Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: bacteriocin

16 The Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria as an Antibacterial of Sub Clinic Mastitis on Dairy Cows

Authors: Nenny Harijani, Dhandy Koesoemo Wardhana

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to know the bacteriocin as antimicrobial activity produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as Antibacterial of Sub Clinic Mastitis on Dairy Cows. The antimicrobial is produced by LAB which isolates from cattle intestine can inhibit the growth Staphylococcus aureus, Steptocococcus agalactiae an Escherichia coli which were caused by dairy cattle subclinical mastitis. The failure of this bacteria growth was indicated by the formation of a clear zone surrounding the colonies on Brain Heart Infusion Agar plate. The bacteriocin was produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as antimicrobial, which could inhibit the growth of indicator bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, S.aglactiae and E.coli. This study was also developed bacteriocin to be used as a therapeutic of subclinical mastitis on dairy cows. The method used in this study was isolation, selection and identification of LAB using Mann Rogosa Sharp Medium, followed by characterization of the bacteriocin produced by LAB. The result of the study showed that bacteriocin isolated from beef cattle’s intestine could inhibit the growth Staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, an Escherichia coli, which was indicated by clear zone surrounding the colonies on Brain Heart Infusion Agar plate. Characteristics of bacteriocin were heat-stable exposed to 80 0C for 30 minutes and 100 ⁰C for 15 minutes and inactivated by proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin. This approach has suggested the development of bacteriocin as a therapeutic agent for subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, bacteriocin, staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, E. coli, sub

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15 Biosynthesis, Characterization and Interplay of Bacteriocin-nanoparticles to Combat Infectious Drug Resistant Pathogens

Authors: Asma Ansari, Afsheen Aman, Shah Ali Ul Qader

Abstract:

In the past few years, numerous concerns have been raised against increased bacterial resistance towards effective drugs and become a debated issue all over the world. With the emergence of drug resistant pathogens, the interaction of natural antimicrobial compounds and antibacterial nanoparticles has emerged as a potential candidate for combating infectious diseases. Microbial diversity in the biome provides an opportunity to screen new species which are capable of producing large number of antimicrobial compounds. Among these antimicrobial compounds, bacteriocins are highly specific and efficient antagonists. A combination of bacteriocin along with nanoparticles could prove to be more potent due to broadened antibacterial spectrum with possibly lower doses. In the current study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized through biological reduction using various isolated bacterial, fungal and yeast strains. Spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed for the confirmation of nanoparticles. Bacteriocin was characterized and purified to homogeneity through gel permeation chromatography. The estimated molecular weight of bacteriocin was 10 kDa. Amino acid analysis and N-terminal sequencing revealed the novelty of the protein. Then antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles and broad inhibitory spectrum bacteriocin was determined through agar well diffusion assay. These synthesized bacteriocin-Nanoparticles exhibit a good potential for clinical applications as compared to bacteriocin alone. This combination of bacteriocin with nanoparticles will be used as a new sort of biocide in the field of nano-proteomics. The advancement of nanoparticles-mediated drug delivery system will open a new age for rapid eradication of pathogens from biological systems.

Keywords: BAC-IB17, multidrug resistance, purification, silver nanoparticles

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14 Utilization of Agro-Industrial Byproducts for Bacteriocin Production Using Newly Isolated Enterococcus faecium BS13

Authors: Vandana Bali, Manab B. Bera, Parmjit S. Panesar

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Microbial production of antimicrobials as biopreservatives is the major area of focus nowadays due to increased interest of consumers towards natural and safe preservation of ready to eat food products. The agro-industrial byproduct based medium and optimized process conditions can contribute in economical production of bacteriocins. Keeping this in view, the present investigation was carried out on agro-industrial byproducts utilization for the production of bacteriocin using Enterococcus faecium BS13 isolated from local fermented food. Different agro-industrial byproduct based carbon sources (whey, potato starch liquor, kinnow peel, deoiledrice bran and molasses), nitrogen sources (soya okra, pea pod and corn steep liquor), metal ions and surfactants were tested for optimal bacteriocin production. The effect of various process parameters such as pH, temperature, inoculum level, agitation and time were also tested on bacteriocin production. The optimized medium containing whey, supplemented with 4%corn steep liquor and polysorbate-80 displayed maximum bacteriocin activity with 2% inoculum, at pH 6.5, temperature 40oC under shaking conditions (100 rpm).

