Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7377

Search results for: single cell protein

7377 Selection of Pichia kudriavzevii Strain for the Production of Single-Cell Protein from Cassava Processing Waste

Authors: Phakamas Rachamontree, Theerawut Phusantisampan, Natthakorn Woravutthikul, Peerapong Pornwongthong, Malinee Sriariyanun


A total of 115 yeast strains isolated from local cassava processing wastes were measured for crude protein content. Among these strains, the strain MSY-2 possessed the highest protein concentration (>3.5 mg protein/mL). By using molecular identification tools, it was identified to be a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii based on similarity of D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA region. In this study, to optimize the protein production by MSY-2 strain, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied. The tested parameters were the carbon content, nitrogen content, and incubation time. Here, the value of regression coefficient (R2) = 0.7194 could be explained by the model, which is high to support the significance of the model. Under the optimal condition, the protein content was produced up to 3.77 g per L of the culture and MSY-2 strain contain 66.8 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight. These results revealed the plausibility of applying the novel strain of yeast in single-cell protein production.

Keywords: single cell protein, response surface methodology, yeast, cassava processing waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
7376 Single-Cell Visualization with Minimum Volume Embedding

Authors: Zhenqiu Liu


Visualizing the heterogeneity within cell-populations for single-cell RNA-seq data is crucial for studying the functional diversity of a cell. However, because of the high level of noises, outlier, and dropouts, it is very challenging to measure the cell-to-cell similarity (distance), visualize and cluster the data in a low-dimension. Minimum volume embedding (MVE) projects the data into a lower-dimensional space and is a promising tool for data visualization. However, it is computationally inefficient to solve a semi-definite programming (SDP) when the sample size is large. Therefore, it is not applicable to single-cell RNA-seq data with thousands of samples. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm with an accelerated proximal gradient method and visualize the single-cell RNA-seq data efficiently. We demonstrate that the proposed approach separates known subpopulations more accurately in single-cell data sets than other existing dimension reduction methods.

Keywords: single-cell RNA-seq, minimum volume embedding, visualization, accelerated proximal gradient method

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7375 Production of Recombinant VP2 Protein of Canine Parvovirus Type 2c Using Baculovirus Expression System

Authors: Jae Young Song, In-Ohk Ouh, Seyeon Park, Byeong Sul Kang, Soo Dong Cho, In-Soo Cho


Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a major pathogen of diarrhea disease in dogs. CPV type 2 has three of antigenic variants such as 2a, 2b, and 2c. CPV constructs a small non-enveloped, icosahedral capsid that contains single-stranded DNA. It has capsids that two largely overlapping virion proteins (VP), VP1 (82 kDa), and VP2 (65 kDa). Baculoviruses are insect pathogens that regulate insect populations in nature and are being successfully used to control insect pests. The proteins produced in the baculovirus-expression system are used for instance for functional studies, vaccine preparations, or diagnostics. The vaccines produced by baculovirus-expression system showed elicitation of antibodies. The recombinant baculovirus infected SF9 cells showed broken shape. The recombinant VP2 proteins from cell pellet or supernatant were confirmed by western blotting. The result showed that the recombinant VP2 protein bands were appeared at 65 kDa molecular weight in both cell pellet and supernatant of infected SF9 cell. These results indicated that the recombinant baculovirus infected SF9 cell express the recombinant VP2 protein successfully. In addition, the expressed recombinant VP2 protein is secreted from cell to supernatant. The baculovirus expression system can be used to produce the VP2 protein of CPV 2c. In addition, the secretion property of the expression of VP2 protein may decrease the cost of production, because it can be skipped the cell breaking step. The produced VP2 protein could be used for vaccine and the agent of diagnostic tests. This study provides the foundation of the production of CPV 2c vaccine and the diagnostic agent.

Keywords: baculovirus, canine parvovirus 2c, dog, Korea

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7374 Efficient Pre-Processing of Single-Cell Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin with High-Throughput Sequencing Data

Authors: Fan Gao, Lior Pachter


The primary tool currently used to pre-process 10X Chromium single-cell ATAC-seq data is Cell Ranger, which can take very long to run on standard datasets. To facilitate rapid pre-processing that enables reproducible workflows, we present a suite of tools called scATAK for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data that is 15 to 18 times faster than Cell Ranger on mouse and human samples. Our tool can also calculate chromatin interaction potential matrices, and generate open chromatin signal and interaction traces for cell groups. We use scATAK tool to explore the chromatin regulatory landscape of a healthy adult human brain and unveil cell-type specific features, and show that it provides a convenient and computational efficient approach for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data.

