Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1291

Search results for: mental retardation

1291 Mutations in MTHFR Gene Associated with Mental Retardation and Cerebral Palsy Combined with Mental Retardation in Erbil City

Authors: Hazha Hidayat, Shayma Ibrahim

Abstract:

Folate metabolism plays a crucial role in the normal development of the neonatal central nervous system. It is regulated by MTHFR gene polymorphism. Any factors, which will affect this metabolism either by hereditary or gene mutation will lead to many mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MTHFR gene mutation contributes to the development of mental retardation and CP combined with mental retardation in Erbil city. DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood samples of 40 cases suffering from mental retardation (MR) and CP combined with MR were recruited, sequence the 4, 6, 7, 8 exons of the MTHFR gene were done to identify the variants. Exons were amplified by PCR technique and then sequenced according to Sanger method to show the differences with MTHFR reference sequences. We observed (14) mutations in 4, 6, 7, 8 exons in the MTHFR gene associated with Cerebral Palsy combined with mental retardation included deletion, insertion, Substitution. The current study provides additional evidence that multiple variations in the MTHFR gene are associated with mental retardation and Cerebral Palsy.

Keywords: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, SNPs, homocysteine, sequencing

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1290 Habituation on Children Mental Retardation through Practice of Behaviour Therapy in Great Aceh, Aceh Province

Authors: Marini Kristina Situmeang, Siti Hazar Sitorus, Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Arfan Fadli

Abstract:

This study aims to identify and explain how forms of treatment and community action include parents who have children with mental retardation while undergoing behavioral therapy that leads to habituation processes. Based on observations made there is inappropriate treatment such as labeling that child mental retardation is considered ‘crazy’ by some people in Aceh Besar region. Reflecting on the phenomenon of discriminatory treatment, the existence of children with mental retardation should be realized in concrete actions that can encourage the development of cognitive abilities, language, motor, and social, one of them through behavioral. The purpose of this research is to find out and explain how the social practices of children with mental retardation when undergoing behavioral therapy that leads to habituation process. This study focuses on families or parents who have children with mental retardation and do therapy of behavioral therapy at home or at physiotherapy clinics in Aceh Besar. The research method is qualitative with case study approach. Data collection techniques are conducted with in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The results showed that habituation process which is conducted by parents at home and in fisotherapy clinic have a positive effect on the development of children behavior of mental retardation, especially when dealing with the environment of the community around the residence. Habituation processes conducted through behavioral therapy practices are influenced by Habitus (Gestational and childcare at therapy) and Reinforcement (in this case family and social support). Habituation process is done in the form of habituation, the creation of the situation, and strengthening the character. For example, when a child's mental retardation commits a wrong act (disgraceful or inappropriate behavior) then the child gets punishment in accordance with the form of punishment in a normal child generally, and when he performs a good deed, then he is given a prize such as praise or a thing he likes. Through some of these actions, the child with mental retardation can behave in accordance with the character formed and expected by the community. The process of habituation done by parents accompanied by continuous support of physiotherapy can be one of the alternative booster of cognitive and social development of children mental retardation to then out of the ‘crazy’ label that has been given.

Keywords: behaviour therapy, habituation, habitus, mental retardation

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1289 High Expression Levels and Amplification of rRNA Genes in a Mentally Retarded Child with 13p+: A Familial Case Study

Authors: Irina S. Kolesnikova, Alexander A. Dolskiy, Natalya A. Lemskaya, Yulia V. Maksimova, Asia R. Shorina, Alena S. Telepova, Alexander S. Graphodatsky, Dmitry V. Yudkin

Abstract:

A cytogenetic and molecular genetic study of the family with a male child who had mental retardation and autistic features revealed an abnormal chromosome 13 bearing an enlarged p-arm with amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in a boy and his father. Cytogenetic analysis using standard G-banding and FISH with labeled rDNA probes revealed an abnormal chromosome 13 with an enlarged p-arms due to rDNA amplification in a male child, who had clinically confirmed mental retardation and an autistic behavior. This chromosome is evidently inherited from the father, who has morphologically the same chromosome, but is healthy. The karyotype of the mother was normal. Ag-NOR staining showed brightly stained large whole-p-arm nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in a child and normal-sized NORs in his father with 13p+-NOR-amount mosaicism. qRT-PCR with specific primers showed highly increased levels of 18S, 28S and 5,8 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in the patient’s blood samples compared to a normal healthy control donor. Both patient’s father and mother had no elevated levels of rRNAs expression. Thus, in this case, rRNA level seems to correlate with mental retardation in familial individuals with 13p+. Our findings of rRNA overexpression in a patient with mental retardation and his parents may show a possible link between the karyotype (p-arm enlargement due to rDNA amplification), rDNA functionality (rRNA overexpression), functional changes in the brain and mental retardation. The study is supported by Russian Science Foundation Grant 15-15-10001.

