Search results for: steviol glycosides
78 Isolation, Identification and Characterization of the Bacteria and Yeast from the Fermented Stevia Extract
Authors: Asato Takaishi, Masashi Nasuhara, Ayuko Itsuki, Kenichi Suga
Abstract:Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a composite plant native to Paraguay. Stevia sweetener is derived from a hot water extract of Stevia (Stevia extract), which has some effects such as histamine decomposition, antioxidative effect, and blood sugar level-lowering function. The steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract are considered to contribute to these effects. In addition, these effects increase by the fermentation. However, it takes a long time for fermentation of Stevia extract and the fermentation liquid sometimes decays during the fermentation process because natural fermentation method is used. The aim of this study is to perform the fermentation of Stevia extract in a shorter period, and to produce the fermentation liquid in stable quality. From the natural fermentation liquid of Stevia extract, the four strains of useful (good taste) microorganisms were isolated using dilution plate count method and some properties were determined. The base sequences of 16S rDNA and 28S rDNA revealed three bacteria (two Lactobacillus sp. and Microbacterium sp.) and one yeast (Issatchenkia sp.). This result has corresponded that several kinds of lactic bacterium such as Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus buchneri were isolated from Stevia leaves. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometory (LC/MS/MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine the contents of steviol glycosides and neutral sugars. When these strains were cultured in the sterile Stevia extract, the steviol and stevioside were increased in the fermented Stevia extract. So, it was suggested that the rebaudioside A and the mixture of steviol glycosides in the Stevia extract were decomposed into stevioside and steviol by microbial metabolism.
Keywords: fermentation, lactobacillus, Stevia, steviol glycosides, yeastProcedia PDF Downloads 459
77 Optimization of Sucrose Concentration, PH Level and Inoculum Size for Callus Proliferation and Anti-bacterial Potential of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni
Authors: Inayat Ur Rahman Arshad
Abstract:Stevia rebaudiana B. is a shrubby perennial herb of Asteraceae family that possesses the unique ability of accumulative non caloric sweet Steviol Glycosides (SGs). The purpose of the study is to optimize sugar concentration, pH level and inoculum size for inducing the callus with optimum growth and efficient antibacterial potential. Three different experiments were conducted in which Callus explant from three-months-old already established callus of Stevia reabudiana of four different sizes were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with five different sucrose concentration and pH adjusted at four different levels. Maximum callus induction 100, 87.5 and 85.33% was resulted in the medium supplemented with 30g/l sucrose, pH maintained at 5.5 and inoculated with 1.25g inoculum respectively. Similarly, the highest fresh weight 65.00, 75.50 and 50.53g/l were noted in medium fortified with 40g/l sucrose, inoculated 1.25g inoculum and 6.0 pH level respectively. However, the callus developed in medium containing 50g/l sucrose found highly antibacterial potent with 27.3 and 26.5mm inhibition zone against P. vulgaris and B. subtilize respectively. Similarly, the callus grown on medium inoculated with 1.00g inoculum resulted in maximum antibacterial potential against S. aureus and P. vulgaris with 25 and 23.72mm inhibition zones respectively. However, in the case of pH levels the medium maintained at 6.5pH showed maximum antibacterial activity against P. vulgaris, B.subtilis and E.coli with 27.9, 25 and 23.72mm respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of Stevia callus and leaves did not show antibacterial potential against Xanthomonas campestris and Clavebactor michiganensis. In the entire experiment the standard antibacterial agent Streptomycin showed the highest inhibition zones from the rest of the callus extract, however the pure DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) caused no inhibitory zone against any bacteria. From these findings it is concluded that among various levels sucrose at the rate of 40g L-1, pH 6.0 and inoculums 0.75g was found best for most of the growth and quality attributes including fresh weight, dry weight and antibacterial activities and therefore can be recommended for callus proliferation and antibacterial potential of Stevia rebaudiana
Keywords: Steviol Glycosides, Skoog, Murashige, Clavebactor michiganensisProcedia PDF Downloads 31
76 Optimization of Sucrose Concentration, pH Level and Inoculum Size for Callus Proliferation and Anti-Bacterial Potential of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni
Authors: Inayat Ur Rahman Arshad
Abstract:Background: Stevia rebaudiana B. is a shrubby perennial herb of Asteraceae family that possesses the unique ability of accumulative non-caloric sweet steviol glycosides (SGs). Purpose: The purpose of the study is to optimize sugar concentration, pH level, and inoculum size for inducing the callus with optimum growth and efficient antibacterial potential. Method: Three different experiments were conducted in which Callus explant from three-months-old already established callus of Stevia reabudiana of four different sizes was inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with five different sucrose concentration and pH adjusted at four different levels. Results: Maximum callus induction 100, 87.5, and 85.33% resulted in the medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose, pH maintained at 5.5, and inoculated with 1.25g inoculum, respectively. Similarly, the highest fresh weights 65.00, 75.50, and 50.53 g/l were noted in a medium fortified with 40 g/l sucrose, inoculated 1.25g inoculum, and 6.0 pH level, respectively. However, the callus developed in a medium containing 50 g/l sucrose was found to be highly antibacterial potent with 27.3 and 26.5 mm inhibition zone against P. vulgaris and B. subtilis, respectively. Similarly, the callus grown on a medium inoculated with 1.00 g inoculum resulted in maximum antibacterial potential against S. aureus and P. vulgaris with 25 and 23.72 mm inhibition zone, respectively. However, in the case of pH levels, the medium maintained at 6.5 pH showed maximum antibacterial activity against P. vulgaris, B.subtilis, and E.coli with 27.9, 25, and 23.72 mm, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of Stevia callus and leaves did not show antibacterial potential against Xanthomonas campestris and Clavebactor michiganensis. In the entire experiment, the standard antibacterial agent Streptomycin showed the highest inhibition zones among the rest of the callus extract; however, the pure dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) caused no inhibitory zone against any bacteria. Conclusion: From these findings, it is concluded that among various levels, sucrose @ 40 g L⁻¹, pH 6.0, and inoculums at 0.75 g were found best for most of the growth and quality attributes, including fresh weight, dry weight, and antibacterial activities and therefore can be recommended for callus proliferation and antibacterial potential of Stevia rebaudiana.