Keywords: single-cell, ATAC-seq, bioinformatics, open chromatin landscape, chromatin interactome

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7373 Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level

Authors: Jefunnie Matahum, Yu-Chi Kuo, Chao-Ming Su, Tzong-Rong Ger


Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, single cell, magnetophoresis, image analysis

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7372 Hydration of Protein-RNA Recognition Sites

Authors: Amita Barik, Ranjit Prasad Bahadur


We investigate the role of water molecules in 89 protein-RNA complexes taken from the Protein Data Bank. Those with tRNA and single-stranded RNA are less hydrated than with duplex or ribosomal proteins. Protein-RNA interfaces are hydrated less than protein-DNA interfaces, but more than protein-protein interfaces. Majority of the waters at protein-RNA interfaces makes multiple H-bonds; however, a fraction does not make any. Those making Hbonds have preferences for the polar groups of RNA than its partner protein. The spatial distribution of waters makes interfaces with ribosomal proteins and single-stranded RNA relatively ‘dry’ than interfaces with tRNA and duplex RNA. In contrast to protein-DNA interfaces, mainly due to the presence of the 2’OH, the ribose in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the phosphate or the bases. The minor groove in protein-RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the major groove, while in protein-DNA interfaces it is reverse. The strands make the highest number of water-mediated H-bonds per unit interface area followed by the helices and the non-regular structures. The preserved waters at protein-RNA interfaces make higher number of H-bonds than the other waters. Preserved waters contribute toward the affinity in protein-RNA recognition and should be carefully treated while engineering protein-RNA interfaces.

Keywords: h-bonds, minor-major grooves, preserved water, protein-RNA interfaces

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7371 Single Cell Sorter Driven by Resonance Vibration of Cell Culture Substrate

Authors: Misa Nakao, Yuta Kurashina, Chikahiro Imashiro, Kenjiro Takemura


The Research Goal: With the growing demand for regenerative medicine, an effective mass cell culture process is required. In a repetitive subculture process for proliferating cells, preparing single cell suspension which does not contain any cell aggregates is highly required because cell aggregates often raise various undesirable phenomena, e.g., apoptosis and decrease of cell proliferation. Since cell aggregates often occur in cell suspension during conventional subculture processes, this study proposes a single cell sorter driven by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The Method and the Result: The single cell sorter is simply composed of a cell culture substrate and a glass pipe vertically placed against the cell culture substrate with a certain gap corresponding to a cell diameter. The cell culture substrate is made of biocompatible stainless steel with a piezoelectric ceramic disk glued to the bottom side. Applying AC voltage to the piezoelectric ceramic disk, an out-of-plane resonance vibration with a single nodal circle of the cell culture substrate can be excited at 5.5 kHz. By doing so, acoustic radiation force is emitted, and then cell suspension containing only single cells is pumped into the pipe and collected. This single cell sorter is effective to collect single cells selectively in spite of its quite simple structure. We collected C2C12 myoblast cell suspension by the single cell sorter with the vibration amplitude of 12 µmp-p and evaluated the ratio of single cells in number against the entire cells in the suspension. Additionally, we cultured the collected cells for 72 hrs and measured the number of cells after the cultivation in order to evaluate their proliferation. As a control sample, we also collected cell suspension by conventional pipetting, and evaluated the ratio of single cells and the number of cells after the 72-hour cultivation. The ratio of single cells in the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter was 98.2%. This ratio was 9.6% higher than that collected by conventional pipetting (statistically significant). Moreover, the number of cells cultured for 72 hrs after the collection by the single cell sorter yielded statistically more cells than that collected by pipetting, resulting in a 13.6% increase in proliferated cells. These results suggest that the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter driven by the resonance vibration hardly contains cell aggregates whose diameter is larger than the gap between the cell culture substrate and the pipe. Consequently, the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter maintains high cell proliferation. Conclusions: In this study, we developed a single cell sorter capable of sorting and pumping single cells by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The experimental results show the single cell sorter collects single cell suspension which hardly contains cell aggregates. Furthermore, the collected cells show higher proliferation than that of cells collected by conventional pipetting. This means the resonance vibration of the cell culture substrate can benefit us with the increase in efficiency of mass cell culture process for clinical applications.

Keywords: acoustic radiation force, cell proliferation, regenerative medicine, resonance vibration, single cell sorter

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7370 Application of Thermoplastic Microbioreactor to the Single Cell Study of Budding Yeast to Decipher the Effect of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural on Growth

Authors: Elif Gencturk, Ekin Yurdakul, Ahmet Y. Celik, Senol Mutlu, Kutlu O. Ulgen


Yeast cells are generally used as a model system of eukaryotes due to their complex genetic structure, rapid growth ability in optimum conditions, easy replication and well-defined genetic system properties. Thus, yeast cells increased the knowledge of the principal pathways in humans. During fermentation, carbohydrates (hexoses and pentoses) degrade into some toxic by-products such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF or HMF) and furfural. HMF influences the ethanol yield, and ethanol productivity; it interferes with microbial growth and is considered as a potent inhibitor of bioethanol production. In this study, yeast single cell behavior under HMF application was monitored by using a continuous flow single phase microfluidic platform. Microfluidic device in operation is fabricated by hot embossing and thermo-compression techniques from cyclo-olefin polymer (COP). COP is biocompatible, transparent and rigid material and it is suitable for observing fluorescence of cells considering its low auto-fluorescence characteristic. The response of yeast cells was recorded through Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) tagged Nop56 gene product, which is an essential evolutionary-conserved nucleolar protein, and also a member of the box C/D snoRNP complexes. With the application of HMF, yeast cell proliferation continued but HMF slowed down the cell growth, and after HMF treatment the cell proliferation stopped. By the addition of fresh nutrient medium, the yeast cells recovered after 6 hours of HMF exposure. Thus, HMF application suppresses normal functioning of cell cycle but it does not cause cells to die. The monitoring of Nop56 expression phases of the individual cells shed light on the protein and ribosome synthesis cycles along with their link to growth. Further computational study revealed that the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory or inductive effects of HMF on growth are enriched in functional categories of protein degradation, protein processing, DNA repair and multidrug resistance. The present microfluidic device can successfully be used for studying the effects of inhibitory agents on growth by single cell tracking, thus capturing cell to cell variations. By metabolic engineering techniques, engineered strains can be developed, and the metabolic network of the microorganism can thus be manipulated such that chemical overproduction of target metabolite is achieved along with the maximum growth/biomass yield.  