Keywords: mental retardation, ribosomal DNA–rDNA, ribosomal RNA–rRNA, nucleolus organizer region–NOR, chromosome 13

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1288 Challenges Faced by the Parents of Mentally Challenged Children in India

Authors: Chamaraja Parulli

Abstract:

Family is an important social institution devoted to the growth of a child, and parents are the important agents of socialization. Mentally challenged children are those who are affected by intellectual disability, which is manifested by limitation in intellectual functioning and adoptive behavior. Intellectual disability affects about 3-4 percentage of the general population. Intellectual disability is caused by genetic condition, problems during pregnancy, problems during childbirth, or illness. Mental retardation is the world’s most complex and challenging issue. The stigmatization of disability results in social and economic marginalization. Parents of the mentally challenged children will have a very high level of parenting stress, which is significantly more than the stress perceived by the parents of the children without disability. The prevalence of severe mental disorder called Schizophrenia is among 1.1 percent of the total population in India. On the other hand, 11 to 12 percent is the overall lifetime occurrence rate of mental disorders. While the government has a separate program for mental health, the segment is marred by lack of adequate doctors and infrastructure. Mentally retarded children have certain limitations in mental functioning and skills, which makes them slow learners in speaking, walking, and taking care of their personal needs such as dressing and eating. Accepting a child with mental handicap becomes difficult for parents and to the whole family, as they have to face many problems, including those of management, finance, deprivation of rest, and leisure. Also, the problems faced by the parents can be seen in different areas like – educational, psychological, social, emotional, financial and family related issues. The study brought out various difficulties and problems faced by the parents as well as family members. The findings revealed that the mental retardation is not only a medico-psychological problem but also a socio-cultural problem. The study results, however, indicate that the quality of life of the family having children with mental retardation can be improved to a greater extent by building up a child-friendly ambience at home. The main aim of the present study is to assess the problems faced by the parents of mentally challenged children, with the help of personal interview data collected from the parents of mentally challenged children, residing in Shimoga District of Karnataka State, India. These individuals were selected using stratified random sampling method. Organizing effective intervention programs for parents, family, society, and educational institutions towards reduction of family stress, augmenting the family’s strengths, increasing child’s competence and enhancing the positive attitudes and values of the society will go a long way for the peaceful existence of the mentally challenged children.

Keywords: mentally challenged children, intellectual disability, special children, social infrastructure, differently abled, psychological stress, marginalization

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1287 Heat Waves and Hospital Admissions for Mental Disorders in Hanoi Vietnam

Authors: Phan Minh Trang, Joacim Rocklöv, Kim Bao Giang, Gunnar Kullgren, Maria Nilsson

Abstract:

There are recent studies from high income countries reporting an association between heat waves and hospital admissions for mental health disorders. It is not previously studied if such relations exist in sub-tropical and tropical low- and middle-income countries. In this study from Vietnam, the assumption was that hospital admissions for mental disorders may be triggered, or exacerbated, by heat exposure and heat waves. A database from Hanoi Mental Hospital with mental disorders diagnosed by the International Classification of Diseases 10, spanning over five years, was used to estimate the heatwave-related impacts on admissions for mental disorders. The relationship was analysed by a Negative Binomial regression model accounting for year, month, and days of week. The focus of the study was heat-wave events with periods of three or seven consecutive days above the threshold of 35oC daily maximum temperature. The preliminary study results indicated that heat-waves increased the risks for hospital admission for mental disorders (F00-79) from heat-waves of three and seven days with relative risks (RRs) of 1.16 (1.01–1.33) and 1.42 (1.02–1.99) respectively, when compared with non-heat-wave periods. Heatwave-related admissions for mental disorders increased statistically significantly among men, among residents in rural communities and in elderly. Moreover, cases for organic mental disorders including symptomatic illnesses (F0-9) and mental retardation (F70-79) raised in high risks during heat waves. The findings are novel studying a sub-tropical middle-income city, facing rapid urbanisation and epidemiological and demographic transitions.

Keywords: mental disorders, admissions for F0-9 or F70-79, maximum temperature, heat waves

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1286 Lennox-gastaut Syndrome Associated with Dysgenesis of Corpus Callosum

Authors: A. Bruce Janati, Muhammad Umair Khan, Naif Alghassab, Ibrahim Alzeir, Assem Mahmoud, M. Sammour

Abstract:

Rationale: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome(LGS) is an electro-clinical syndrome composed of the triad of mental retardation, multiple seizure types, and the characteristic generalized slow spike-wave complexes in the EEG. In this article, we report on two patients with LGS whose brain MRI showed dysgenesis of corpus callosum(CC). We review the literature and stress the role of CC in the genesis of secondary bilateral synchrony(SBS). Method: This was a clinical study conducted at King Khalid Hospital. Results: The EEG was consistent with LGS in patient 1 and unilateral slow spike-wave complexes in patient 2. The MRI showed hypoplasia of the splenium of CC in patient 1, and global hypoplasia of CC combined with Joubert syndrome in patient 2. Conclusion: Based on the data, we proffer the following hypotheses: 1-Hypoplasia of CC interferes with functional integrity of this structure. 2-The genu of CC plays a pivotal role in the genesis of secondary bilateral synchrony. 3-Electrodecremental seizures in LGS emanate from pacemakers generated in the brain stem, in particular the mesencephalon projecting abnormal signals to the cortex via thalamic nuclei. 4-Unilateral slow spike-wave complexes in the context of mental retardation and multiple seizure types may represent a variant of LGS, justifying neuroimaging studies.

