Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 791

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Biotechnology and Bioengineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

791 Detection of Epinephrine in Chicken Serum at Iron Oxide Screen Print Modified Electrode

Authors: Oluwole Opeyemi Dina, Saheed E. Elugoke, Peter Olutope Fayemi, Omolola E. Fayemi


This study presents the detection of epinephrine (EP) at Fe₃O₄ modified screen printed silver electrode (SPSE). The iron oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) prior to the modification of the SPSE. The EP oxidation peak current (Iap) increased with an increase in the concentration of EP as well as the scan rate (from 25 - 400 mVs⁻¹). Using cyclic voltammetry (CV), the relationship between Iap and EP concentration was linear over a range of 3.8 -118.9 µM and 118.9-175 µM with a detection limit of 41.99 µM and 83.16 µM, respectively. Selective detection of EP in the presence of ascorbic acid was also achieved at this electrode.

Keywords: screenprint electrode, iron oxide nanoparticle, epinephrine, serum, cyclic voltametry

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790 Two- And Three-Dimensional Bacteriophage-Mediated Detection Systems For Clinically Relevant Bacteria

Authors: Silvia Würstle, Corinna Winkler, Julia Neumair, Julian Trommler, Raffaela Geier, Chris Wesch, Wanqi Huang, Li Deng, Michael Seidel


Introduction: The microbial detection rate for paucibacillary infections in body fluids can be as low as 50%, such as for infected ascites, which increases mortality due to late or ineffective antibiotic therapy. In addition, improved microbial diagnostics in fecal microbiota transplants (FMT) is essential to prevent further serious adverse events. Standard bacterial detection includes Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA); however, antibodies are expensive, unavailable for certain pathogens, and often lack specificity for bacterial subspecies. In contrast, bacteriophages (phages) can be isolated from the environment and propagated highly specifically on the target bacterial host. Aims and Methods: We aimed to replace antibody-testing systems with phage-mediated detection systems. Phage-based sandwich ELISAs were established and optimized with an adsorptive-coated phage (phage No. 1), the bacteria of interest, and an externally biotinylated phage (phage No. 2). Furthermore, our objective was to transfer the phage-based system to large volumes of protein-rich body fluids. Here, we benefited from monolithic affinity filtration (MAF) using macroporous epoxy-based polymers. Two different chemical functionalization types of the MAF surface were investigated. The filter surface and pore size of self-developed MAF filters were assessed by Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging. Filtered human stool spiked with bacteria at defined concentrations served as the matrix. Results: Here, we present a two-dimensional sandwich ELISA system based on phages for the detection of two clinically highly relevant bacteria in the absence of antibodies. Escherichia coli (ESCO) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSAE) could be both detected in stool by adsorptive phage coating on a microtiter plate, resulting in a detection threshold of 10e4 bacteria/ml for EC and 10e1/ml for PSAE. The specificity was tested with ESCO or PSAE and a corresponding phage targeting ESCO (P-value<0.001). Leaving out phage No. 1 showed a significant decrease in OD-values compared to the complete sandwich ELISA system (P- value<0.001), suggesting that phage No. 1 can be used as a specific linker. This raised the possibility of adapting the detection system to a larger volume and protein-rich body fluids by linker-based three-dimensional filtration, such as MAF. Our results demonstrate the successful detection of PSAE by using phages as affinity ligands on the monoliths. MAFs functionalized with highly reactive epoxide groups (P-value<0.001) were found to be better than MAFs functionalized with carbonyldiimidazole (P-value<0.05) when comparing the complete system to controls without bacteria. Conclusion: The phage-mediated detection system can be converted to a two- or three-dimensional mode depending on the detection requirements. Phage-mediated detection might not be suitable for all pathogens but it can improve the detection of specific pathogens of interest, or it can be extended with multiple serial MAF filters to detect a broader range of bacteria in the future. In summary, the bacterial detection methods presented here may enable more targeted antibiotic therapy against clinically-relevant pathogens and the prevention of adverse events from FMT.