Keywords: COP, HMF, ribosome biogenesis, thermoplastic microbioreactor, yeast

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7369 DNpro: A Deep Learning Network Approach to Predicting Protein Stability Changes Induced by Single-Site Mutations

Authors: Xiao Zhou, Jianlin Cheng


A single amino acid mutation can have a significant impact on the stability of protein structure. Thus, the prediction of protein stability change induced by single site mutations is critical and useful for studying protein function and structure. Here, we presented a deep learning network with the dropout technique for predicting protein stability changes upon single amino acid substitution. While using only protein sequence as input, the overall prediction accuracy of the method on a standard benchmark is >85%, which is higher than existing sequence-based methods and is comparable to the methods that use not only protein sequence but also tertiary structure, pH value and temperature. The results demonstrate that deep learning is a promising technique for protein stability prediction. The good performance of this sequence-based method makes it a valuable tool for predicting the impact of mutations on most proteins whose experimental structures are not available. Both the downloadable software package and the user-friendly web server (DNpro) that implement the method for predicting protein stability changes induced by amino acid mutations are freely available for the community to use.

Keywords: bioinformatics, deep learning, protein stability prediction, biological data mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
7368 Functional Cell Surface Display Using Ice Nucleation Protein from Erwina ananas on Escherischia coli

Authors: Mei Yuin Joanne Wee, Rosli Md. Illias


Cell surface display is the expression of a protein with an anchoring motif on the surface of the cell. This approach offers advantages when used in bioconversion in terms of easier purification steps and more efficient enzymatic reaction. A surface display system using ice nucleation protein (InaA) from Erwina ananas as an anchoring motif has been constructed to display xylanase (xyl) on the surface of Escherischia coli. The InaA was truncated so that it is made up of the N- and C-terminal domain (INPANC-xyl) and it has successfully directed xylanase to the surface of the cell. A study was also done on xylanase fused to two other ice nucleation proteins, InaK (INPKNC-xyl) and InaZ (INPZNC-xyl) from Pseudomonas syringae KCTC 1832 and Pseudomonas syringae S203 respectively. Surface localization of the fusion protein was verified using SDS-PAGE and Western blot on the cell fractions and all anchoring motifs were successfully displayed on the outer membrane of E. coli. Upon comparison, whole-cell activity of INPANC-xyl was more than six and five times higher than INPKNC-xyl and INPZNC-xyl respectively. Furthermore, the expression of INPANC-xyl on the surface of E. coli did not inhibit the growth of the cell. This is the first report of surface display system using ice nucleation protein, InaA from E. ananas. From this study, this anchoring motif offers an attractive alternative to the current surface display systems.

Keywords: cell surface display, Escherischia coli, ice nucleation protein, xylanase

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7367 Bioinformatics Approach to Identify Physicochemical and Structural Properties Associated with Successful Cell-free Protein Synthesis

Authors: Alexander A. Tokmakov


Cell-free protein synthesis is widely used to synthesize recombinant proteins. It allows genome-scale expression of various polypeptides under strictly controlled uniform conditions. However, only a minor fraction of all proteins can be successfully expressed in the systems of protein synthesis that are currently used. The factors determining expression success are poorly understood. At present, the vast volume of data is accumulated in cell-free expression databases. It makes possible comprehensive bioinformatics analysis and identification of multiple features associated with successful cell-free expression. Here, we describe an approach aimed at identification of multiple physicochemical and structural properties of amino acid sequences associated with protein solubility and aggregation and highlight major correlations obtained using this approach. The developed method includes: categorical assessment of the protein expression data, calculation and prediction of multiple properties of expressed amino acid sequences, correlation of the individual properties with the expression scores, and evaluation of statistical significance of the observed correlations. Using this approach, we revealed a number of statistically significant correlations between calculated and predicted features of protein sequences and their amenability to cell-free expression. It was found that some of the features, such as protein pI, hydrophobicity, presence of signal sequences, etc., are mostly related to protein solubility, whereas the others, such as protein length, number of disulfide bonds, content of secondary structure, etc., affect mainly the expression propensity. We also demonstrated that amenability of polypeptide sequences to cell-free expression correlates with the presence of multiple sites of post-translational modifications. The correlations revealed in this study provide a plethora of important insights into protein folding and rationalization of protein production. The developed bioinformatics approach can be of practical use for predicting expression success and optimizing cell-free protein synthesis.