Keywords: EEG, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, corpus callosum , MRI

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1285 Individualized Teaching Process for Pupils with Moderate Mental Disability

Authors: VojtěCh Gybas, Libor Klubal, KateřIna KostoláNyová

Abstract:

Individualized teaching process for pupils with moderate mental disabilities with the help of using mobile touch devices may be one of the forms of teaching to achieve better development of these students during the teaching process. Didactics of information and communication technology (ICT) for special primary schools, where within the Czech Republic pupils with moderate mental retardation are educated, is not precisely and clearly defined. Still, general educational program for elementary school contains a special educational area of information and communication technology, in which the work and content area are focused on work with the classic desktop, and it is not always acceptable in the case of students with moderate mental disabilities. Individualization of their schooling requires a fully elaborate content of teaching material corresponding with intellectual abilities and individuality of each pupil. After three years of daily use of mobile touch devices iPad and participant observation of 7 pupils in a class from special elementary school, we can say that these technologies can be a very useful tool, and in many ways, they even exceed, compensate and replace freely available printed educational material that is rather outdated. By working with mobile touch technology, a pupil gains responsibility, trains his will, learns to rely on himself. The first results obtained from the case studies suggest that this form of teaching may also be beneficial for pupils with moderate mental disabilities.

Keywords: individualized teaching, mobile touch technology, iPad, moderate mental disability, special education needs

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1284 The Effect of Mental Workload Towards Mental Fatigue on Customer Care Agent Using Electroencephalogram

Authors: Maya Arlini Puspasari, Shafira Karamina Alifah, Hardianto Iridiastadi

Abstract:

High mental workload can lead to fatigue and further result in decreased concentration and work performance. This study is conducted to see the effects of mental workload towards mental fatigue. Mental fatigue measurement was conducted at the first and the last 10 minutes of the working time using electroencephalogram, while mental workload measurement was conducted after the work is completed using the NASA-TLX questionnaire. The result shows that there is an increase in alpha band which indicates an increase in mental fatigue. This study also shows absolute alpha is more sensitive compared to the relative alpha. This study proves that there is a relationship between mental workload and mental fatigue although not relatively strong.

Keywords: mental workload, electroencephalogram, customer care agents, NASA-TLX

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1283 Mental Health Clinicians’ Perceptions of Nature-Based Interventions Within Community Mental Health Services: Evidence from Australia

Authors: Rachel Tambyah, Katarzyna Olcoń, Julaine Allan, Pete Destry, Thomas Astell-Burt

Abstract:

The rising social and financial burden of mental illness indicates an urgent need to explore interventions that can be used as well as or instead of traditional treatments. Although there is growing evidence of the positive mental health outcomes of spending time in nature, the implementation of nature-based interventions (NBIs) within mental health services remains minimal. Based on interviews with mental health clinicians in Australia, this study demonstrated that clinicians supported the use of NBIs and would promote them to their clients.

Keywords: nature, nature-based interventions, mental health, mental health services, mental health clinicians

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1282 The Conception of the Students about the Presence of Mental Illness at School

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina, Maria Catarina Zanini

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the conceptions of high school students about mental health issues, and discuss the creation of mental basic health programs in schools. We base our findings in a quantitative survey carried out by us with 156 high school students of CTISM (Colégio Técnico Industrial de Santa Maria) school, located in Santa Maria city, Brazil. We have found that: (a) 28 students relate the subject ‘mental health’ with psychiatric hospitals and lunatic asylums; (b) 28 students have relatives affected by mental diseases; (c) 76 students believe that mental patients, if treated, can live a healthy life; (d) depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the most cited diseases; (e) 84 students have contact with mental patients, but know nothing about the disease; (f) 123 students have never been instructed about mental diseases while in the school; and (g) 135 students think that a mental health program would be important in the school. We argue that these numbers reflect a vision of mental health that can be related to the reductionist education still present in schools and to the lack of integration between health professionals, sciences teachers, and students. Furthermore, this vision can also be related to a stigmatization process, which interferes with the interactions and with the representations regarding mental disorders and mental patients in society.