Keywords: Stevia rebaudiana, Steviol Glycosides, callus, Xanthomonas campestrisProcedia PDF Downloads 24
75 Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and Biological Evaluation of Acetylated Flavonoid Glycosides from Centaurium spicatum
Authors: Abdelaaty A. Shahat, Mansour S. Alsaid
Abstract:Four Acetylated ﬂavonol glycosides were isolated from Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch (Gentianaceae). Structure elucidation, especially the localization of the acetyl groups, and complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of these biologically active compounds were carried out using one- and two-dimensional NMR methods, including CNMR, DEPT-135 and DEPT-90 and gradient-assisted experiments such as DQF-COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments. The antioxidant activities of the new acetylated flavonoid glycosides using DPPH• assay were determined. The compounds tested showed a good DPPH• activity compared with control, but their activity was lower than that of their corresponding aglycone, quercetin.
Keywords: Centaurium spicatum, flavonoids, biological activity, isolation, glycosidesProcedia PDF Downloads 349
74 Spontaneous Dispersion of Solubilized Resveratrol in Packets for Making Functional Beverages
Authors: Zhijun Liu
Abstract:Resveratrol is a functional ingredient found in grape skins that is shown capable of improving metabolic syndrome, slowing aging, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and many others. However, resveratrol is limited in water solubility. This presents a problem for spontaneous dispersion in beverages and an insufficient solubility for adequate absorption in the gastrointestinal environment. Using a food ingredient found in stevia leaves, solubility enhancement of resveratrol was attempted by a shake-bottle method. A direct interaction between resveratrol and steviol glycosides (SG) was employed to allow the formation of aggregates. The solubility of resveratrol was determined by HPLC and the size of the aggregates measured in a particle size analyzer. The solubilized, free-flowing resveratrol powder was then poured into a glass of water to make a beverage. The clarity of the beverage, the particle size, and concentration of resveratrol was measured over a period of two hours. Free resveratrol was soluble in water at approximately 30 µg/mL but increased to 133-fold by SG. The beverage remained clear and transparent for at least two hours. Particles were found uniformly throughout the beverage. It is concluded that the functional resveratrol can be delivered in a soluble beverage form and remain soluble for at least two hours, which may provide up to a two-hour absorption window towards improved bioavailability.
Keywords: delivery, food ingredients, gastrointestinal absorption, solubility enhancementProcedia PDF Downloads 16
73 Biomass Enhancement of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) Shoot Culture in Temporary Immersion System (TIS) RITA® Bioreactor Optimized in Two Different Immersion Periods
Authors: Agustine Melviana, Rizkita Esyanti
Abstract:Stevia plant contains steviol glycosides which is estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sucrose. However in Indonesia, conventional (in vivo) propagation of Stevia rebaudiana was not effective due to a poor result. Therefore, alternative methods to propagate S. rebaudiana plants is needed, one of it is using in vitro method. Multiplication with a large quantity of stevia biomass in relatively short period can be conducted by using TIS RITA® (Recipient for Automated Temporary Immersion System). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of immersion period of the medium on growth and the medium bioconversion into the production of shoot biomass. The study was conducted to determine the effect of different intensity period of medium to enhance biomass of stevia shoots. Shoot culture of S. rebaudiana was grown in full strength MS medium supplemented with 1 ppm Kinetin. RITA® bioreactors were set up with two different immersion periods, 15 min (RITA® 15) and 30 min (RITA® 30), scheduled every 6 hours and incubated for 21 days. The result indicated that immersion period affected the biomass and growth rate (µ). Thirty-minutes immersion showed greater percentage of shoot multiplication (93.44 ± 0.83%), percentage of leaf growth (85.24 ± 5.99%), growth rate (0.042 ± 0.001 g/day), and productivity (0.066 g/L medium/day) compared to that immersed in RITA® 15 min (76.90 ± 4.85%; 79.73 ± 7.76; 0.045 ± 0.004 g/day, and 0.045 g/L medium/day respectively). Enhancement of biomass in RITA® 30 reached 1,702 ± 0,114 gr, whereas in RITA® 15 only 0,953 ± 0,093 gr. Additionally, the pattern of sucrose, mineral, and inorganic compounds consumption followed the growth of plant biomass for both systems. In conclusion, the bioconversion efficiency from medium to biomass in RITA® 30 is better than RITA® 15.
Keywords: intensity period, shoot culture, Stevia rebaudiana, TIS RITA®Procedia PDF Downloads 198
72 Chemical Constituents of Silene Arenarioides Desf
Authors: Haba Hamada, Lavaud Cathrine, Benkhaled Mohammed
Abstract:The Silene genus is the most representative of the caryophyllaceae family for their rich content in secondary metabolites; saponins, flavonoids and flavonoids glycosides, phytoecdysones, oligosaccharides have been isolated and identified. The Silene genus represented by about 700 species in the temrerate region of the word, the main concentration of spcies is Europe, Asia and North Africa. Three known compounds 1-3 were isolated from the aerial parts of Silene arenarioides Desf. by using different chromatographic methods. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined as stigmasterolglycoside, Soyacerebroside, maltol glycoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by using the NMR (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) techniques and mass spectroscopy. The antimicrobial and antioxydant activities of the different extracts and compound have been reported.