Keywords: bioinformatics analysis, cell-free protein synthesis, expression success, optimization, recombinant proteins

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7366 Combining in vitro Protein Expression with AlphaLISA Technology to Study Protein-Protein Interaction

Authors: Shayli Varasteh Moradi, Wayne A. Johnston, Dejan Gagoski, Kirill Alexandrov


The demand for a rapid and more efficient technique to identify protein-protein interaction particularly in the areas of therapeutics and diagnostics development is growing. The method described here is a rapid in vitro protein-protein interaction analysis approach based on AlphaLISA technology combined with Leishmania tarentolae cell-free protein production (LTE) system. Cell-free protein synthesis allows the rapid production of recombinant proteins in a multiplexed format. Among available in vitro expression systems, LTE offers several advantages over other eukaryotic cell-free systems. It is based on a fast growing fermentable organism that is inexpensive in cultivation and lysate production. High integrity of proteins produced in this system and the ability to co-express multiple proteins makes it a desirable method for screening protein interactions. Following the translation of protein pairs in LTE system, the physical interaction between proteins of interests is analysed by AlphaLISA assay. The assay is performed using unpurified in vitro translation reaction and therefore can be readily multiplexed. This approach can be used in various research applications such as epitope mapping, antigen-antibody analysis and protein interaction network mapping. The intra-viral protein interaction network of Zika virus was studied using the developed technique. The viral proteins were co-expressed pair-wise in LTE and all possible interactions among viral proteins were tested using AlphaLISA. The assay resulted to the identification of 54 intra-viral protein-protein interactions from which 19 binary interactions were found to be novel. The presented technique provides a powerful tool for rapid analysis of protein-protein interaction with high sensitivity and throughput.

Keywords: AlphaLISA technology, cell-free protein expression, epitope mapping, Leishmania tarentolae, protein-protein interaction

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7365 Beneficiation of Pulp and Paper Mill Sludge for the Generation of Single Cell Protein for Fish Farming

Authors: Lucretia Ramnath


Fishmeal is extensively used for fish farming but is an expensive fish feed ingredient. A cheaper alternate to fishmeal is single cell protein (SCP) which can be cultivated on fermentable sugars recovered from organic waste streams such as pulp and paper mill sludge (PPMS). PPMS has a high cellulose content, thus is suitable for glucose recovery through enzymatic hydrolysis but is hampered by lignin and ash. To render PPMS amenable for enzymatic hydrolysis, the PPMS waspre-treated to produce a glucose-rich hydrolysate which served as a feed stock for the production of fungal SCP. The PPMS used in this study had the following composition: 72.77% carbohydrates, 8.6% lignin, and 18.63% ash. The pre-treatments had no significant effect on lignin composition but had a substantial effect on carbohydrate and ash content. Enzymatic hydrolysis of screened PPMS was previously optimized through response surface methodology (RSM) and 2-factorial design. The optimized protocol resulted in a hydrolysate containing 46.1 g/L of glucose, of which 86% was recovered after downstream processing by passing through a 100-mesh sieve (38 µm pore size). Vogel’s medium supplemented with 10 g/L hydrolysate successfully supported the growth of Fusarium venenatum, conducted using standard growth conditions; pH 6, 200 rpm, 2.88 g/L ammonium phosphate, 25°C. A maximum F. venenatum biomass of 45 g/L was produced with a yield coefficient of 4.67. Pulp and paper mill sludge hydrolysate contained approximately five times more glucose than what was needed for SCP production and served as a suitable carbon source. We have shown that PPMS can be successfully beneficiated for SCP production.

Keywords: pulp and paper waste, fungi, single cell protein, hydrolysate

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7364 An Evolutionary Perspective on the Role of Extrinsic Noise in Filtering Transcript Variability in Small RNA Regulation in Bacteria

Authors: Rinat Arbel-Goren, Joel Stavans


Cell-to-cell variations in transcript or protein abundance, called noise, may give rise to phenotypic variability between isogenic cells, enhancing the probability of survival under stress conditions. These variations may be introduced by post-transcriptional regulatory processes such as non-coding, small RNAs stoichiometric degradation of target transcripts in bacteria. We study the iron homeostasis network in Escherichia coli, in which the RyhB small RNA regulates the expression of various targets as a model system. Using fluorescence reporter genes to detect protein levels and single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization to monitor transcripts levels in individual cells, allows us to compare noise at both transcript and protein levels. The experimental results and computer simulations show that extrinsic noise buffers through a feed-forward loop configuration the increase in variability introduced at the transcript level by iron deprivation, illuminating the important role that extrinsic noise plays during stress. Surprisingly, extrinsic noise also decouples of fluctuations of two different targets, in spite of RyhB being a common upstream factor degrading both. Thus, phenotypic variability increases under stress conditions by the decoupling of target fluctuations in the same cell rather than by increasing the noise of each. We also present preliminary results on the adaptation of cells to prolonged iron deprivation in order to shed light on the evolutionary role of post-transcriptional downregulation by small RNAs.