Keywords: Bacteriocin, biopreservation, corn steep liquor, Enterococcus faecium, waste utilization, whey

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13 Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of Bacteriocin Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Batter of Green Gram And Bengal Gram Against Food-Borne Pathogens

Authors: Bandi Aruna

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The increase of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the restriction on the use of antibiotics due to its side effects have drawn attention to the search for possible alternatives. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria represent an important application of these peptides as clinical drugs or as food biopreservatives. The present study describes the isolation of bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fermented batter of green gram and bengal gram using Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) media. The bacteriocin produced by these organisms inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, The isolates G1, G2 were isolated from green gram; B1 and B2 were isolated from fermented bengal gram batter. G1 and G2 were identified as Lactobacillus casie and B1 and B2 were identified as Streptococcus species. Antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin produced by these strains was studied by agar well diffusion method. Bacteriocins produced by the Lactobacillus casie and Streptococcus secies retained their antagonistic property at pH of 5 and pH of 7. Exposure of bacteriocin to UV light for 4 min showed antibacterial activity. The antagonistic property was observed even at 100°C demonstrating stability at higher temperatures of the bacteriocin. The bacteriocins were stable for a period of 15 days at 27°C. The bacteriocins of G1, G2, and B2 exhibited highest antagonistic activity at pH of 5 and B1 at pH of 7. Therefore, the bacteriocins of the isolates may find important application in controlling the food-borne pathogens.

Keywords: Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Lactic acid bacteria, Bacteriocin

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12 Antimicrobial Peptide Produced by Lactococcus garvieae with a Broad Inhibition Spectrum

Authors: Hai Chi, Ibrahim Mehmeti, Kirill Ovchinnikov, Hegle Holo, Ingolf F. Nes, Dzung B. Diep

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By using a panel of multiple indicator strains of different bacterial species and genera, we screened a large collection of bacterial isolates (over 1800 isolates) derived from raw milk, for bacteriocin producers with broad inhibition spectra (BIS). Fourteen isolates with BIS were identified, and by 16S rDNA sequencing they were found to belong to Lactococcus garvieae (10 isolates) and Enterococcus feacalis (4 isolates). Further analysis of the ten L. garvieae isolates revealed that they were very similar, if not identical, to each other in metabolic and genetic terms: they had the same fermentation profile on different types of sugars, repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) DNA pattern as well as they all had the same inhibition profile towards over 50 isolates of different species. The bacteriocin activity from one of the L. garvieae isolates was assessed further. The bacteriocin which was termed garvicin KS, was found to be heatstable and proteinase-labile and its inhibition spectrum contained many distantly related genera of Firmicutes, comprising most lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as well as problematic species of Bacillus, Listeria, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and their antibiotic resistant derivatives (e.g. VRE, MRSA). Taken together, the results indicate that this is a potent bacteriocin from L. garvieae and that its very broad inhibition spectrum can be a very useful property for use in food preservation as well as in infection treatments caused by gram-positive pathogens and their antibiotic-derivatives.

Keywords: bacteriocin, lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus garvieae, antibiotics resistance

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11 Analysis of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Acidophilus from Commercial Yoghurt

Authors: Anwar Ali Abdulla, Thekra Abdulaali Abed Al-Chaabawi, Anwar Kadhim Al-Saffar, Hussein Kadhim Al-Saffar

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Lactic acid bacteria are very significant to human health due to the production of some antimicrobial substances and ability to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, the bacteria are also used as starter culture in the production of various foods. The present study was focused on isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus acidophilus from yogurt and to demonstrate some of probiotic properties of these isolates. All isolates were phenotypically characterized including studying, biochemical, effect of sodium chloride and pH during growth, carbohydrates test and characterizing the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus against pathogens. The present study demonstrates that Lactobacillus acidophilus produced a bacteriocin- like inhibitory substance with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity directed against pathogenic indicator organism suggesting its protective value against enteric pathogens.