Keywords: caryophyllaceae, flavonoids, saponosids, flavonoids glycosidesProcedia PDF Downloads 349
71 Simultaneous Extraction and Estimation of Steroidal Glycosides and Aglycone of Solanum
Authors: Karishma Chester, Sarvesh Paliwal, Sayeed Ahmad
Abstract:Solanumnigrum L. (Family: Solanaceae), is an important Indian medicinal plant and have been used in various traditional formulations for hepato-protection. It has been reported to contain significant amount of steroidal glycosides such as solamargine and solasonine as well as their aglycone part solasodine. Being important pharmacologically active metabolites of several members of Solanaceae these markers have been attempted various times for their extraction and quantification but separately for glycoside and aglycone part because of their opposite polarity. Here, we propose for the first time simultaneous extraction and quantification of aglycone (solasodine)and glycosides (solamargine and solasonine) inleaves and berries of S.nigrumusing solvent extraction followed by HPTLC analysis. Simultaneous extraction was carried out by sonication in mixture of chloroform and methanol as solvent. The quantification was done using silica gel 60F254HPTLC plates as stationary phase and chloroform: methanol: acetone: 0.5 % ammonia (7: 2.5: 1: 0.4 v/v/v/v) as mobile phaseat 400 nm, after derivatization with an isaldehydesul furic acid reagent. The method was validated as per ICH guideline for calibration, linearity, precision, recovery, robustness, specificity, LOD, and LOQ. The statistical data obtained for validation showed that method can be used routinely for quality control of various solanaceous drugs reported for these markers as well as traditional formulations containing those plants as an ingredient.
Keywords: solanumnigrum, solasodine, solamargine, solasonine, quantificationProcedia PDF Downloads 271
70 Stereoselective Glycosylation and Functionalization of Unbiased Site of Sweet System via Dual-Catalytic Transition Metal Systems/Wittig Reaction
Authors: Mukul R. Gupta, Rajkumar Gandhi, Rajitha Sachan, Naveen K. Khare
Abstract:The field of glycoscience has burgeoned in the last several decades, leading to the identification of many glycosides which could serve critical roles in a wide range of biological processes. This has prompted a resurgence in synthetic interest, with a particular focus on new approaches to construct the selective glycosidic bond. Despite the numerous elegant strategies and methods developed for the formation of glycosidic bonds, stereoselective construction of glycosides remains challenging. Here, we have recently developed the novel Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) catalyzed stereoselective glycosylation methods by using KDN imidate glycosyl donor and a variety of alcohols in excellent yield. This method is broadly applicable to a wide range of substrates and with excellent selectivity of glycoside. Also, herein we are reporting the functionalization of the unbiased side of newly formed glycosides by dual-catalytic transition metal systems (Ru- or Fe-). We are using the innovative Reverse & Catalyst strategy, i.e., a reversible activation reaction by one catalyst with a functionalization reaction by another catalyst, together with enabling functionalization of substrates at their inherently unreactive sites. As well, we are targeting the diSia derivative synthesis by Wittig reaction. This synthetic method is applicable in mild conditions, functional group tolerance of the dual-catalytic systems and also highlights the potential of the multicatalytic approach to address challenging transformations to avoid multistep procedures in carbohydrate synthesis.
Keywords: KDN, stereoselective glycosylation, dual-catalytic functionalization, Wittig reactionProcedia PDF Downloads 115
69 Nagami Kumkuat: A Source of Antiviral and Antimicrobial Bioactive Compounds
Authors: Howaida I. Abd-Alla, Nagwa M. M. Shalaby
Abstract:The fruit rind of Fortunella margarita (Nagami Kumkuat) was investigated for its chemical constituents. Thirteen metabolites were obtained and classified into, a sterol; β-sitosterol (1) and twelve phenolic compounds, three coumarins; xanthotoxin (2), isopimpinellin (3), umbelliferone (4), nine flavonoids of O-glycosides of flavone; apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), apigenin-7-O-rhamnoglucoside (rhoifolin) (6), C-glycosides; vitexin (7), vicenin II (8), and the methoxylated; 6-methoxyapigenin-7-methyl ether (9) and tangeretin (10) as well as flavanones class; naringenin (11), liquiritigenin (12), hesperdin (hesperetin-7-rhamnoglucoside) (13). All compounds were identified for the first time in F. margarita except compound (8). The major glycosides 5, 6, and 13 and total crude extract showed potential antiviral activity against live Newcastle disease virus vaccine strains (Komarov and LaSota) and live infectious bursitis viruses vaccine strain D78 replication in VERO cell cultures and on specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs. Antiviral inhibitory concentration fifty (IC50), cytotoxic concentration fifty (CC50), and therapeutic index (TI) were calculated. In addition, the extract and compounds 7 and 13 showed marked antimicrobial activity against different strains of fungi, Gram-positive and negative bacteria, including some foodborne pathogens of animal origin, caused human disease. These results suggested that the extract of F. margarita may be considered potentially useful as a source of natural antiviral and antimicrobial agents. It can be used as an ingredient for functional food and/or pharmaceuticals.