Keywords: mental health, schools, mental illness, conception

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1281 Mental Health Literacy in the Arabic Community

Authors: Yamam Abuzinadah

Abstract:

Mental health literacy has become a very influential topic around the world due to the increase of mental health issues that have been reported through national research and surveys. Mental health literacy refers to the awareness, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills when dealing with mental illness. This research explores mental health literacy in the Arabic and the ways culture informs perceptions of mental health in general. Also, the impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking attitudes, relationships and community interactions. The outcomes of this research will contribute to raising mental health awareness among the Arabic community, develop and enhance mental health service provision and explore new ideas in regards to elevating mental health literacy in the Arabic community. This research aims to explore attitudes, beliefs, perspective, values and perceptions toward mental health in general among the Arabic community. It will also aim to highlight the factors contributing to theses beliefs, perspective, value and perception and accordingly the role these factors play in regards to awareness, services access, recovery and care provided from the family and the community. This thesis will aim to reflect a detailed theorisation and exploration of: (1) The impact of cultural factors on mental health literacy ie. attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills. (2) The ways culture informs perceptions of mental health literacy. (3) The impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking behaviors, and relationships and community interactions.

Keywords: Arab, mental health, literacy, awareness

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1280 Exploring the Meaning of Safety in Acute Mental Health Inpatient Units from the Consumer Perspective

Authors: Natalie Cutler, Lorna Moxham, Moira Stephens

Abstract:

Safety is a priority in mental health services, and no more so than in the acute inpatient setting. Mental health service policies and accreditation frameworks commonly approach safety from a risk reduction or elimination perspective leading to service approaches that are arguably more focused on risk than on safety. An exploration what safety means for people who have experienced admission to an acute mental health inpatient unit is currently under way in Sydney, Australia. Using a phenomenographic research approach, this study is seeking to understand the meaning of safety from the perspective of people who use, rather than those who deliver mental health services. Preliminary findings suggest that the meanings of safety for users of mental health services vary from the meanings inherent in the policies and frameworks that inform how mental health services and mental health practice are delivered. This variance has implications for the physical and environmental design of acute mental health inpatient facilities, the policies and practices, and the education and training of mental health staff in particular nurses, who comprise the majority of the mental health workforce. These variances will be presented, along with their implications for the way quality and safety in mental health services are evaluated.

Keywords: acute inpatient, mental health, nursing, phenomenography, recovery, safety

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1279 A Brief Study on the Mental Health vs. Mental Disorders in China, Suicide and the Entertainment Media

Authors: Patricia Portugal Marques de Carvalho Lourenço

Abstract:

Mental Health, mental illnesses, and suicide are old topics made young. While broadly addressed on a global scale to various extents and degrees, mental health, mental disorders, and suicide remain to a large extent a, taboo in a number of societies such as the Chinese. The country’s report on mental health was scrutinized for an in-depth understanding of the prevalence of mental disorders domestically, emphasizing depression, which is more accentuated in rural settings than urban, affecting a significant number of students, retired individuals and that unemployed country-wise. Depression in China is linked to anxiety in younger years, both decreasing as the population grows in age. Mental health, mental disorders and suicide remain for the most part, “forgotten”, despite statistically significant and the media’s yet small efforts in educating the population about the terms i.e. through online/television dramas that approach the topics, trying to demystify them. Whereas crucial to openly address mental health, mental disorders, and suicide, the issues remain an ongoing challenge in China, where series draw light into a reality the media and the population do not broadly converse about. The media in general and the entertainment media, in particular, have a vital role in helping China acknowledge mental health, mental disorders and suicide, albeit having a long way to go in assisting the Chinese population in dealing with the health of their inner minds.

Keywords: mental health, mental disorders, suicide, media, China, Chinese entertainment

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1278 Effect of Community Education and Early Intervention and Rehabilitation in Minimising the Impact on Mental Illness

Authors: Akanle Florence Foluso, Richard Oni, Ola Tolulo, Lani Ofie

Abstract:

Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Society’s attitude to mental health and primary prevention is the key instrument in a better understanding of the mental illness. This paper attempted to investigate the effect of community education and early intervention and rehabilitation in minimizing the impact of mental illness. The study involved 50 adolescents who were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, the control and the experimental. Subjects in the experimental group were exposed to treatment, while those in the control group were not. The subject exposed to treatment had an increased understanding of what mental illness is. Those with mental illness were better understood, less feared, less discriminated against, and tertiary prevention strategies were reported to minimize the impact of mental illness when it occurs

Keywords: community, health, improve, status

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1277 Self –Engineering Strategy of Six Dimensional Inter-Subcultural Mental Images

Authors: Mostafa Jafari

Abstract:

How the people continually create and recreate the six dimensional inter- sub-cultural relationships from the strategic point of view? Can they engineer and direct it toward creating a set of peaceful subcultures? This paper answers to these questions. Our mental images shape the quantity and quality of our relationships. The six dimensions of mental images are: my mental image about myself, your mental image about yourself, my mental image about you, your mental image about me, my imagination about your image about me and your imagination about my mental image about you. Strategic engineering is dynamically shaping these images and imaginations.Methodology: This survey, which is based on object and the relation between the variables, is explanatory, correlative and quantitative. The target community members are 90 educated people from universities. The data has been collected through questionnaire and interview and has been analyzed by descriptive statistical techniques and qualitative method. Results: Our findings show that engineering and deliberatly managing the process of inter- sub-cultural transactions in the national and global level can enable us to continually reform a peaceful set of learner sub-culturals toward recreate a peaceful unit global Home.