Keywords: lactobacillus acidophilus, bacteriocin, antimicrobial activity, probiotic

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10 Culture Medium Design Based on Whey for the Growth and Bacteriocin Production of Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus

Authors: Carolina Gutierrez-Cortes, Hector Suarez, Gustavo Buitrago

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Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a competitive strategy for substrate and habitat. Those peptides have a potential use as food biopreservatives due to their antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, avoiding the use of additives that can be harmful to consumers. The industrial production of bacteriocins is currently expensive; one of the options to be competitive is the development of economic culture media, for example, with the use of agro-industrial wastes such as whey. This study evaluated the growth and production of bacteriocins from four strains: Pediococcus pentosaceus 63, Pediococcus pentosaceus 145, Pediococcus pentosaceus 146 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 147 isolated from ‘minas cheese’ (artisanal cheese made from raw milk in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) in order to select a strain with growth at high rates and higher antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes 104 after incubation on the culture medium designed with whey and other components. The media used were: MRS broth, modified MRS broth (using different sources of carbon and nitrogen and different amounts of micronutrients) and a culture medium designed by a factorial design using whey and other components. The final biomass concentrations of the four strains in MRS broth after 24 hours of incubation were very similar 9.25, 9.33, 9.25 and 9.22 (log CFU/mL) for P. pentosaceus 63, P. pentosaceus 145, P. pentosaceus 146 and P. pentosaceus 147 respectively. In the same assays, antimicrobial activity of 3200 AU/mL for the first three and of 12800 AU/mL for P. pentosaceus 147 were obtained. Culture of P. pentosaceus 63 on modified MRS broth, showed the effect of some sources of carbon on the activity of bacteriocin, obtaining 12800 AU/mL with dextrose and 25600 AU/mL with maltose. Cultures of P. pentosaceus 145, 146 and 147 with these same sugars presented activity of 12800 AU/mL. It was observed that the modified MRS medium using whey increased the antimicrobial activity of the strains at 16000, 6400, 16000 and 19200 AU/mL for each strain respectively, keeping the biomass at values close to 9 log units. About nitrogen sources, it was observed that the combination of peptone (10 g /L), meat extract (10 g/L) and yeast extract (5 g/L) promoted the highest activity (12800 AU/mL), and in all cases MgSO4, MnSO4, K2HPO4 and ammonium citrate at low concentrations adversely affected bacteriocin production. Because P. pentosaceus 147 showed the highest antimicrobial activity in the presence of whey, it was used to evaluate the culture medium (peptone (10 g/L), meat extract (8 g/L), yeast extract (2 g/L), Tween® 80 (1 g/L), ammonium citrate (2 g/L), sodium acetate (5 g/L), MgSO4 (0.2 g/L), MnSO4 (0.04 g/L)). With the designed medium added with whey, 9.34 log units of biomass concentration and 19200 AU/mL were achieved for P. pentosaceus 147. The above suggest that the new medium promotes the antimicrobial activity of P. pentosaceus 147 allowing the use of an economic medium using whey.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bacteriocins, pediococcus, whey

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9 Relative Expression and Detection of MUB Adhesion Domains and Plantaricin-Like Bacteriocin among Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum-Group Strains Isolated from Fermented Foods