Keywords: antimicrobial, antiviral, Fortunella margarita, Nagami Kumkuat, phenolic secondary metabolitesProcedia PDF Downloads 124
68 Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Wild Herb Urginea wightii
Authors: S. K. Hemalata, M. N. Shiva Kameshwari
Abstract:The present work focusses on anti-inflammatory action of Urginea wightii in-vitro. Urginea wightii is a member of Hyacinthaceae and considered to be wonder plant because of its varied important medicinal properties. The plant is endemic to India, Africa, and Mediterranian regions. Presence of alkaloids, flavonoid-glycosides especially flavonone derivatives are responsible for the strong anti-inflammatory activity of Urginea wightii. In present research work, anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of the bulb powder was tested on Male Wistar Rats. In these test animals, inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan as the irritant to induce paw edema in Wistar rats. Inflammation of Paw edema was treated with both plant extract and Pyrox gel a known synthetic anti-inflammatory drug through external application. The result indicated that anti-inflammatory activity of Urginea wightii extract was almost similar to the synthetic Pyrox gel. This disproves the modern world's scepticism towards the herbal medicines and encourages to rely on natural plant extracts.
Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity, flavonoid-glycosides, Pyrox gel, Urginia wightiiProcedia PDF Downloads 107
67 Preliminary Phytopharmacological Evaluation of Methanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Selected Vegetables of Bangladesh
Authors: A. Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin, B. Sheikh Mohammad Adil Uddin, C. Md Mamunur Rashid, D. Sheikh Arman Mahbub, E. Mohammad Sazzad Rahman, F. Abdullah Faruque
Abstract:The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of methanol and pet ether extracts of the Lagenaria siceraria (LM, LP), Cucumis sativus (CSM, CSP), Cucurbita maxima (CMM, CMP) plants. For the phytochemical screening, crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups. In Lagenaria siceraria the following groups were identified: alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and saponins for methanol extract and alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, tannins and saponins are for pet ether extract. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in the methanol extract of Cucumis sativus; the pet ether extract has the alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in both the methanolic and pet ether extract of Cucurbita maxima. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were performed using DPPH radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity assays. The most prominent antioxidant activity was observed with the CSM in the DPPH free radical scavenging test with an IC50 value of 1667.23±11.00271 μg/ml as opposed to that of standard ascorbic acid (IC50 value of 15.707± 1.181 μg/ml.) In total antioxidant capacity method, CMP showed the highest activity (427.81±11.4 mg ascorbic acid/g). The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. The highest total phenols and total flavonoids content were found in CMM and LP with the value of 79.06±16.06 mg gallic acid/g & 119.0±1.41 mg quercetin/g, respectively. In nitric oxide (NO) scavenging the most prominent antioxidant activity was observed in CMM with an IC50 value of 8.119± 0.0036 μg/ml. The Cupric reducing capacity of the extracts was strong and dose dependent manner and CSM showed lowest reducing capacity. The cytotoxicity was determined by Brine shrimp lethality test and among these extracts most potent cytotoxicity was shown by CMM with LC50 value 16.98 µg/ml. The obtained results indicate that the investigated plants could be potential sources of natural antioxidants and can be used for various types of diseases.
Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, methanol, petroleum etherProcedia PDF Downloads 502
66 HPTLC Fingerprinting of steroidal glycoside of leaves and berries of Solanum nigrum L. (Inab-us-salab/makoh)
Authors: Karishma Chester, Sarvesh K. Paliwal, Sayeed Ahmad
Abstract:Inab-us-salab also known as Solanum nigrum L. (Family: Solanaceae), is an important Indian medicinal plant and have been used in various unani traditional formulations for hepato-protection. It has been reported to contain significant amount of steroidal glycosides such as solamargine and solasonine as well as their aglycone part solasodine. Being important pharmacologically active metabolites of several members of solanaceae, these markers have been attempted various times for their extraction and quantification but separately for glycoside and aglycone part because of their opposite polarity. Here, we propose for the first time its fractionation and fingerprinting of aglycone (solasodine) and glycosides (solamargine and solasonine) in leaves and berries of S. nigrum using solvent extraction and fractionation followed by HPTLC analysis. The fingerprinting was done using silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates as stationary phase and chloroform: methanol: acetone: 0.5% ammonia (7: 2.5: 1: 0.4 v/v/v/v) as mobile phase at 400 nm, after derivatization with antimony tri chloride reagent for identification of steroidal glycoside. The statistical data obtained can further be validated and can be used routinely for quality control of various solanaceous drugs reported for these markers as well as traditional formulations containing those plants as an ingredient.
Keywords: solanum nigrum, solasodine, solamargine, solasonine, quantificationProcedia PDF Downloads 333
65 Implementation of Metabolomics in Conjunction with Chemometrics for the Dentification of the Differential Chemical Markers of Different Grades of Sri Lankan White, Green and Black Tea: Camellia Sinenesis L.
Authors: Dina A. Selim, Eman Shawky, Rasha M. Abu El-Khair
Abstract:In the current study, UPLC-MS/MS combined to chemometrics were applied on seven Sri Lankan tea grades; Orange Pekoe, Flowery Pekoe, Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings, Broken Orange Pekoe black tea, green tea, silver tips and golden tips white tea grades for their comprehensive metabolic profiling. Certain metabolites, namely, Theasensinin C and E, theaflavin and theacitrin appeared to be the main chemical markers of black tea type, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, methyl epigallocatechin were the main discriminatory markers of green tea type, while theanine, oolongotheanine and quercetin glycosides were the main chemical markers of white tea type. Theogalloflavin, epigallocatechin and flavonoid glycosides were the main down-accumulated metabolites while theaflavin gallate, and N-ethyl pyrrolidinone epicatechin were the chief up- accumulated metabolites between whole and broken black tea leave grades while puerin A and C and gallic acid was the main down- accumulated metabolites and N-ethyl pyrrolidinone epicatechin gallate was the main up-accumulated one between broken and fanning black tea grades.