Keywords: strategic engineering, mental image, six dimensional mental images strategy , cultural literacy, radar technique

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1276 Athletes with High Mental Toughness Levels Experiencing Less Anxiety

Authors: H. Analuie, M. Faruque, S. Saha, H. Hashim, M. Muzaimi

Abstract:

Though mental toughness has long been explored in sport psychology, much of our understanding on the topic remains largely unexplored. The concept is used widely, but empirical evidence is required to fully understand the construct and its related variables. This research investigated the correlation between mental toughness and trait anxiety to determine whether mentally tough athletes generally experience more or less anxiety. A sample of 57 men (M age = 25.4 years, s=4.66) and 45 women (M age = 23.5 years, s=5.73) participated in a variety of sports were recruited, where mental toughness was measured using MTQ48. Levels of trait anxiety were assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Series of Pearson correlations between trait anxiety, overall mental toughness, and the six subscales of mental toughness showed significant (p> .05) relationships. As predicted, greater mental toughness was associated with less reported trait anxiety. Independent t-tests found significant differences (p> .05) in overall mental toughness, the mental toughness subscales or trait anxiety between men and women. More research is required to understand how mentally tough athletes experience less anxiety in comparison to those who are not as mentally tough. Our findings suggest that relationships observed in this study emphasize the need for the inclusion of trait anxiety in mental toughness interventions.

Keywords: mental toughness, trait anxiety, MTQ48, sport psychology

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1275 Understanding Different Facets of Chromosome Abnormalities: A 17-year Cytogenetic Study and Indian Perspectives

Authors: Lakshmi Rao Kandukuri, Mamata Deenadayal, Suma Prasad, Bipin Sethi, Srinadh Buragadda, Lalji Singh

Abstract:

Worldwide; at least 7.6 million children are born annually with severe genetic or congenital malformations and among them 90% of these are born in mid and low-income countries. Precise prevalence data are difficult to collect, especially in developing countries, owing to the great diversity of conditions and also because many cases remain undiagnosed. The genetic and congenital disorder is the second most common cause of infant and childhood mortality and occurs with a prevalence of 25-60 per 1000 births. The higher prevalence of genetic diseases in a particular community may, however, be due to some social or cultural factors. Such factors include the tradition of consanguineous marriage, which results in a higher rate of autosomal recessive conditions including congenital malformations, stillbirths, or mental retardation. Genetic diseases can vary in severity, from being fatal before birth to requiring continuous management; their onset covers all life stages from infancy to old age. Those presenting at birth are particularly burdensome and may cause early death or life-long chronic morbidity. Genetic testing for several genetic diseases identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Several hundred genetic tests are currently in use and more are being developed. Chromosomal abnormalities are the major cause of human suffering, which are implicated in mental retardation, congenital malformations, dysmorphic features, primary and secondary amenorrhea, reproductive wastage, infertility neoplastic diseases. Cytogenetic evaluation of patients is helpful in the counselling and management of affected individuals and families. We present here especially chromosomal abnormalities which form a major part of genetic disease burden in India. Different programmes on chromosome research and human reproductive genetics primarily relate to infertility since this is a major public health problem in our country, affecting 10-15 percent of couples. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in high-risk pregnancies helps in detecting chromosomally abnormal foetuses. Such couples are counselled regarding the continuation of pregnancy. In addition to the basic research, the team is providing chromosome diagnostic services that include conventional and advanced techniques for identifying various genetic defects. Other than routine chromosome diagnosis for infertility, also include patients with short stature, hypogonadism, undescended testis, microcephaly, delayed developmental milestones, familial, and isolated mental retardation, and cerebral palsy. Thus, chromosome diagnostics has found its applicability not only in disease prevention and management but also in guiding the clinicians in certain aspects of treatment. It would be appropriate to affirm that chromosomes are the images of life and they unequivocally mirror the states of human health. The importance of genetic counseling is increasing with the advancement in the field of genetics. The genetic counseling can help families to cope with emotional, psychological, and medical consequences of genetic diseases.

Keywords: India, chromosome abnormalities, genetic disorders, cytogenetic study

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1274 Comparison between Mental Toughness and Level of Physical Activity between Staff and Students in University of Tabriz

Authors: Mahta Eskandarnejad

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to compare physical activity and mental toughness in the staff and students of the University of Tabriz. 615 people participated in this study and filled demographic questionnaire, mental thoughness48 (MTQ48) questionnaire and habitual physical activity questionnaire (Baecke physical activity questionnaire). The research sample included 355 students and 260 staff (615 questionnaires). For analyzing hypotheses MANOVA, correlation and independent t-test were used. Based on the result; some subscales of mental toughness and physical activity were significantly related. The result showed the significant correlation between mental toughness and physical activity in student and no significant correlation in staff. Students were significantly physically more active than staff, and mental toughness was higher in staff. There was no difference in mental toughness variable between active participants (active staff and student). The results of this study showed that mental toughness could influence the way a person cope with living conditions. It is expected that mental toughness changes can lead to changing in levels of physical activity. It should be noted that the other variables should not be ignored.