Keywords: cell-to-cell variability, Escherichia coli, noise, single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH), transcript

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7363 Protein and MDA (Malondialdehyde) Profil of Bull Sperm and Seminal Plasma After Freezing

Authors: Sri Rahayu, M. Dwi Susan, Aris Soewondo, W. M. Agung Pramana


Semen is an organic fluid (seminal plasma) that contain spermatozoa. Proteins are one of the major seminal plasma components that modulate sperm functionality, influence sperm capacitation and maintaining the stability of the membrane. Semen freezing is a procedure to preserve sperm cells. The process causes decrease in sperm viability due to temperature shock and oxidation stress. Oxidation stress is a disturbance on phosphorylation that increases ROS concentration, and it produces lipid peroxide in spermatozoa membrane resulted in high MDA (malondialdehyde) concentration. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of freezing on protein and MDA profile of bovine sperm cell and seminal plasma after freezing. Protein and MDA of sperm cell and seminal plasma were isolated from 10 sample. Protein profiles was analyzed by SDS PAGE with separating gel 12,5 %. The concentration of MDA was measured by spectrophotometer. The results of the research indicated that freezing of semen cause lost of the seminal plasma proteins with molecular with 20, 10, and 9 kDa. In addition, the result research showed that protein of the sperm (26, 10, 9, 7, and 6 kDa) had been lost. There were difference MDA concentration of seminal plasma and sperm cell were increase after freezing. MDA concentration of seminal plasma before and after freezing were 2.2 and 2.4 nmol, respectively. MDA concentration of sperm cell before and after freezing were 1,5 and 1.8 nmol, respectively. In conclusion, there were differences protein profiles of spermatozoa before and after semen freezing and freezing cause increasing of the MDA concentration.

Keywords: MDA, semen freezing, SDS PAGE, protein profile

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7362 An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device

Authors: Christoph Mayer, Dominik Holzmann


This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.

Keywords: solar cell, photovoltaics, PV, characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
7361 Analysis of Osmotin as Transcription Factor/Cell Signaling Modulator Using Bioinformatic Tools

Authors: Usha Kiran, M. Z. Abdin


Osmotin is an abundant cationic multifunctional protein discovered in cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var Wisconsin 38) adapted to an environment of low osmotic potential. It provides plants protection from pathogens, hence placed in the PRP family of proteins. The osmotin induced proline accumulation has been reported in plants including transgenic tomato and strawberry conferring tolerance against both biotic and abiotic stresses. The exact mechanism of induction of proline by osmotin is however, not known till date. These observations have led us to hypothesize that osmotin induced proline accumulation could be due to its involvement as transcription factor and/or cell signal pathway modulator in proline biosynthesis. The present investigation was therefore, undertaken to analyze the osmotin protein as transcription factor /cell signalling modulator using bioinformatics tools. The results of available online DNA binding motif search programs revealed that osmotin does not contain DNA-binding motifs. The alignment results of osmotin protein with the protein sequence from DATF showed the homology in the range of 0-20%, suggesting that it might not contain a DNA binding motif. Further to find unique DNA-binding domain, the superimposition of osmotin 3D structure on modeled Arabidopsis transcription factors using Chimera also suggested absence of the same. We, however, found evidence implicating osmotin in cell signaling. With these results, we concluded that osmotin is not a transcription factor but regulating proline biosynthesis and accumulation through cell signaling during abiotic stresses.

Keywords: osmotin, cell signaling modulator, bioinformatic tools, protein

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7360 Force Measurement for E-Cadherin-Mediated Intercellular Adhesion Probed by Protein Micropattern and Traction Force Microscopy

Authors: Chieh-Chung Tsou, Chun-Min Lo, Yeh-Shiu Chu


Cell’s mechanical forces provide important physical cues in regulation of proper cellular functions, such as cell differentiation, proliferation and migration. It is believed that adhesive forces generated by cell-cell interaction are able to transmit to the interior of cell through filamentous cortical cytoskeleton. Prominent among other membrane receptors, Cadherins are prototypical adhesive molecules able to generate remarkable forces to regulate intercellular adhesion. However, the mechanistic steps of mechano-transduction in Cadherin-mediated adhesion remain very controversial. We are interested in understanding how Cadherin protein complexes enable force generation and transmission at cell-cell contact in the initial stage of intercellular adhesion. For providing a better control of time, space, and substrate stiffness, in this study, a combination of protein micropattern, micropipette manipulation, and traction force microscopy is used. Pair micropattern with different forms confines cell spreading area and the gaps in pairs varied from 2 to 8 microns are applied for monitoring the forces that cell pairs generated, measured by traction force microscopy. Moreover, cell clones obtained from epithelial cells undergone genome editing are used to score the importance for known components of Cadherin complexes in force generation. We believe that our results from this combinatory mechanobiological method will provide deep insights on understanding the biophysical principle governing mechano- transduction of Cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion.