Keywords: tea grading, Sri Lankan tea, chemometrics, metabolomics, chemical markersProcedia PDF Downloads 64
64 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts
Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid
Abstract:Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.
Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extractProcedia PDF Downloads 267
63 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds
Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai
Abstract:Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.
Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extractProcedia PDF Downloads 479
62 Isoflavonoid Dynamic Variation in Red Clover Genotypes
Authors: Andrés Quiroz, Emilio Hormazábal, Ana Mutis, Fernando Ortega, Loreto Méndez, Leonardo Parra
Abstract:Red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the main insect pest associated to red clover, Trifolium pratense L. An average of 1.5 H. obscurus per plant can cause 5.5% reduction in forage yield in pastures of two to three years old. Moreover, insect attack can reach 70% to 100% of the plants. To our knowledge, there is no a chemical strategy for controlling this pest. Therefore alternative strategies for controlling H. obscurus are a high priority for red clover producers. One of this alternative is related to the study of secondary metabolites involved in intrinsic chemical defenses developed by plants, such as isoflavonoids. The isoflavonoids formononetin and daidzein have elicited an antifeedant and phagostimult effect on H. obscurus respectively. However, we do not know how is the dynamic variation of these isoflavonoids under field conditions. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the variation of the antifeedant isoflavonoids formononetin, the phagostimulant isoflavonoids daidzein, and their respective glycosides over time in different ecotypes of red clover. Fourteen red clover ecotypes (8 cultivars and 6 experimental lines), were collected at INIA-Carillanca (La Araucanía, Chile). These plants were established in October 2015 under irrigated conditions. The cultivars were distributed in a randomized complete block with three replicates. The whole plants were sampled in four times: 15th October 2016, 12th December 2016, 27th January 2017 and 16th March 2017 with sufficient amount of soil to avoid root damage. A polar fraction of isoflavonoid was obtained from 20 mg of lyophilized root tissue extracted with 2 mL of 80% MeOH for 16 h using an orbital shaker in the dark at room temperature. After, an aliquot of 1.4 mL of the supernatant was evaporated, and the residue was resuspended in 300 µL of 45% MeOH. The identification and quantification of isoflavonoid root extracts were performed by the injection of 20 µL into a Shimadzu HPLC equipped with a C-18 column. The sample was eluted with a mobile phase composed of AcOH: H₂O (1:9 v/v) as solvent A and CH₃CN as solvent B. The detection was performed at 260 nm. The results showed that the amount of aglycones was higher than the respective glycosides. This result is according to the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids, where the formation of glycoside is further to the glycosides biosynthesis. The amount of formononetin was higher than daidzein. In roots, where H. obscurus spent the most part of its live cycle, the highest content of formononetin was found in G 27, Pawera, Sabtoron High, Redqueli-INIA and Superqueli-INIA cvs. (2.1, 1.8, 1.8, 1.6 and 1.0 mg g⁻¹ respectively); and the lowest amount of daidzein were found Superqueli-INIA (0.32 mg g⁻¹) and in the experimental line Sel Syn Int4 (0.24 mg g⁻¹). This ecotype showed a high content of formononetin (0.9 mg g⁻¹). This information, associated with cultural practices, could help farmers and breeders to reduce H. obscurus in grassland, selecting ecotypes with high content of formononetin and low amount of daidzein in the roots of red clover plants. Acknowledgements: FONDECYT 1141245 and 11130715.
Keywords: daidzein, formononetin, isoflavonoid glycosides, trifolium pratenseProcedia PDF Downloads 154
61 Effect of Salinity and Heavy Metal Toxicity on Gene Expression, and Morphological Characteristics in Stevia rebaudiana Plants
Authors: Umara Nissar Rafiqi, Irum Gul, Nazima Nasrullah, Monica Saifi, Malik Z. Abdin
Abstract:Background: Stevia rebaudiana, a member of Asteraceae family is an important medicinal plant and produces a commercially used non-caloric natural sweetener, which is also an alternate herbal cure for diabetes. Steviol glycosides are the main sweetening compounds present in these plants. Secondary metabolites are crucial to the adaption of plants to the environment and its overcoming stress conditions. In agricultural procedures, the abiotic stresses like salinity, high metal toxicity and drought, in particular, are responsible for the majority of the reduction that differentiates yield potential from harvestable yield. Salt stress and heavy metal toxicity lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To avoid oxidative damage due to ROS and osmotic stress, plants have a system of anti-oxidant enzymes along with several stress induced enzymes. This helps in scavenging the ROS and relieve the osmotic stress in different cell compartments. However, whether stress induced toxicity modulates the activity of these enzymes in Stevia rebaudiana is poorly understood. Aim: The present study focussed on the effect of salinity, heavy metal toxicity (lead and mercury) on physiological traits and transcriptional profiling of Stevia rebaudiana. Method: Stevia rebaudiana plants were collected from the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic plants (CIMAP), Patnagar, India and maintained under controlled conditions in a greenhouse at Hamdard University, Delhi, India. The plants were subjected to different concentrations of salt (0, 25, 50 and 75 mM respectively) and heavy metals, lead and mercury (0, 100, 200 and 300 µM respectively). The physiological traits such as shoot length, root numbers, leaf growth were evaluated. The samples were collected at different developmental stages and analysed for transcription profiling by RT-PCR. Transcriptional studies in stevia rebaudiana involves important antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) and stress induced aquaporin (AQU), auxin repressed protein (ARP-1), Ndhc gene. The data was analysed using GraphPad Prism and expressed as mean ± SD. Result: Low salinity and lower metal toxicity did not affect the fresh weight of the plant. However, this was substantially decreased by 55% at high salinity and heavy metal treatment. With increasing salinity and heavy metal toxicity, the values of all studied physiological traits were significantly decreased. Chlorosis in treated plants was also observed which could be due to changes in Fe:Zn ratio. At low concentrations (upto 25 mM) of NaCl and heavy metals, we did not observe any significant difference in the gene expressions of treated plants compared to control plants. Interestingly, at high salt concentration and high metal toxicity, a significant increase in the expression profile of stress induced genes was observed in treated plants compared to control (p < 0.005). Conclusion: Stevia rebaudiana is tolerant to lower salt and heavy metal concentration. This study also suggests that with the increase in concentrations of salt and heavy metals, harvest yield of S. rebaudiana was hampered.
