capability. They all showed the antimicrobial activity against some Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, they were identified as Enterococcus faecalis BT2 and MG30, Leconostoc mesenteroides SW64 and Pediococcus pentosaceous BD33, CF32, NP6, PS34 and SW5. The health beneficial effects and food safety will be further investigated and developed as a probiotic or protective culture used in Nile tilapia belly flap meat fermentation.

Keywords: probiotic, lactic acid bacteria, pathogen, protective culture

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47 Screening and Improved Production of an Extracellular β-Fructofuranosidase from Bacillus Sp

Authors: Lynette Lincoln, Sunil S. More

Abstract:

With the rising demand of sugar used today, it is proposed that world sugar is expected to escalate up to 203 million tonnes by 2021. Hydrolysis of sucrose (table sugar) into glucose and fructose equimolar mixture is catalyzed by β-D-fructofuranoside fructohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.26), commonly called as invertase. For fluid filled center in chocolates, preparation of artificial honey, as a sweetener and especially to ensure that food stuffs remain fresh, moist and soft for longer spans invertase is applied widely and is extensively being used. From an industrial perspective, properties such as increased solubility, osmotic pressure and prevention of crystallization of sugar in food products are highly desired. Screening for invertase does not involve plate assay/qualitative test to determine the enzyme production. In this study, we use a three-step screening strategy for identification of a novel bacterial isolate from soil which is positive for invertase production. The primary step was serial dilution of soil collected from sugarcane fields (black soil, Maddur region of Mandya district, Karnataka, India) was grown on a Czapek-Dox medium (pH 5.0) containing sucrose as the sole C-source. Only colonies with the capability to utilize/breakdown sucrose exhibited growth. Bacterial isolates released invertase in order to take up sucrose, splitting the disaccharide into simple sugars. Secondly, invertase activity was determined from cell free extract by measuring the glucose released in the medium at 540 nm. Morphological observation of the most potent bacteria was examined by several identification tests using Bergey’s manual, which enabled us to know the genus of the isolate to be Bacillus. Furthermore, this potent bacterial colony was subjected to 16S rDNA PCR amplification and a single discrete PCR amplicon band of 1500 bp was observed. The 16S rDNA sequence was used to carry out BLAST alignment search tool of NCBI Genbank database to obtain maximum identity score of sequence. Molecular sequencing and identification was performed by Xcelris Labs Ltd. (Ahmedabad, India). The colony was identified as Bacillus sp. BAB-3434, indicating to be the first novel strain for extracellular invertase production. Molasses, a by-product of the sugarcane industry is a dark viscous liquid obtained upon crystallization of sugar. An enhanced invertase production and optimization studies were carried out by one-factor-at-a-time approach. Crucial parameters such as time course (24 h), pH (6.0), temperature (45 °C), inoculum size (2% v/v), N-source (yeast extract, 0.2% w/v) and C-source (molasses, 4% v/v) were found to be optimum demonstrating an increased yield. The findings of this study reveal a simple screening method of an extracellular invertase from a rapidly growing Bacillus sp., and selection of best factors that elevate enzyme activity especially utilization of molasses which served as an ideal substrate and also as C-source, results in a cost-effective production under submerged conditions. The invert mixture could be a replacement for table sugar which is an economic advantage and reduce the tedious work of sugar growers. On-going studies involve purification of extracellular invertase and determination of transfructosylating activity as at high concentration of sucrose, invertase produces fructooligosaccharides (FOS) which possesses probiotic properties.

Keywords: Bacillus sp., invertase, molasses, screening, submerged fermentation

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46 Application of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 for Cellulase Production from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Surasak Siripornadulsil, Nutt Poomai, Wilailak Siripornadulsil

Abstract:

Due to a high ethanol demand, the approach for effective ethanol production is important and has been developed rapidly worldwide. Several agricultural wastes are highly abundant in celluloses and the effective cellulose enzymes do exist widely among microorganisms. Accordingly, the cellulose degradation using microbial cellulose to produce a low-cost substrate for ethanol production has attracted more attention. In this study, the cellulose producing bacterial strain has been isolated from rich straw and identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Acinetobacter sp. KKU44. This strain is able to grow and exhibit the cellulose activity. The optimal temperature for its growth and cellulose production is 37 °C. The optimal temperature of bacterial cellulose activity is 60 °C. The cellulose enzyme from Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 is heat-tolerant enzyme. The bacterial culture of 36 h. showed highest cellulose activity at 120 U/mL when grown in LB medium containing 2% (w/v). The capability of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 to grow in cellulosic agricultural wastes as a sole carbon source and exhibiting the high cellulose activity at high temperature suggested that this strain could be potentially developed further as a cellulose degrading strain for a production of low-cost substrate used in ethanol production.