Keywords: cadherin, intercellular adhesion, protein micropattern, traction force microscopy

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7359 Optimising Light Conditions for Recombinant Protein Production in the Microalgal Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplast

Authors: Saskya E. Carrera P., Ben Hankamer, Melanie Oey


The green alga C. reinhardtii provides a platform for the cheap, scalable, and safe production of complex proteins. Despite gene expression in photosynthetic organisms being tightly regulated by light, most expression studies have analysed chloroplast recombinant protein production under constant light. Here the influence of illumination time and intensity on GFP and a GFP-PlyGBS (bacterial-lysin) fusion protein expression was investigated. The expression of both proteins was strongly influenced by the light regime (6-24 hr illumination per day), the light intensity (0-450 E m⁻²s⁻¹) and growth condition (photoautotrophic, mixotrophic and heterotrophic). Heterotrophic conditions resulted in relatively low recombinant protein yields per unit volume, despite high protein yields per cell, due to low growth rates. Mixotrophic conditions exhibited the highest yields at 6 hrs illumination at 200µE m⁻²s⁻¹ and under continuous low light illumination (13-16 mg L⁻¹ GFP and 1.2-1.6 mg L⁻¹ GFP-PlyGBS), as these conditions supported good cell growth and cellular protein yields. A ~23-fold increase in protein accumulation per cell and ~9-fold increase L⁻¹ culture was observed compared to standard constant 24 hr illumination for GFP-PlyGBS. The highest yields under photoautotrophic conditions were obtained under 9 hrs illumination (6 mg L⁻¹ GFP and 2.1 mg L⁻¹ GFP-PlyGBS). This represents a ~4-fold increase in cellular protein accumulation for GFP-PlyGBS. On a volumetric basis the highest yield was at 15 hrs illumination (~2-fold increase L⁻¹ over the constant light for GFP-PlyGBS). Optimising illumination conditions to balance growth and protein expression can thus significantly enhance overall recombinant protein production in C. reinhardtii cultures.

Keywords: chlamydomonas reinhardtii, light, mixotrophic, recombinant protein

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7358 BingleSeq: A User-Friendly R Package for Single-Cell RNA-Seq Data Analysis

Authors: Quan Gu, Daniel Dimitrov


BingleSeq was developed as a shiny-based, intuitive, and comprehensive application that enables the analysis of single-Cell RNA-Sequencing count data. This was achieved via incorporating three state-of-the-art software packages for each type of RNA sequencing analysis, alongside functional annotation analysis and a way to assess the overlap of differential expression method results. At its current state, the functionality implemented within BingleSeq is comparable to that of other applications, also developed with the purpose of lowering the entry requirements to RNA Sequencing analyses. BingleSeq is available on GitHub and will be submitted to R/Bioconductor.

Keywords: bioinformatics, functional annotation analysis, single-cell RNA-sequencing, transcriptomics

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7357 Characterization of Crustin from Litopenaeus vannamei

Authors: Suchao Donpudsa, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Vichien Rimphanitchayakit


A crustin gene, LV-SWD1, previously found in the hemocyte cDNA library of Litopenaeus vannamei, contains the open reading frames of 288 bp encoding a putative protein of 96 amino acid residues. The putative signal peptides of the LV-SWD1 were identified using the online SignalP 3.0 with predicted cleavage sites between Ala24-Val25, resulting in 72 residue mature protein with calculated molecular mass of 7.4 kDa and predicted pI of 8.5. This crustin contains a Arg-Pro rich region at the amino-terminus and a single whey acidic protein (WAP) domain at the carboxyl-terminus. In order to characterize their properties and biological activities, the recombinant crustin protein was produced in the Escherichia coli expression system. Antimicrobial assays showed that the growth of Bacillus subtilis was inhibited by this recombinant crustin with MIC of about 25-50 µM.

Keywords: crustin, single whey acidic protein, Litopenaeus vannamei, antimicrobial activity

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7356 The Overexpression of Horsegram MURLK Improves Regulation of Cell Death and Defense Responses to Microbial Pathogens

Authors: Shikha Masand, Sudesh Kumar Yadav


Certain protein kinases have been shown to be crucial for plant cell signaling pathways associated with plant immune responses. Here we identified a horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] malectin-like leucine rich receptor-like protein kinase (RLK) gene MuRLK. The functional MuRLK protein preferentially binds to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine residues. MuRLK exists in the cytoplasm and also localizes to the plasma membrane of plant cells via its N-terminus. Over-expression of MuRLK in Arabidopsis enhances the basal resistance to infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Alternaria brassicicola and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, are associated with elevated ROS bursts, MAPK activation, thus ultimately leading to hypersensitive cell death. Moreover, salicylic acid-dependent and jasmonic acid-dependent defense responses are also enhanced in the MuRLK-overexpressed plants that lead to HR-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that MuRLK plays a key role in the regulation of plant cell death, early and late defense responses after the recognition of microbial pathogens.

Keywords: horsegram, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, MuRLK, ROS burst, cell death, plant defense

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7355 Membrane Spanning DNA Origami Nanopores for Protein Translocation

Authors: Genevieve Pugh, Johnathan Burns, Stefan Howorka


Single-molecule sensing via protein nanopores has achieved a step-change in portable and label-free DNA sequencing. However, protein pores of both natural or engineered origin are not able to produce the tunable diameters needed for effective protein sensing. Here, we describe a generic strategy to build synthetic DNA nanopores that are wide enough to accommodate folded protein. The pores are composed of interlinked DNA duplexes and carry lipid anchors to achieve the required membrane insertion. Our demonstrator pore has a contiguous cross-sectional channel area of 50 nm2 which is 6-times larger than the largest protein pore. Consequently, transport of folded protein across bilayers is possible. The modular design is amenable for different pore dimensions and can be adapted for protein sensing or to create molecular gates in synthetic biology.