Keywords: Stevia rebaudiana, natural sweetener, salinity, heavy metal toxicityProcedia PDF Downloads 140
60 Nutritional Characteristics, Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Potential of Leaf Protein Concentrates from Huckleberry
Authors: Sodamade Abiodun, Adeboye Olubunmi Omolara
Abstract:Problems associated with protein malnutrition are still prevalent in third-world countries, leading to the constant search for plants that can serve as nutrients and medicinal purposes. Huckleberry is one of the plants that has been proven useful locally in the treatment of numerous ailments and diseases. A fresh sample of Huckleberry was collected from a vegetable garden situated near the Erelu dam of the Emmanuel Alayande College of Education campus, Oyo. The sample was authenticated at the forestry research institute of Nigeria (FRIN) Ibadan. The leaves of the plant were plucked and processed for leaf protein concentrates before proximate composition; mineral analysis phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of the leaf protein concentrates were determined using a standard method of analysis. The results of proximate constituents showed; moisture content; 9.89±0.051g/100g, Ash; 3.23±0.12g/100g, crude fat; 3.96±0.11g/100g and 61.27±0.56g/100g of Nitrogen free extractive results of the mineral analysis showed that the sample contains Mg; 0.081±0.00mg/100g, Ca; 42.30±0.05mg/100g, Na; 27.57±0.09mg/100g, K; 6.81±0.01mg/100g, P; 8.90±0.03mg/100g Fe; 0.51±0.00mg/100g, Zn; 0.021±0.00mg/100g, Cd; 0.04±0.04mg/100g, Pb; 0.002±0.00mg/100g, Cr; 0.041±0.00mg/100g while cadmium was not detected in the sample. The result of phytochemical analysis of leaf protein concentrates of the Huckleberry showed the presence of Alkaloid, Saponin, Flavonoid, Tanin, Coumarin, steroid, Terpenoid, cordial glycosides, Glycosides, Quinones, Anthocyanin, phytosterols, and phenols. Ethanolic extracts of the Huckleberry leaf protein concentrates showed that it contains bioactive compounds that are capable of eradicating some tested microorganisms; Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebisidlae pneumonia and Proteus merabilis. The results of the analysis of leaf protein concentrates of Huckleberry showed that the sample contains high nutrient and mineral constituents and phytochemical compounds that could make the sample useful for medicinal activities.
Keywords: huckleberry, mentha piperita, phytochemical, leaf protein concentrates, nutritional characteristicsProcedia PDF Downloads 13
59 Phytochemical and in vitro Antimicrobial Screening of Extract of Sunflower Chrysanthlum indicum
Authors: I. Ibrahim, A. Mann
Abstract:Phytochemical screening of crude Chrysanthlum Indicum revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkanoids, steroidal nucleus and cardiac glycosides. The extract was evaluated against some pathogenic organisms by agar dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of the active extract of Chrysanthlum Indicum shows that its extract could be a potential source of antimicrobial agents.
Keywords: extract, phytochemicals, antimicrobial, antibacterial, Chrysanthlum indicumProcedia PDF Downloads 485
58 Phenolic Rich Dry Extracts and Their Antioxidant Activity
Authors: R. Raudonis, L. Raudonė, V. Janulis, P. Viškelis
Abstract:Pharmacological and clinical studies demonstrated that phenolic compounds particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids are responsible for a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are regarded as natural antioxidants that play an important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Qualitatively prepared dry extracts possess high stability and concentration of bio active compounds, facility of standardization and quality control. The aim of this work was to determine the phenolic and antioxidant profiles of Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Betula pendula Roth., Tilia cordata Mill., Sorbus aucuparia L. leaves dry extracts and to identify markers of antioxidant activity. Extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with FRAP post-column assay. Dry extracts are versatile forms possessing wide area of applications, final product ensure consistent phytochemical and functional properties. Seven ﬂavonoids: rutin, hyperoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin were identiﬁed in dry extract of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. leaves. Predominant compounds were ﬂavonol glycosides which were chosen as markers for quantitative control of dry extracts. Chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, isorhamnetin were prevailing compounds in Betula pendula Roth. leaves extract, whereas strongest ferric reducing activity was determined for chlorogenic acid and hyperoside. Notable amounts of protocatechuic acid and flavonol glycosides, rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, isoquercitrin were identified in the chromatographic profile of Tilia cordata Mill. Neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids were significantly dominant compounds in antioxidant profile in dry extract of Sorbus aucuparia L. leaves. Predominant compounds of antioxidant profiles could be proposed as functional markers of quality of phenolic rich raw materials. Dry extracts could be further used for manufacturing of pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals.