Keywords: Baecke physical activity questionnaire, mental toughness, physical activity, university staff, university student

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1273 Teacher Mental Health during Online Teaching

Authors: Elisabeth Desiana Mayasari, Laurensia Aptik Evanjeli, Brigitta Erlita Tri Anggadewi

Abstract:

The condition of the COVID-19 pandemic demands adaptation in various aspects of human life, including in the field of education. Teachers are expected to do distance learning or Learning From Home (LFH). The teacher said that he experienced stress, anxiety, feeling depressed, and afraid based on the interview. Learning adaptations and pandemic situations can impact the mental health of teachers, so the purpose of this study is to determine the mental health of teachers while teaching online. This research was conducted with a quantitative approach using a survey method. The subjects in this study were 330 elementary school teachers under the auspices of a foundation in Yogyakarta. Teachers' mental health was measured using the Indonesian version of The Mental Health Inventory (MHI-38), which has a reliability of 0.888. The results showed that the teachers generally had a good mental health condition marked by a lower negative aspect score than the positive aspect. In addition, the overall mental health aspect shows that some teachers have better mental health when compared to the average score, as well as higher positive aspect scores in all sub-aspects.

Keywords: mental health, teacher, COVID-19 pandemic, MHI-38

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1272 A Comparative Study of Mental Health and Well-Being between Qugong Practitioners and Non-Practitioners

Authors: Masoumeh Khosravi

Abstract:

Introduction: The complementary therapies and Qigong exercises is important in order to maintain physical and mental health. Objective: This study was done to compare and investigate well-being and mental health's state between practitioners of a Qigong practice (Falun Dafa) and non-practitioners. Method: It was a comparative study with 60 samples (30 practitioners of Falun Dafa, and 30 non-practitioners), who were selected by random sampling from Tehran city of Iran. Data were collected by mental health inventory (SCL90) and well-being questionnaire. Multivariate variance analyzing and t-test were used for analyzing data. Results: Results showed significant differences in most components of mental health including anxiety, aggressiveness, obsessive-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, somatization disorder, depression, phobia between practitioners and non-practitioners. Well-being was significantly higher in practitioners than non-practitioners. Conclusion: Accordingly, we concluded Falun Gong exercises have high impact on mental health and well-being in people.

Keywords: mental health, well-being, Qigong, Falun Dafa

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1271 A Second Spark Ignition Timing for the High Power Aircraft Radial Engine Using a CFD Transient Modeling

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Adam Majczak

Abstract:

In aviation most important systems that impact the aircraft flight safety are duplicated. The ASz-62IR aircraft radial engine consists of two spark plugs powered by two separate magnetos. The relative difference in spark timing has an influence on the combustion process. The retardation of the second spark relative to the first spark was analyzed. The CFD simulation was developed as a multicycle transient model. Two independent spark sources imitate two flame fronts after an ignition period. It makes the combustion process shorter but only for certain range of second spark retardation. The model was validated by the in-cylinder pressure comparison. Combustion parameters were analyzed for different second spark retardation values. It was found that the most advantageous ignition timing in means of performance is simultaneous ignition. Nevertheless, for this engine the ignition time of the second spark plug is greatly retarded eliminating the advantageous performance influence. The reason behind this is maintaining high ignition certainty for all engine running conditions and for whole operating rpm range. In aviation the engine reliability is more important than its performance. Introducing electronic ignition system can yield from simultaneous ignition timing by increasing the engine performance and providing good reliability for all flight conditions. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, ignition, simulation, timing

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1270 Understanding Student Pilot Mental Workload in Recreational Aircraft Training

Authors: Ron Bishop, Jim Mitchell, Talitha Best

Abstract:

The increase in air travel worldwide has resulted in a pilot shortage. To increase student pilot capacity and lower costs, flight schools have increased the use of recreational aircraft (RA) with technological advanced cockpits in flight schools. The impact of RA based training compared to general aviation (GA) aircraft training on student mental workload is not well understood. This research investigated student pilot (N = 17) awareness of mental workload between technologically advanced cockpit equipped RA training with analogue gauge equipped GA training. The results showed a significantly higher rating of mental workload across subscales of mental and physical demand on the NASA-TLX in recreational aviation aircraft training compared to GA aircraft. Similarly, thematic content analysis of follow-up questions identified that mental workload of the student pilots flying the RA was perceived to be more than the GA aircraft.