Keywords: bacteriophage, ELISA, monolithic affinity filtration, phage-mediated detection

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789 Beneficiation of Pulp and Paper Mill Sludge for the Generation of Single Cell Protein for Fish Farming

Authors: Lucretia Ramnath


Fishmeal is extensively used for fish farming but is an expensive fish feed ingredient. A cheaper alternate to fishmeal is single cell protein (SCP) which can be cultivated on fermentable sugars recovered from organic waste streams such as pulp and paper mill sludge (PPMS). PPMS has a high cellulose content, thus is suitable for glucose recovery through enzymatic hydrolysis but is hampered by lignin and ash. To render PPMS amenable for enzymatic hydrolysis, the PPMS waspre-treated to produce a glucose-rich hydrolysate which served as a feed stock for the production of fungal SCP. The PPMS used in this study had the following composition: 72.77% carbohydrates, 8.6% lignin, and 18.63% ash. The pre-treatments had no significant effect on lignin composition but had a substantial effect on carbohydrate and ash content. Enzymatic hydrolysis of screened PPMS was previously optimized through response surface methodology (RSM) and 2-factorial design. The optimized protocol resulted in a hydrolysate containing 46.1 g/L of glucose, of which 86% was recovered after downstream processing by passing through a 100-mesh sieve (38 µm pore size). Vogel’s medium supplemented with 10 g/L hydrolysate successfully supported the growth of Fusarium venenatum, conducted using standard growth conditions; pH 6, 200 rpm, 2.88 g/L ammonium phosphate, 25°C. A maximum F. venenatum biomass of 45 g/L was produced with a yield coefficient of 4.67. Pulp and paper mill sludge hydrolysate contained approximately five times more glucose than what was needed for SCP production and served as a suitable carbon source. We have shown that PPMS can be successfully beneficiated for SCP production.

Keywords: pulp and paper waste, fungi, single cell protein, hydrolysate

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788 Evaluation of Immunology of Asthma Chronic Obstructive

Authors: Milad Gholizadeh


Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are very shared inflammatory diseases of the airlines. They togethercause airway tapering and are cumulative in occurrence throughout the world, imposing huge burdens on health care. It is currently recognized that some asthmatic inflammation is neutrophilic, controlled by the TH17 subset of helper T cells, and that some eosinophilic inflammation is controlled by type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) temporary together with basophils. Patients who have plain asthma or are asthmatic patients who smoke with topographies of COPD-induced inflammation and might advantage from treatments targeting neutrophils, countingmacrolides, CXCR2 antagonists, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, p38 mitogen-activating protein kinase inhibitors, and antibodies in contradiction of IL-1 and IL-17.Viral and bacterial infections, not only reason acute exacerbations of COPD, but also intensify and continue chronic inflammation in steady COPD through pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Present treatment plans are absorbed on titration of inhaled therapies such as long-acting bronchodilators, with cumulative interest in the usage of beleaguered biologic therapies meant at the underlying inflammatory devices. Educationssuggest that the mucosal IgA reply is abridged in COPD, and a lacking conveyance of IgA across the bronchial epithelium in COPD has been recognized, perhaps involving neutrophil proteinases, which may damage the Ig receptor mediating this transepithelialdirection-finding. Future instructions for investigation will emphasis elucidating the diverse inflammatory signatures foremost to asthma and chronic obstrucive, the development of reliable analytic standards and biomarkers of illness, and refining the clinical organization with an eye toward targeted therapies.

Keywords: imminology, asthma, COPD, CXCR2 antagonists

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787 Evaluation of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy

Authors: Mir Mohammad Reza Hosseini


In new years immune checkpoint inhibitors have gathered care as being one of the greatest talented kinds of immunotherapy on the prospect. There has been a specific emphasis on the immune checkpoint molecules, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). In 2011, ipilimumab, the primary antibody obstructive an immune checkpoint (CTLA4) was authorized. It is now documented that recognized tumors have many devices of overpowering the antitumor immune response, counting manufacture of repressive cytokines, staffing of immunosuppressive immune cells, and upregulation of coinhibitory receptors recognized as immune checkpoints. This was fast followed by the growth of monoclonal antibodies directing PD1 (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) and PDL1 (atezolizumab and durvalumab). Anti-PD1/PDL1 antibodies have developed some of the greatest extensively set anticancer therapies. We also compare and difference their present place in cancer therapy and designs of immune-related toxicities and deliberate the role of dual immune checkpoint inhibition and plans for the organization of immune-related opposing proceedings. In this review, the employed code and present growth of numerous immune checkpoint inhibitors are abridged, while the communicating device and new development of Immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy-based synergistic therapies with additional immunotherapy, chemotherapy, phototherapy, and radiotherapy in important and clinical educations in the historical 5 years are portrayed and tinted. Lastly, we disapprovingly measure these methods and effort to find their fortes and faintness based on pre-clinical and clinical information.