Keywords: dry extract, FRAP, antioxidant activity, phenolicProcedia PDF Downloads 439
57 Extraction, Isolation and Comparative Phtochemical Study of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis and Fenugreek
Authors: Nitin Rajan, Kashif Shakeel, Shashank Tiwari, Shachan Sagar
Abstract:Background: - Aegle Marmelos (Bael) leaf extract is taken twice daily to treat ophthalmia, ulcers, and intestinal worms, among other ailments. Poultice made from bael leaf is used in the treatment of eye conditions. The leaf juice has a variety of therapeutic applications, with the most notable being the treatment of diabetes. Fenugreek is used to cure red spots around the eyes, as well as to soften the throat and chest and to give relief from coughing. The use of this plant in the form of infusion, powder, pomade, and decoction has been extremely popular in Iranian traditional medicine. The plant may be used to wash one's vaginal linings. This plant is used as an emollient in the lack of appetite, treatment of pellagra, and gastrointestinal problems, as well as a general tonic. Calendula officinalis leaves are used to treat varicose veins on the outside of the body by infusing them. In Europe, the leaves are diaphoretic and resolvent in nature, while the blooms are employed as an emmenagogue and antispasmodic stimulant in Canada and the United States. The flowers were decocted and served as a posset drink when smallpox and measles were common in England, and the fresh juice was used to treat jaundice. Objective: - This study is done to compare the physicochemical parameter of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek. Materials and Methods: Extraction and Isolation of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, were done. Preliminary phytochemical study for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids of the extract was done individual by using the standard procedure. Result: - The phytochemical screening of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins gum. Conclusion: - In this study, we have found that crude aqueous and organic solvent extracts of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek leaves contain some important bioactive compounds and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases.
Keywords: Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, physiochemical parameterProcedia PDF Downloads 89
56 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Rats
Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam
Abstract:Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50, oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.
Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals and stem barkProcedia PDF Downloads 364
55 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Albino Rats
Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam
Abstract:Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50,oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.
Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals, stem bark extractProcedia PDF Downloads 350
54 Phytochemical Screening of Roots of Peltophorum pterocarpum
Authors: Vidyadhar Suram, D. Chamundeeswari, Umamaheswara Rao, Krishna Mohan Chinnala
Abstract:Peltophorum pterocarpum known as copper pod belongs to the family Fabaceae, native to tropical south-eastern asia and a popularly ornamental tree grown around the world. In traditional medicine it is used as an astringent to cure or relieve intestinal disorders after pain at childbirth, sprains, bruises and swelling or as a lotion for eye troubles, muscular pains and sores. It is also used for gargles and tooth powders. Medcinally; it has proven to possess various pharmacological activities. The powdered root part of Peltophorum pterocarpum (250gr) were extracted exhaustively using different solvents and phytochemical investigations has shown the presence of various secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, saponins, proteins, glycosides, steriods, and volatile.
Keywords: antibacterialactivity, fabaceae, peltophorum pterocarpum, isocoumari, alkaloidsProcedia PDF Downloads 281
53 Phytochimical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Solenostemma Argel (Asclepiadaceae)
Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Akila Hamichi, Siham Semmar
Abstract:The crude ethanolic extract from Solenostemma argel was obtained by maceration of leaves and stems of the plant. Phytochimical study revealed the richness of the species on flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and glycosides. Antimicrobial activity of the growth of clinical isolates of Eschirichia coli, Pseudomonas aeriginosa, Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus Subtilis was carried out using agar disc diffusion. The results of the study revealed that the test compound has antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria which are resistant to commonly antimicrobial agents used. However, no effect was observed on other species tested.
Keywords: Solenostemma argel, crude extract, phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activityProcedia PDF Downloads 302
52 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Microbial and Mineral Determination of Stachtarpheta indica Extract
Authors: Ibrahim Isah Lakan, Nasiru Ibrahim
Abstract:These Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activities and mineral Determination of aqueous extract of Stachtarpheta indica were assessed. The result reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and anthraquinones. The disc diffusion of aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli, 13 and antibiotic, 19 mm; Bacillus subtilis, 10 and anti –biotic, 17 mm; Klebsiller pnemuoniae , 14 and antibiotic, 24mm and Pseudmonas aeruginosa, 24 and antibiotic, 36 mm which are all comparable with the standard antibiotic cyprotomycin. The mineral content determination by flame photometer revealed that 1.25 (Na+), 0.85 (K +), 1.75 (Ca 2+) % which is a clear indication of the safety of the extract for the hypertensive patients and could be used to lower blood pressure.