Keywords: mental workload, recreational aircraft, student pilot, training

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1269 Hong Kong Artists Public Communication of Mental Health Disorders and Coping Techniques - Analysis

Authors: Patricia Portugal Marques de Carvalho Lourenco

Abstract:

Money, status, beauty, popularity, widespread public adulation, glitz and glamour portray a perfumed stress-free existence yet not every rock that glitters is a gold nugget and mental disorders are not an exclusivity of middle/low societal classes. Mental illnesses do not discriminate, and behind the superficial visual wealth of the upper-class, there are human beings who experience the ups and downs of life like any other person, except that publicly rather than privately and with an array of fingers pointing at them instead of a mere few. Sammi Cheung, Carina Lau, Fiona Sit, Kara Hui and Louis Cheung are a number of Hong Kong artists that have battled mental disorders, overcame them and used the process to openly discuss the still existing taboo.

Keywords: mental disorders, mental health, public communication, depression, hong kong artists

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1268 Study on the Focus of Attention of Special Education Students in Primary School

Authors: Tung-Kuang Wu, Hsing-Pei Hsieh, Ying-Ru Meng

Abstract:

Special Education in Taiwan has been facing difficulties including shortage of teachers and lack in resources. Some students need to receive special education are thus not identified or admitted. Fortunately, information technologies can be applied to relieve some of the difficulties. For example, on-line multimedia courseware can be used to assist the learning of special education students and take pretty much workload from special education teachers. However, there may exist cognitive variations between students in special or regular educations, which suggests the design of online courseware requires different considerations. This study aims to investigate the difference in focus of attention (FOA) between special and regular education students of primary school in viewing the computer screen. The study is essential as it helps courseware developers in determining where to put learning elements that matter the most on the right position of screen. It may also assist special education specialists to better understand the subtle differences among various subtypes of learning disabilities. This study involves 76 special education students (among them, 39 are students with mental retardation, MR, and 37 are students with learning disabilities, LDs) and 42 regular education students. The participants were asked to view a computer screen showing a picture partitioned into 3 × 3 areas with each area filled with text or icon. The subjects were then instructed to mark on the prior given paper sheets, which are also partitioned into 3 × 3 grids, the areas corresponding to the pictures on the computer screen that they first set their eyes on. The data are then collected and analyzed. Major findings are listed: 1. In both text and icon scenario, significant differences exist in the first preferred FOA between special and regular education students. The first FOA for the former is mainly on area 1 (upper left area, 53.8% / 51.3% for MR / LDs students in text scenario; and 53.8% / 56.8% for MR / LDs students in icons scenario), while the latter on area 5 (middle area, 50.0% and 57.1% in text and icons scenarios). 2. The second most preferred area in text scenario for students with MR and LDs are area 2 (upper-middle, 20.5%) and 5 (middle area, 24.3%). In icons scenario, the results are similar, but lesser in percentage. 3. Students with LDs that show similar preference (either in text or icons scenarios) in FOA to regular education students tend to be of some specific sub-type of learning disabilities. For instance, students with LDs that chose area 5 (middle area, either in text or icon scenario) as their FOA are mostly ones that have reading or writing disability. Also, three (out of 13) subjects in this category, after going through the rediagnosis process, were excluded from being learning disabilities. In summary, the findings suggest when designing multimedia courseware for students with MR and LDs, the essential learning elements should be placed on area 1, 2 and 5. In addition, FOV preference may also potentially be used as an indicator for diagnosing students with LDs.

Keywords: focus of attention, learning disabilities, mental retardation, on-line multimedia courseware, special education

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1267 Caring for the Carers: A Qualitative Study to Evaluate the Perspective of Mental Health Carers on the Effectiveness of Community Services in the Illawarra Region (NSW)

Authors: Mona Nikidehaghani, Freda Hui

Abstract:

In Australia, one-third of mental health carers provide 40 hours or more of unpaid care per week. These hidden workers contribute significantly to the Australian mental health workforce by providing unpaid services both direct and indirect to people in their care. However, carers are often neglected in the healthcare system because Government services focus on those with a mental health condition rather than those supporting them. The aim of this study is to evaluate the perceptions of mental health carers on the effectiveness of community services designed for carers and how these services could be improved. We collaborated with One Door Mental Health, a community organisation that supports mental health carers. Through semi-structured interviews with 27 mental health carers residing in the Illawarra region (NSW), we documented their daily challenges and evaluated outcomes of the current programs for carers. Our findings demonstrate that services such as education programs enable capacity building and improve the social life and mental health of carers. Drawing on the perceptions of mental health carers, this study maps pathways for making meaningful changes in the lives of carers and proposes an outcome framework to evaluate the impact of a community organisation on the lives of their clients. The framework prepared by this project would be replicable, allowing other community organisations to measure the outcomes and improve their services.

Keywords: capacity building, community development, community service, mental health carers

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1266 iPAD as a Communication Tool for Disabled Seniors: A Case Study

Authors: Vojtěch Gybas, Libor Klubal, Kateřina Kostolányová

Abstract:

This case study responds to the current trends in ICT. Mobile Touch iPads can provide very good assistance to disabled seniors. The intuitive tablet environment, the possibility of the formation environment and its portability, has a very positive effect on the use of particular communication. For comparison, using a conventional PC/notebook, word processor, keyboard and computer mouse compared to the iPad and selected applications. The results of this case study show that the use of mobile touch devices iPad for seniors with mental retardation is a great benefit. These devices do not require high demands on graphomotorics like a standard PC devices.