Keywords: cellulose enzyme, bagasse, rice straw, rice husk, acinetobacter sp. KKU44

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45 Antimicrobial Peptide Produced by Lactococcus garvieae with a Broad Inhibition Spectrum

Authors: Hai Chi, Ibrahim Mehmeti, Kirill Ovchinnikov, Hegle Holo, Ingolf F. Nes, Dzung B. Diep

Abstract:

By using a panel of multiple indicator strains of different bacterial species and genera, we screened a large collection of bacterial isolates (over 1800 isolates) derived from raw milk, for bacteriocin producers with broad inhibition spectra (BIS). Fourteen isolates with BIS were identified, and by 16S rDNA sequencing they were found to belong to Lactococcus garvieae (10 isolates) and Enterococcus feacalis (4 isolates). Further analysis of the ten L. garvieae isolates revealed that they were very similar, if not identical, to each other in metabolic and genetic terms: they had the same fermentation profile on different types of sugars, repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) DNA pattern as well as they all had the same inhibition profile towards over 50 isolates of different species. The bacteriocin activity from one of the L. garvieae isolates was assessed further. The bacteriocin which was termed garvicin KS, was found to be heatstable and proteinase-labile and its inhibition spectrum contained many distantly related genera of Firmicutes, comprising most lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as well as problematic species of Bacillus, Listeria, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and their antibiotic resistant derivatives (e.g. VRE, MRSA). Taken together, the results indicate that this is a potent bacteriocin from L. garvieae and that its very broad inhibition spectrum can be a very useful property for use in food preservation as well as in infection treatments caused by gram-positive pathogens and their antibiotic-derivatives.

Keywords: bacteriocin, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus garvieae, antibiotics resistance

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44 Phylogenetic Relationships of Common Reef Fish Species in Vietnam

Authors: Dang Thuy Binh, Truong Thi Oanh, Le Phan Khanh Hung, Luong thi Tuong Vy

Abstract:

One of the greatest environmental challenges facing Asia is the management and conservation of the marine biodiversity threaten by fisheries overexploitation, pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. To date, a few molecular taxonomical studies has been conducted on marine fauna in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to clarify the phylogeny of economic and ecological reef fish species in Vietnam Reef fish species covering Labridae, Scaridae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae, Acanthuridae, Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, Mullidae, Balistidae, Pseudochromidae, Pinguipedidae, Fistulariidae, Holocentridae, Synodontidae, and Pomacentridae representing 28 genera were collected from South and Center, Vietnam. Combine with Genbank sequences, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on 16S gene of mitochondrial DNA using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference approaches. The phylogram showed the well-resolved clades at genus and family level. Perciformes is the major order of reef fish species in Vietnam. The monophyly of Perciformes is not strongly supported as it was clustered in the same clade with Tetraodontiformes syngnathiformes and Beryciformes. Continue sampling of commercial fish species and classification based on morphology and genetics to build DNA barcoding of fish species in Vietnam is really necessary.

Keywords: reef fish, 16s rDNA, Vietnam, phylogeny

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43 Assessment of cellulase and xylanase Production by chryseobacterium sp. Isolated from Decaying Biomass in Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: A. Nkohla, U. Nwodo, L. V. Mabinya, A. I. Okoh

Abstract:

A potential source for low-cost production of value added products is the utilization of lignocellulosic materials. However, the huddle needing breaching would be the dismantlement of the complex lignocellulosic structure as to free sugar base therein. the current lignocellosic material treatment process is expensive and not eco-friendly hence, the advocacy for enzyme based technique which is both cheap and eco-friendly is highly imperative. Consequently, this study aimed at the screening of cellulose and xylan degrading bacterial strain isolated from decaying sawdust samples. This isolate showed high activity for cellulase and xylanase when grown on carboxymethyl cellulose and birtchwood xylan as the sole carbon source respectively. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence of the isolate showed 98% similarity with that of Chryseobacterium taichungense thus, it was identified as a Chryseobacterium sp. Optimum culture conditions for cellulase and xylanase production were medium pH 6, incubation temperature of 25 °C at 50 rpm and medium pH 6, incubation temperature of 25 °C at 150 rpm respectively. The high enzyme activity obtained from this bacterial strain portends it as a good candidate for industrial use in the degradation of complex biomass for value added products.

Keywords: lignocellulosic material, chryseobacterium sp., submerged fermentation, cellulase, xylanase

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42 Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from Northeastern Thai Fermented Vegetable Brassica juncea (L.)