Authors: Sundru Manjulata Devi, Prakash M. Halami

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The immemorial use of fermented foods from vegetables, dairy and other biological sources are of great demand in India because of their health benefits. However, the diversity of Lactobacillus plantarum group (LPG) of vegetable origin has not been revealed yet, particularly with reference to their probiotic functionalities. In the present study, the different species of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum group (LPG) i.e., L. plantarum subsp. plantarum MTCC 5422 (from fermented cereals), L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis FG16 (from fermented bamboo shoot) and L. paraplantarum MTCC 9483 (from fermented gundruk) (as characterized by multiplex recA PCR assay) were considered to investigate their relative expression of MUB domains of mub gene (mucin binding protein) by Real time PCR. Initially, the allelic variation in the mub gene was assessed and found to encode three different variants (Type I, II and III). All the three types had 8, 9 and 10 MUB domains respectively (as analysed by Pfam database) and were found to be responsible for adhesion of bacteria to the host intestinal epithelial cells. These domains either get inserted or deleted during speciation or evolutionary events and lead to divergence. The reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis with mubLPF1+R1 primer pair supported variation in amplicon sizes with 300, 500 and 700 bp among different LPG strains. The relative expression of these MUB domains significantly unregulated in the presence of 1% mucin in overnight grown cultures. Simultaneously, the mub gene expressed efficiently by 7 fold in the culture L. paraplantarum MTCC 9483 with 10 MUB domains. An increase in the expression levels for L. plantarum subsp. plantarum MTCC 5422 and L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis FG16 (MCC 2974) with 9 and 8 repetitive domains was around 4 and 2 fold, respectively. The detection and expression of an integrase (int) gene in the upstream region of mub gene reveals the excision and integration of these repetitive domains. Concurrently, an in vitro adhesion assay to mucin and exclusion of pathogens (such as Listeria monocytogenes and Micrococcus leuteus) was investigated and observed that the L. paraplantarum MTCC 9483 with more adhesion domains has more ability to adhere to mucin and inhibited the growth of pathogens. The production and expression of plantaricin-like bacteriocin (plnNC8 type) in MTCC 9483 suggests the pathogen inhibition. Hence, the expression of MUB domains can act as potential biomarkers in the screening of a novel probiotic LPG strain with adherence property. The present study provides a platform for an easy, rapid, less time consuming, low-cost methodology for the detection of potential probiotic bacteria. It was known that the traditional practices followed in the preparation of fermented bamboo shoots/gundruk/cereals of Indian foods contain different kinds of neutraceuticals for functional food and novel compounds with health promoting factors. In future, a detailed study of these food products can add more nutritive value, consumption and suitable for commercialization.

Keywords: adhesion gene, fermented foods, MUB domains, probiotics

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8 Bacteriocinogenic Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from Soil at Northern of Algeria

Authors: R. Gounina-Allouane, I. Moussaoui, N. Boukahel

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Bacillus antimicrobial metabolites, especially those of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are of great interest for research because of health risks generated by the excessive use of chemical additives as well as the propagation of resistant microbial strains, caused by the massive treatment with antibiotics. The objective of this study was the selection of Bt strains producing antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins), and the partial purification of the most powerful bacteriocins, then the determination of their spectra of antimicrobial action. A collection of twenty one Bt strains isolated from soil at Boumerdès (northern Algeria) was used for screening strains having an antagonistic activity against phylogenetically closed bacteria. Spectra of antagonistic activity of two selected strains was determined against other Bt strains, Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains of clinical origin and others from ATCC collection as well as yeasts isolated in human dermatology. Bacteriocins of these two strains were partially purified and their effect on the kinetics of growth of the most sensitive microbial strains was studied. The bacteriocinogenic strains were biochemically characterized and their sensitivity to antibiotics was studied.

Keywords: antimicrobial peptides, Bacillus thuringiensis, bacteriocin, partial purification

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7 Powerful Bacteriocins Produced by Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Isolated from Soil at Northern of Algeria

Authors: R. Gounina-Allouane, I. Moussaoui, N. Boukahel

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Bacillus antimicrobial metabolites, especially those of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are of great interest for research because of health risks generated by the excessive use of chemical additives as well as the propagation of resistant microbial strains, caused by the massive treatment with antibiotics. The objective of this study was the selection of Bt strains producing antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins), and the partial purification of the most powerful bacteriocins, then the determination of their spectra of antimicrobial action. A collection of twenty one Bt strains isolated from soil at Boumerdès (northern of Algeria) was used for screening strains having an antagonistic activity against phylogenetically closed bacteria. Spectra of antagonistic activity of two selected strains was determined against other Bt strains, Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains of clinical origin and others from ATCC collection as well as yeasts isolated in human dermatology. Bacteriocins of these two strains were partially purified and their effect on the kinetics of growth of the most sensitive microbial strains was studied. The bacteriocinogenic strains were biochemically characterized and their sensitivity to antibiotics was studied.