Keywords: microbials, mineral, phytochemicals, stachtarpheta indica extractsProcedia PDF Downloads 481
51 Taraxacum Officinale (Dandelion) and Its Phytochemical Approach to Malignant Diseases
Authors: Angel Champion
Abstract:Chemotherapy and radiation use an acidified approach to induce apoptosis, which only kills mature cancer cells while resulting in gene and cell damage with significant levels of toxicity in tumor-affected tissues and organs. The acid approach, where the cells exterminated are not differentiated, induces the disappearance of white blood cells from the blood. This increases susceptibility to infection in severe forms of cancer spread. However, chemotherapy and radiation cannot kill cancer stem cells that metastasize, being the leading cause of 98% of cancer fatalities. With over 12 million new cancer cases symptomatic each year, including common malignancies such as Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), this study aims to assess the bioactive constituents and phytochemical composition of Taraxacum Officinale (Dandelion). This analysis enables pharmaceutical quality and potency to be applied to studies on cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. A phytochemical screening is carried out to identify the antioxidant components of Dandelion root, stem, and flower extract. The constituents tested for are phlorotannins, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, triterpenes, and anthraquinone glycosides. To conserve the existing phenolic compounds, a portion of the constituent tests will be examined with an acid, alcohol, or aqueous solvent. As a result, the qualitative and quantitative variations within the Dandelion extract that measure uniform effective potency are vital to the conformity for producing medicinal products. These medicines will be constructed with a consistent, uniform composition that physicians can use to control and effectively eradicate malignant diseases safely. Taraxacum Officinale's phytochemical composition comprises a highly-graded potency due to present bioactive contents that will essentially drive out malignant disease within the human body. Its high potency rate is powerful enough to eliminate both mature cancer cells and cancer stem cells without the cell and gene damage induced by chemotherapy and radiation. Correspondingly, the high margins of cancer mortality on a global scale are mitigated. This remarkable contribution to modern therapeutics will essentially optimize the margins of natural products and their derivatives, which account for 50% of pharmaceuticals in modern therapeutics, while preventing the adverse effects of radiation and chemotherapy drugs.
Keywords: antioxidant, apoptosis, metastasize, phytochemical, proliferation, potencyProcedia PDF Downloads 9
50 Phytochemistry and Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activities of Rauvolfia vomitoria (Afzel) Leaves and Picralima nitida (Stapf) Seeds
Authors: Oseyemi Omowunmi Olubomehin, Olufemi Michael Denton
Abstract:Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is related to the digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats and how this affects the blood glucose levels. Various synthetic drugs employed in the management of the disease work through different mechanisms. Keeping postprandial blood glucose levels within acceptable range is a major factor in the management of type 2 diabetes and its complications. Thus, the inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase is an important strategy in lowering postprandial blood glucose levels, but synthetic inhibitors have undesirable side effects like flatulence, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders to mention a few. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and explore the α-amylase inhibitors from plants due to their availability, safety, and low costs. In the present study, extracts from the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria and seeds of Picralima nitida which are used in the Nigeria traditional system of medicine to treat diabetes were tested for their α-amylase inhibitory effect. The powdered plant samples were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. The leaves and seeds macerated successively using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol resulted in the crude extracts which at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL) alongside the standard drug acarbose, were subjected to α-amylase inhibitory assay using the Benfield and Miller methods, with slight modification. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA, SPSS version 2.0. The phytochemical screening results of the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria and the seeds of Picralima nitida showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides while in addition Rauvolfia vomitoria had phenols and Picralima nitida had terpenoids. The α-amylase assay results revealed that at 1 mg/mL the methanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Rauvolfia vomitoria gave (15.74, 23.13 and 26.36 %) α-amylase inhibitions respectively, the seeds of Picralima nitida gave (15.50, 30.68, 36.72 %) inhibitions which were not significantly different from the control at p < 0.05, while acarbose gave a significant 56 % inhibition at p < 0.05. The presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids in these plants are responsible for the observed anti-diabetic activity. However, the low percentages of α-amylase inhibition by these plant samples shows that α-amylase inhibition is not the major way by which both plants exhibit their anti-diabetic effect.
Keywords: alpha-amylase, Picralima nitida, postprandial hyperglycemia, Rauvolfia vomitoriaProcedia PDF Downloads 106
49 Stimulation of Stevioside Accumulation on Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Shoot Culture Induced with Red LED Light in TIS RITA® Bioreactor System
Authors: Vincent Alexander, Rizkita Esyanti
Abstract:Leaves of Stevia rebaudiana contain steviol glycoside which mainly comprise of stevioside, a natural sweetener compound that is 100-300 times sweeter than sucrose. Current cultivation method of Stevia rebaudiana in Indonesia has yet to reach its optimum efficiency and productivity to produce stevioside as a safe sugar substitute sweetener for people with diabetes. An alternative method that is not limited by environmental factor is in vitro temporary immersion system (TIS) culture method using recipient for automated immersion (RITA®) bioreactor. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of red LED light induction towards shoot growth and stevioside accumulation in TIS RITA® bioreactor system, as an endeavour to increase the secondary metabolite synthesis. The result showed that the stevioside accumulation in TIS RITA® bioreactor system induced with red LED light for one hour during night was higher than that in TIS RITA® bioreactor system without red LED light induction, i.e. 71.04 ± 5.36 μg/g and 42.92 ± 5.40 μg/g respectively. Biomass growth rate reached as high as 0.072 ± 0.015/day for red LED light induced TIS RITA® bioreactor system, whereas TIS RITA® bioreactor system without induction was only 0.046 ± 0.003/day. Productivity of Stevia rebaudiana shoots induced with red LED light was 0.065 g/L medium/day, whilst shoots without any induction was 0.041 g/L medium/day. Sucrose, salt, and inorganic consumption in both bioreactor media increased as biomass increased. It can be concluded that Stevia rebaudiana shoot in TIS RITA® bioreactor induced with red LED light produces biomass and accumulates higher stevioside concentration, in comparison to bioreactor without any light induction.
Keywords: LED, Stevia rebaudiana, Stevioside, TIS RITAProcedia PDF Downloads 281