Keywords: ICT, iPad, handicapped seniors, communication, computer/notebook, applications, text editor

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1265 Trauma Informed Applied Theatre: The Use of Performance to Connect With Mental Dysfunction Using Physical Embodiment

Authors: Stephanie Elizabeth Talder

Abstract:

Applied theatre programs provide a unique opportunity to engage with people using theatre with the intention of helping them with a variety of other ailments. Applied theatre within a medical setting allows for there to be other arts focused interventions that would allow for a creative and enjoyable way to connect with those who experience the same impairments as you. These programs have the potential to aid in health benefits as well as engage with theatre. This study will focus on those who have cognitive dysfunction and mental health advocacy. Due to the severe need for mental health initiatives, providing a community of those who are experiencing similar symptoms and connecting with playwrights such as Shakespeare will be meaningful. This study will partner with mental health and wellness professionals within the medical field to work with memory retention and increase mental wellness.

Keywords: applied theatre, trauma-informed, mental wellness advocacy, cognitive dysfunction

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1264 Importance of Detecting Malingering Patients in Clinical Setting

Authors: Sakshi Chopra, Harsimarpreet Kaur, Ashima Nehra

Abstract:

Objectives: Malingering is fabricating or exaggerating the symptoms of mental or physical disorders for a variety of secondary gains or motives, which may include financial compensation; avoiding work; getting lighter criminal sentences; or simply to attract attention or sympathy. Malingering is different from somatization disorder and factitious disorder. The prevalence of malingering is unknown and difficult to determine. In an estimated study in forensic population, it can reach up to 17% cases. But the accuracy of such estimates is questionable as successful malingerers are not detected and thus, not included. Methods: The case study of a 58 years old, right handed, graduate, pre-morbidly working in a national company with reported history of stroke leading to head injury; cerebral infarction/facial palsy and dementia. He was referred for disability certification so that his job position can be transferred to his son as he could not work anymore. A series of Neuropsychological tests were administered. Results: With a mental age of < 2.5 years; social adaptive functioning was overall < 20 showing profound Mental Retardation, less than 1 year social age in abilities of self-help, eating, dressing, locomotion, occupation, communication, self-direction, and socialization; severely impaired verbal and performance ability, 96% impairment in Activities of Daily Living, with an indication of very severe depression. With inconsistent and fluctuating medical findings and problem descriptions to different health professionals forming the board for his disability, it was concluded that this patient was malingering. Conclusions: Even though it can be easily defined, malingering can be very challenging to diagnosis. Cases of malingering impose a substantial economic burden on the health care system and false attribution of malingering imposes a substantial burden of suffering on a significant proportion of the patient population. Timely, tactful diagnosis and management can help ease this patient burden on the healthcare system. Malingering can be detected by only trained mental health professionals in the clinical setting.

Keywords: disability, India, malingering, neuropsychological assessment

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1263 Eating Behaviours in Islam and Mental Health: A Preventative Approach

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Lamae Zulfiqar, Nazish Idrees Chaudhary

Abstract:

A growing number of research focuses on healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors and their impact on health. It was intended to study the Islamic point of view on eating behavior, its impact on mental health and preventative strategies in the light of the Quran and Sunnah. Different articles and Islamic sayings related to eating behaviors and mental health were reviewed in detail. It was also revealed scientifically and through Islamic point of view that appropriate quantity, quality and timings of food have positive effects on mental health. Therefore, a 3Rs model of eating behaviors has been proposed.

Keywords: food intake, mental health, quality of food, quantity of food

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1262 Gawa Gawa Lang ‘Yan: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Mental Health between Generations X and Z in Metro Manila, Philippines

Authors: Pierre Angelo Alino, Rafael Alejandro Ang, Maria Carmela Espanol, Dominic Gerard Ferreol, Jendrietch Adrian Lopez

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the differences in perception between Generation X and Generation Z towards mental health and mental health illnesses. Through this study, the researchers seek to identify and explore the differences that exist in the generational perception and determine the possible factors that influence the difference in perception. In order to achieve this, we conducted two focus group discussions (FGD), one composed of Generation X and the other composed of Generation Z. Participants for both focus group discussions were recruited through purposive sampling and online recruitment methods. In these discussions, they were asked questions relating to their personal history, experiences with mental health, and related illnesses, as well as their opinions regarding the subject matter. Afterwhich, we analyzed our data through a thematic analysis. Our study’s findings indicate notable differences in the perception of mental health as well as mental illness between the members of Generations X and Z. Additionally, factors such as culture, personal history, and intimate relationships influence the perceptions of mental health between generation groups.

Keywords: generational difference, mental health, mental health illness, perception

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