Keywords: antimicrobial peptides, Bacillus thuringiensis, bacteriocin, partial purification

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6 Comparative Characteristics of Bacteriocins from Endemic Lactic Acid Bacteria

Authors: K. Karapetyan, F. Tkhruni, A. Aghajanyan, T. S. Balabekyan, L. Arstamyan

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Introduction: Globalization of the food supply has created the conditions favorable for the emergence and spread of food-borne and especially dangerous pathogens (EDP) in developing countries. The fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry is searching for alternatives to replace chemical treatments with biopreservative approaches that ensure the safety of the processed foods product. Antimicrobial compounds of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) possess bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against intestinal pathogens, spoilage organisms and food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella. Endemic strains of LAB were isolated. The strains, showing broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against food spoiling microorganisms, were selected. The genotyping by 16S rRNA sequencing, GS-PCR, RAPD PCR methods showed that they were presented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus109, L.plantarum 65, L.plantarum 66 and Enterococcus faecium 64 species. LAB are deposited in "Microbial Depository Center" (MDC) SPC "Armbiotechnology". Methods: LAB strains were isolated from different dairy products from rural households from the highland regions of Armenia. Serially diluted samples were spread on MRS (Merck, Germany) and hydrolyzed milk agar (1,2 % w/v). Single colonies from each LAB were individually inoculated in liquid MRS medium and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. Culture broth with biomass was centrifuged at 10,000 g during 20 min for obtaining of cell free culture broth (CFC). The antimicrobial substances from CFC broth were purified by the combination of adsorption-desorption and ion-exchange chromatography methods. Separation of bacteriocins was performed using a HPLC method on "Avex ODS" C18 column. Mass analysis of peptides recorded on the device API 4000 in the electron ionization mode. The spot-on-lawn method on the test culture plated in the solid medium was applied. The antimicrobial activity is expressed in arbitrary units (AU/ml). Results. Purification of CFC broth of LAB allowed to obtain partially purified antimicrobial preparations which contains bacteriocins with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Investigation of their main biochemical properties shown, that inhibitory activity of preparations is partially reduced after treatment with proteinase K, trypsin, pepsin, suggesting a proteinaceous nature of bacteriocin-like substances containing in CFC broth. Preparations preserved their activity after heat treatment (50-121 oC, 20 min) and were stable in the pH range 3–8. The results of SDS PAAG electrophoresis show that L.plantarum 66 and Ent.faecium 64 strains have one bacteriocin (BCN) with maximal antimicrobial activity with approximate molecular weight 2.0-3.0 kDa. From L.rhamnosus 109 two BCNs were obtained. Mass spectral analysis indicates that these bacteriocins have peptide bonds and molecular weight of BCN 1 and BCN 2 are approximately 1.5 kDa and 700 Da. Discussion: Thus, our experimental data shown, that isolated endemic strains of LAB are able to produce bacteriocins with high and different inhibitory activity against broad spectrum of microorganisms of different taxonomic group, such as Salmonella sp., Esherichia coli, Bacillus sp., L.monocytogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Staph. aureus, Ps. aeruginosa. Obtained results proved the perspectives for use of endemic strains in the preservation of foodstuffs. Acknowledgments: This work was realized with financial support of the Project Global Initiatives for Preliferation Prevention (GIPP) T2- 298, ISTC A-1866.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bacteriocins, endemic strains, food safety

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5 Chemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of 'Domiati Cheese' Using Strains Isolated from Algerian Goat's Milk