Keywords: biosensing, DNA nanotechnology, DNA origami, nanopore sensing

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7354 Proteomics Associated with Colonization of Human Enteric Pathogen on Solanum lycopersicum

Authors: Neha Bhadauria, Indu Gaur, Shilpi Shilpi, Susmita Goswami, Prabir K. Paul


The aerial surface of plants colonized by Human Enteric Pathogens ()has been implicated in outbreaks of enteric diseases in humans. Practice of organic farming primarily using animal dung as manure and sewage water for irrigation are the most significant source of enteric pathogens on the surface of leaves, fruits and vegetables. The present work aims to have an insight into the molecular mechanism of interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens or their metabolites with cell wall receptors in plants. Tomato plants grown under aseptic conditions at 12 hours L/D photoperiod, 25±1°C and 75% RH were inoculated individually with S. fonticola and K. pneumonia. The leaves from treated plants were sampled after 24 and 48 hours of incubation. The cell wall and cytoplasmic proteins were extracted and isocratically separated on 1D SDS-PAGE. The sampled leaves were also subjected to formaldehyde treatment prior to isolation of cytoplasmic proteins to study protein-protein interactions induced by Human Enteric Pathogens. Protein bands extracted from the gel were subjected to MALDI-TOF-TOF MS analysis. The foremost interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens on the plant surface was found to be cell wall bound receptors which possibly set ups a wave a critical protein-protein interaction in cytoplasm. The study revealed the expression and suppression of specific cytoplasmic and cell wall-bound proteins, some of them being important components of signaling pathways. The results also demonstrated HEP induced rearrangement of signaling pathways which possibly are crucial for adaptation of these pathogens to plant surface. At the end of the study, it can be concluded that controlling the over-expression or suppression of these specific proteins rearrange the signaling pathway thus reduces the outbreaks of food-borne illness.

Keywords: cytoplasmic protein, cell wall-bound protein, Human Enteric Pathogen (HEP), protein-protein interaction

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7353 ICAM-2, A Protein of Antitumor Immune Response in Mekong Giant Catfish (Pangasianodon gigas)

Authors: Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn


ICAM-2 (intercellular adhesion molecule 2) or CD102 (Cluster of Differentiation 102) is type I trans-membrane glycoproteins, composing 2-9 immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains. ICAM-2 plays the particular role in immune response and cell surveillance. It is concerned in innate and specific immunity, cell survival signal, apoptosis, and anticancer. EST clone of ICAM-2, from P. gigas blood cell EST libraries, showed high identity to human ICAM-2 (92%) with conserve region of ICAM N-terminal domain and part of Ig superfamily. Gene and protein of ICAM-2 has been founded in mammals. This is the first report of ICAM-2 in fish.

Keywords: ICAM-2, CD102, Pangasianodon gigas, antitumor

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7352 Effective Solvents for Proteins Recovery from Microalgae

Authors: Win Nee Phong, Tau Chuan Ling, Pau Loke Show


From an industrial perspective, the exploitation of microalgae for protein source is of great economical and commercial interest due to numerous attractive characteristics. Nonetheless, the release of protein from microalgae is limited by the multiple layers of the rigid thick cell wall that generally contain a large proportion of cellulose. Thus an efficient cell disruption process is required to rupture the cell wall. The conventional downstream processing methods which typically involve several unit operational steps such as disruption, isolation, extraction, concentration and purification are energy-intensive and costly. To reduce the overall cost and establish a feasible technology for the success of the large-scale production, microalgal industry today demands a more cost-effective and eco-friendly technique in downstream processing. One of the main challenges to extract the proteins from microalgae is the presence of rigid cell wall. This study aims to provide some guidance on the selection of the efficient solvent to facilitate the proteins released during the cell disruption process. The effects of solvent types such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and water in rupturing the microalgae cell wall were studied. It is interesting to know that water is the most effective solvent to recover proteins from microalgae and the cost is cheapest among all other solvents.

Keywords: green, microalgae, protein, solvents

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7351 Production and Purification of Salmonella Typhimurium MisL Autotransporter Protein in Escherichia coli