Authors: T. Warinpramote, J. Sanguanjeen, P. Pholphakwaen, S. Kittisorayut, J. Kerdtubtim, S. Palachote, M. Taweechotipatr

Abstract:

Cholesterol is a type of lipid molecule which is the significant risk factor for coronary heart disease. Currently, there are many cholesterol-lowering alternative treatments especially bile salt hydrolase positive lactobacilli. BSH can cleave the peptide linkage of bile salt, which results in removal of the amino acid group from the steroid core and increases production of the new bile acid by using more cholesterol. The purpose of this study was to isolate, and screen probiotic characteristics of lactobacilli from fermented Thai foods and further investigated for their comparative BSH activity. The result showed that 2 of 81 Lactobacillus strains, JPK2-2 and JPK3-2, isolated from Brassica juncea (L.) had significantly exhibited high BSH activity. In addition, these Lactobacillus strains showed their results that the ability to tolerate acid and bile salt. Furthermore, the using of 16S rDNA sequencing for definitive microbial identifications showed that these 2 strains belong to Lactobacillus plantarum. In the future, the L. plantarum with BSH activity strains JPK2-2 and JPK3-2 may be the candidate probiotics for application in functional foods and dairy products to improve in the patient with cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum, probiotics, bile salt hydrolase, cholesterol-lowering, fermented Thai food

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41 Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Root-Nodules of Medicago sativa in Al-Ahasa Region

Authors: Ashraf Y. Z. Khalifa, Mohammed A. Almalki

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Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) is an important forage crop legume worldwide including Saudia Arabia due to its high nutritive value. Soil bacteria exist in root or root-nodules of Medicago sativa in either symbiotic relationships or in associations. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria that live in association with non-nodulated roots of Medicago sativa growing in Al-Ahsaa region, Saudia Arabia. Several bacterial strains were isolated from sterilized roots of Medicago sativa. Strains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequences, phylogenetic relationships analysis, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The strains utilized 50% (10 out of 20) of the different chemical substrates contained in the API20E strip. In general, many strains had the ability to ferment/oxidise all the carbohydrate tested except for rhamnose and the polyol carbohydrate, inositol. Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene indicated that the strains were closely related to the genus Bacillus. Furthermore, the growth parameters of Vigna sinensis were enhanced upon single-inoculation of the isolated strains, compared to the uninoculated control plants. The results highlighted that the root-nodules of Medicago sativa harbor non-nodulating bacterial strains that could have significant agricultural applications.

Keywords: Medicago sativa, endophytic bacteria, Pisum sativum, Vigna sinensis

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40 Characterization of Biosurfactant during Crude Oil Biodegradation Employing Pseudomonas sp. PG1: A Strain Isolated from Garage Soil

Authors: Kaustuvmani Patowary, Suresh Deka

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Oil pollution accidents, nowadays, have become a common phenomenon and have caused ecological and social disasters. Microorganisms with high oil-degrading performance are essential for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon. In this investigation, an effective biosurfactant producer and hydrocarbon degrading bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp.PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated garage soil of Pathsala, Assam, India, using crude oil enrichment technique. The growth parameters such as pH and temperature were optimized for the strain and upto 81.8% degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) has been achieved after 5 weeks when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) containing 2% (w/v) crude oil as the carbon source. The biosurfactant production during the course of hydrocarbon degradation was monitored by surface tension measurement and emulsification activity. The produced biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of MSM from 72 mN/m to 29.6 mN/m, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC)of 56 mg/L. The biosurfactant exhibited 100% emulsification activity on crude oil. FTIR spectroscopy and LCMS-MS analysis of the purified biosurfactant revealed that the biosurfactant is Rhamnolipidic in nature with several rhamnolipid congeners. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis clearly demonstrated that the strain PG1 efficiently degrade different hydrocarbon fractions of the crude oil. The study suggeststhat application of the biosurfactant producing strain PG1 as an appropriate candidate for bioremediation of crude oil contaminants.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon contamination, bioremediation, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid

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39 Rejuvenation of Peanut Seedling from Collar Rot Disease by Azotobacter sp. RA2

Authors: Ravi R. Patel, Vasudev R. Thakkar

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Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to increase the production and decrees disease occurrence is a recent method in agriculture. An RA2 rhizospheric culture was isolated from peanut rhizosphere from Junagadh region of Gujarat, India and showed different direct and indirect plant growth promoting activity like indole acetic acid, gibberellic acid, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, Ammonia and (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate) deaminase production, N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization in vitro. RA2 was able to protect peanut germinating seedling from A. niger infection and reduce collar rot disease incidence 60-35% to 72-41% and increase germination percentage from 70-82% to 75-97% in two varieties GG20 and GG2 of peanut. RA2 was found to induce resistance in A. hypogaea L. seedlings via induction of different defense-related enzymes like phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, lipoxygenase and pathogenesis related protein like chitinase, ß – 1,3- glucanase. Jasmonic acid one of the major signaling molecules of inducing systemic resistance was also found to induced due to RA2 treatments. RA2 bacterium was also promoting peanut growth and reduce A. niger infection in pot studies. 16S rDNA sequence of RA2 showed 99 % homology to Azotobacter species.

Keywords: plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, peanut, aspergillus niger, induce systemic resistance

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