Authors: A. Cheriguene, F. Chougrani

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A total of 120 wild lactic acid bacteria were isolated from goat’s milk collected from different areas in Western Algeria. The strains were screened for production and technological properties such as acid production, aminopeptidase activity, autolytic properties, antimicrobial activity, and exopolysaccharide production. In general most tested isolates showed a good biomass separation when collected by centrifugation; as for the production of the lactic acid, results revealed that our strains are weakly acidifying; nevertheless, lactococci showed a best acidifying activity compared to lactobacilli. Aminopeptidase activity was also weak in most strains; but, it was generally higher for lactobacilli compared to lactococci. Autolytic activity was generally higher for most strains, more particularly lactobacilli. Antimicrobial activity was detected in 50% of the isolates, particularly in lactobacilli where 80% of strains tested were able to inhibit the growth of other strains. The survey of the profile of the texture, the proteolysis as well as the development of the flavor in the Domiati cheese made on the basis of our isolated strains have been led during the ripening. The sensory assessment shows that the cheese salted in milk received the best scores in relation to cheese salted after drainage. Textural characteristics, such as hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness decreased in the two treatments during the 60 days of ripening. Otherwise, it has been noted that adhesiveness and adhesive force increased in the cheese salted in milk.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, technological properties, acidification, exopolysaccharide, bacteriocin, textural properties

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4 Control of Staphylococcus aureus in Meat System by in situ and ex situ Bacteriocins from Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus spp.

Authors: M. Naimi, M. B. Khaled

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The present study consisted of an applied test in meat system to assess the effectiveness of three bio agents bacteriocinproducing strains: Lm24: Lactobacillus sakei, Lm14and Lm25: Pediococcus spp. Two tests were carried out: The ex-situ test was intended for three batches added with crude bacteriocin solutions at 12.48 AU/ml for Lm25 and 8.4 AU/ml for Lm14 and Lm24. However, the in situ one consisted of four batches; three of them inoculated with one bacteriocinogenic Lm25, Lm14, Lm24, respectively. The fourth one was used in mixture: Lm14+m24 at approximately of 107 CFU/ml. The two used tests were done in the presence of the pathogen St. aureus ATCC 6538, as a test strain at 103 CFU/ml. Another batch served as a positive or a negative control was used too. The incubation was performed at 7°C. Total viable counts, staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria, at the beginning and at selected times with interval of three days were enumerated. Physicochemical determinations (except for in situ test): pH, dry mater, sugars, fat and total protein, at the beginning and at end of the experiment, were done, according to the international norms. Our results confirmed the ex situ effectiveness. Furthermore, the batches affected negatively the total microbial load over the incubation days, and showed a significant regression in staphylococcal load at day seven, for Lm14, Lm24, and Lm25 of 0.73, 2.11, and 2.4 log units. It should be noticed that, at the last day of culture, staphylococcal load was nil for the three batches. In the in situ test, the cultures displayed less inhibitory attitude and recorded a decrease in staphylococcal load, for Lm14, Lm24, Lm25, Lm14+m24 of 0.73, 0.20, 0.86, 0.032 log units. Therefore, physicochemical analysis for Lm14, Lm24, Lm25, Lm14+m24 showed an increase in pH from 5.50 to 5.77, 6.18, 5.96, 7.22, a decrease in dry mater from 7.30% to 7.05%, 6.87%, 6.32%, 6.00%.This result reflects the decrease in fat ranging from 1.53% to 1.49%, 1.07%, 0.99%, 0.87%; and total protein from 6.18% to 5.25%, 5.56%, 5.37%, 5.5%. This study suggests that the use of selected strains as Lm25 could lead to the best results and would help in preserving and extending the shelf life of lamb meat.

Keywords: biocontrol, in situ, ex situ, meat system, St. aureus, Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus spp.