Authors: Neslihan Taskale Karatug, Mustafa Akcelik


Some literature data show that misL protein play a role on host immune response formed against Salmonella Typhimurium. The aim of the present study is to learn the role of the protein in S. Typhimurium pathogenicity. To describe certain functions of the protein, primarily recombinant misL protein was produced and purified. PCR was performed using a primer set targeted to passenger domain of the misL gene on S. Typhimurium LT2 genome. Amplicon and pet28a vector were enzymatically cleaved with EcoRI and NheI. The digested DNA materials were purified with High Pure PCR Product Purification Kit. The ligation reaction was achieved with the pure products. After preparation of competent Escherichia coli Dh5α, ligation mix was transformed into the cell by electroporation. To confirm the existence of insert gene, recombinant plasmid DNA of Dh5α was isolated with high pure plasmid DNA kit. Proved the correctness of recombinant plasmid was electroporated to BL21. The cell was induced by IPTG. After induction, the presence of recombinant protein was checked by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant misL protein was purified using HisPur Ni-NTA spin colon. The pure protein was shown by SDS-PAGE and western blot immünoassay. The concentration of the protein was measured BCA Protein Assay kit. In the wake of ligation with digested products (2 kb misL and 5.4 kb pet28a) visualised on gel size of the band was about 7.4 kb and was named as pNT01. The pNT01 recombinant plasmid was transformed into Dh5α and colonies were chosen in selective medium. Plasmid DNA isolation from them was carried out. PCR was achieved on the pNT01 to check misL and 2 kb band was observed on the agarose gel. After electroporation of the plasmid and induction of the cell, 68 kDa misL protein was seen. Subsequent to the purification of the protein, only a band was observed on SDS-PAGE. Association of the pure protein with anti-his antibody was verified by the western blot assay. The concentration of the pure misL protein was determined as 345 μg/mL. Production of polyclonal antibody will be achieved by using the obtained pure recombinant misL protein as next step. The role of the protein will come out on the immune system together some assays.

Keywords: cloning, Escherichia coli, recombinant protein purification, Salmonella Typhimurium

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7350 Using Lysosomal Immunogenic Cell Death to Target Breast Cancer via Xanthine Oxidase/Micro-Antibody Fusion Protein

Authors: Iulianna Taritsa, Kuldeep Neote, Eric Fossel


Lysosome-induced immunogenic cell death (LIICD) is a powerful mechanism of targeting cancer cells that kills circulating malignant cells and primes the host’s immune cells against future remission. Current immunotherapies for cancer are limited in preventing recurrence – a gap that can be bridged by training the immune system to recognize cancer neoantigens. Lysosomal leakage can be induced therapeutically to traffic antigens from dying cells to dendritic cells, which can later present those tumorigenic antigens to T cells. Previous research has shown that oxidative agents administered in the tumor microenvironment can initiate LIICD. We generated a fusion protein between an oxidative agent known as xanthine oxidase (XO) and a mini-antibody specific for EGFR/HER2-sensitive breast tumor cells. The anti-EGFR single domain antibody fragment is uniquely sourced from llama, which is functional without the presence of a light chain. These llama micro-antibodies have been shown to be better able to penetrate tissues and have improved physicochemical stability as compared to traditional monoclonal antibodies. We demonstrate that the fusion protein created is stable and can induce early markers of immunogenic cell death in an in vitro human breast cancer cell line (SkBr3). Specifically, we measured overall cell death, as well as surface-expressed calreticulin, extracellular ATP release, and HMGB1 production. These markers are consensus indicators of ICD. Flow cytometry, luminescence assays, and ELISA were used respectively to quantify biomarker levels between treated versus untreated cells. We also included a positive control group of SkBr3 cells dosed with doxorubicin (a known inducer of LIICD) and a negative control dosed with cisplatin (a known inducer of cell death, but not of the immunogenic variety). We looked at each marker at various time points after cancer cells were treated with the XO/antibody fusion protein, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. Upregulated biomarkers after treatment with the fusion protein indicate an immunogenic response. We thus show the potential for this fusion protein to induce an anticancer effect paired with an adaptive immune response against EGFR/HER2+ cells. Our research in human cell lines here provides evidence for the success of the same therapeutic method for patients and serves as the gateway to developing a new treatment approach against breast cancer.

Keywords: apoptosis, breast cancer, immunogenic cell death, lysosome

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7349 PCR Based DNA Analysis in Detecting P53 Mutation in Human Breast Cancer (MDA-468)

Authors: Debbarma Asis, Guha Chandan


Tumor Protein-53 (P53) is one of the tumor suppressor proteins. P53 regulates the cell cycle that conserves stability by preventing genome mutation. It is named so as it runs as 53-kilodalton (kDa) protein on Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis although the actual mass is 43.7 kDa. Experimental evidence has indicated that P53 cancer mutants loses tumor suppression activity and subsequently gain oncogenic activities to promote tumourigenesis. Tumor-specific DNA has recently been detected in the plasma of breast cancer patients. Detection of tumor-specific genetic materials in cancer patients may provide a unique and valuable tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis. Commercially available MDA-468 breast cancer cell line was used for the proposed study.

Keywords: tumor protein (P53), cancer mutants, MDA-468, tumor suppressor gene

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7348 Nafion Nanofiber Mat in a Single Fuel Cell Test

Authors: Chijioke Okafor, Malik Maaza, Touhami Mokrani


Proton exchange membrane, PEM was developed and tested for potential application in fuel cell. Nafion was electrospun to nanofiber network with the aid of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, as a carrier polymer. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV after compacting and annealing. The welded nanofiber mat was characterized for morphology, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability, then tested in a single cell test station. The results of the fabricated nanofiber membrane showed a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at 25 oC and higher fiber volume fraction; methanol permeability of 3.6x10^-6 cm2/s and power density of 96.1 and 81.2 mW/cm2 for 5M and 1M methanol concentration respectively.

Keywords: fuel cell, nafion, nanofiber, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 335