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3 Mathematical Modelling of Bacterial Growth in Products of Animal Origin in Storage and Transport: Effects of Temperature, Use of Bacteriocins and pH Level

Authors: Benjamin Castillo, Luis Pastenes, Fernando Cordova

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The pathogen growth in animal source foods is a common problem in the food industry, causing monetary losses due to the spoiling of products or food intoxication outbreaks in the community. In this sense, the quality of the product is reflected by the population of deteriorating agents present in it, which are mainly bacteria. The factors which are likely associated with freshness in animal source foods are temperature and processing, storage, and transport times. However, the level of deterioration of products depends, in turn, on the characteristics of the bacterial population, causing the decomposition or spoiling, such as pH level and toxins. Knowing the growth dynamics of the agents that are involved in product contamination allows the monitoring for more efficient processing. This means better quality and reasonable costs, along with a better estimation of necessary time and temperature intervals for transport and storage in order to preserve product quality. The objective of this project is to design a secondary model that allows measuring the impact on temperature bacterial growth and the competition for pH adequacy and release of bacteriocins in order to describe such phenomenon and, thus, estimate food product half-life with the least possible risk of deterioration or spoiling. In order to achieve this objective, the authors propose an analysis of a three-dimensional ordinary differential which includes; logistic bacterial growth extended by the inhibitory action of bacteriocins including the effect of the medium pH; change in the medium pH levels through an adaptation of the Luedeking-Piret kinetic model; Bacteriocin concentration modeled similarly to pH levels. These three dimensions are being influenced by the temperature at all times. Then, this differential system is expanded, taking into consideration the variable temperature and the concentration of pulsed bacteriocins, which represent characteristics inherent of the modeling, such as transport and storage, as well as the incorporation of substances that inhibit bacterial growth. The main results lead to the fact that temperature changes in an early stage of transport increased the bacterial population significantly more than if it had increased during the final stage. On the other hand, the incorporation of bacteriocins, as in other investigations, proved to be efficient in the short and medium-term since, although the population of bacteria decreased, once the bacteriocins were depleted or degraded over time, the bacteria eventually returned to their regular growth rate. The efficacy of the bacteriocins at low temperatures decreased slightly, which equates with the fact that their natural degradation rate also decreased. In summary, the implementation of the mathematical model allowed the simulation of a set of possible bacteria present in animal based products, along with their properties, in various transport and storage situations, which led us to state that for inhibiting bacterial growth, the optimum is complementary low constant temperatures and the initial use of bacteriocins.

Keywords: bacterial growth, bacteriocins, mathematical modelling, temperature

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2 Genome-Scale Analysis of Streptomyces Caatingaensis CMAA 1322 Metabolism, a New Abiotic Stress-Tolerant Actinomycete

Authors: Suikinai Nobre Santos, Ranko Gacesa, Paul F. Long, Itamar Soares de Melo

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Extremophilic microorganism are adapted to biotopes combining several stress factors (temperature, pressure, radiation, salinity and pH), which indicate the richness valuable resource for the exploitation of novel biotechnological processes and constitute unique models for investigations their biomolecules (1, 2). The above information encourages us investigate bioprospecting synthesized compounds by a noval actinomycete, designated thermotolerant Streptomyces caatingaensis CMAA 1322, isolated from sample soil tropical dry forest (Caatinga) in the Brazilian semiarid region (3-17°S and 35-45°W). This set of constrating physical and climatic factores provide the unique conditions and a diversity of well adapted species, interesting site for biotechnological purposes. Preliminary studies have shown the great potential in the production of cytotoxic, pesticidal and antimicrobial molecules (3). Thus, to extend knowledge of the genes clusters responsible for producing biosynthetic pathways of natural products in strain CMAA1322, whole-genome shotgun (WGS) DNA sequencing was performed using paired-end long sequencing with PacBio RS (Pacific Biosciences). Genomic DNA was extracted from a pure culture grown overnight on LB medium using the PureLink genomic DNA kit (Life Technologies). An approximately 3- to 20-kb-insert PacBio library was constructed and sequenced on an 8 single-molecule real-time (SMRT) cell, yielding 116,269 reads (average length, 7,446 bp), which were allocated into 18 contigs, with 142.11x coverage and N50 value of 20.548 bp (BioProject number PRJNA288757). The assembled data were analyzed by Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology (RAST) (4) the genome size was found to be 7.055.077 bp, comprising 6167 open reading frames (ORFs) and 413 subsystems. The G+C content was estimated to be 72 mol%. The closest-neighbors tool, available in RAST through functional comparison of the genome, revealed that strain CMAA1322 is more closely related to Streptomyces hygroscopicus ATCC 53653 (similarity score value, 537), S. violaceusniger Tu 4113 (score value, 483), S. avermitilis MA-4680 (score value, 475), S. albus J1074 (score value, 447). The Streptomyces sp. CMAA1322 genome contains 98 tRNA genes and 135 genes copies related to stress response, mainly osmotic stress (14), heat shock (16), oxidative stress (49). Functional annotation by antiSMASH version 3.0 (5) identified 41 clusters for secondary metabolites (including two clusters for lanthipeptides, ten clusters for nonribosomal peptide synthetases [NRPS], three clusters for siderophores, fourteen for polyketide synthetase [PKS], six clusters encoding a terpene, two clusters encoding a bacteriocin, and one cluster encoding a phenazine). Our work provide in comparative analyse of genome and extract produced (data no published) by lineage CMAA1322, revealing the potential of microorganisms accessed from extreme environments as Caatinga” to produce a wide range of biotechnological relevant compounds.

Keywords: caatinga, streptomyces, environmental stresses, biosynthetic pathways

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1 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria of Enterococcus Genus

Authors: Kristina Karapetyan, Flora Tkhruni, Tsovinar Balabekyan, Arevik Israyelyan, Tatyana Khachatryan

Abstract:

The ability of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to prevent and cure a variety of diseases, their protective role against infections and colonization of pathogenic microorganisms in the digestive tract, has lead to the coining of the term probiotics or pro-life. LAB inhibiting the growth of pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms, maintaining the nutritive quality and improving the shelf life of foods. They have also been used as flavor and texture producers. Enterococcus strains have been used for treatment of diseases such as diarrhea or antibiotic associated diarrhea, inflammatory pathologies that affect colon such as irritable bowel syndrome, or immune regulation, diarrhea caused by antibiotic treatments. The obtaining and investigation of biological properties of proteinoceous antibiotics, on the basis of probiotic LAB shown, that bacteriocins, metabiotics, and peptides of LAB represent bactericides have a broad range of activity and are excellent candidates for development of new prophylactic and therapeutic substances to complement or replace conventional antibiotics. The genotyping by 16S rRNA sequencing for LAB were used. Cell free culture broth (CFC) broth was purified by the Gel filtration method on the Sephadex Superfine G 25 resin. Antimicrobial activity was determined by spot-on-lawn method and expressed in arbitrary units (AU/ml). The diversity of multidrug-resistance (MDR) of pathogenic strains to antibiotics, most widely used for treatment of human diseases in the Republics of Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh were examined. It was shown, that difference of resistance of pathogens to antibiotics depends on their isolation sources. The influences of partially purified antimicrobial preparations (AMP), obtained from the different strains of Enterococcus genus on the growth of MDR pathogenic bacteria were investigated. It was shown, that bacteriocin containing partially purified preparations, obtained from different strains of Enterococcus faecium and durans species, possess bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against antibiotic resistant intestinal, spoilage and food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, and Salmonella. Endemic strains of LAB, isolated from Matsoni made from donkey, buffalo and goat milk, shown broad spectrum of activity against food spoiling microorganisms, moulds and fungi, such as Salmonella sp., Esherichia coli, Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Highest activity against MDR pathogens shown bacteria, isolated from goat milk products. High stability of the investigated strains of the genus Enerococcus, isolated from samples of matsun from different regions of Nagorno-Karabakh (NKR) to the antibiotics was shown. The obtained data show high stability of the investigated different strains of the genus Enerococcus. The high genetic diversity in Enterococcus group suggests adaptations for specific mutations in different environments. Thus, endemic strains of LAB are able to produce bacteriocins with high and different inhibitory activity against broad spectrum of microorganisms isolated from different sources and belong to different taxonomic group. Prospect of the use of certain antimicrobial preparations against pathogenic strains is obvious. These AMP can be applied for long term use against different etiology antibiotic resistant pathogens for prevention or treatment of infectional diseases as an alternative to antibiotics.

Keywords: antimicrobial biopreparation, endemic lactic acid bacteria, intra-species diversity, multidrug resistance of pathogens

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