Keywords: checkpoint, cancer therapy, PD-1, PDL-1, CTLA4, immunosuppressive

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786 Evaluation of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury

Authors: Hossein Barri Ghazani


Transfusion-related acute lung injury is the main reason of transfusion-related death, and it’s assigned to white blood cell reactive antibodies present in the blood product (anti-HLA class I and class II or anti granulocyte antibodies). TRALI may occur in the COVID-19 patients who are treated by convalescent plasma. The rate of TRALI’s reactions is the same in both males and females and can happen in all age groups. TRALI’s occurrence is higher for people who receive plasma from female donors because the parous female donors have multiple HLA antibodies in their plasma. Patients with chronic liver disease have an augmented risk of transfusion-related acute lung injuries from plasma containing blood products like FFP and PRP. The condition of TRALI suddenly starts with a non‐cardiogenic pulmonary Edema, often accompanied by marked systemic hypovolemic and hypotension. The conditions occur during or within a few hours of transfusion. Chest X-ray shows a nodular penetration or bats’ wing pattern of Edema which can be seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome as well. TRALI can occur with any type of blood products and can occur with as little as one unit. The blood donor center should be informed of the suspected TRALI reactions when the symptoms of TRALI are observed. After a review of the clinical data, the donors must be screened for granulocyte and HLA antibodies. The diagnosis and management of TRALI is not simple and is best done with a professional team and a specialty skilled nurse experienced with the upkeep of these patients.

Keywords: TRALI, transfusion-related death, anti-granulocyte antibodies, anti-HLA antibodies, COVID-19

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785 Use of Corn Stover for the Production of 2G Bioethanol, Enzymes, and Xylitol Under a Biorefinery Concept

Authors: Astorga-Trejo Rebeca, Fonseca-Peralta Héctor Manuel, Beltrán-Arredondo Laura Ivonne, Castro-Martínez Claudia


The use of biomass as feedstock for the production of fuels and other chemicals of interest is an ever growing accepted option in the way to the development of Biorefinery complexes; in the Mexican state of Sinaloa, two million tons of residues from corn crops are produced every year, most of which can be converted to Bioethanol and other products through biotechnological conversion using yeast and other microorganisms. Therefore, the objective of this work was to take advantage of corn residues (corn Stover) to evaluate its potential as a substrate in the production of second generation bioethanol, enzymes (xylanases and amylases), and xylitol. For the production of 2G bioethanol, an acid-alkaline pretreatment was carried out prior to saccharification and fermentation. The microorganisms used for the production of enzymes, as well as for the production of xylitol, were isolated and characterized in our workgroup. Statistical analysis was performed using Design Expert version 11.0. The results showed that it was possible to obtain 2G Bioethanol using corn Stover as a carbon source using the yeasts isolated in our workgroup: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ItVer01 and Candida Intermedia CBE002 with yields of 0.42 g / g and 0.31 g, respectively. It was also shown that C. intermedia has the ability to produce xylitol with a good yield (0.46 g/g), in comparison, Cunha-Pereira et. Al (2017) where able to produce ethanol and xylitol with yields of 0.41 g/g and 0.46 g/g respectively with a Candida guilliermondiistrain using soybean husk hydrolysates. On the other hand, qualitative and quantitative studies showed that the native strains of Fusariumequiseti (0.4 IU / mL - xylanase), Bacillus velezensis (1.2 IU / mL - xylanase), and Penicilliumfuniculosum (1.5 IU / mL - cellulases) have the capacity to produce xylanases or Cellulases using corn Stover as raw material, the previous has been proven in other strains of the same genus such as Bacillus sp. KW1 (Wang et al. 2019), Bacillus sp. P3. (Wu et al. 2021), Penicilliumoxalicum (Ye et al. 2017), amongst others. This study allowed us to demonstrate that it is possible to use corn Stover as a carbon source, a low-cost raw material with high availability in our country, to obtain Bioproducts of industrial interest, using processes that are more environmentally friendly and sustainable. It is necessary to continue the optimization of each Bioprocess.

Keywords: corn stover, cellulases, xylanases, bioethanol, xylitol

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784 DNA Hypomethylating Agents Induced Histone Acetylation Changes in Leukemia

Authors: Tamer E. Fandy, Sridhar A. Malkaram


Purpose: 5-Azacytidine (5AC) and decitabine (DC) are DNA hypomethylating agents. We recently demonstrated that both drugs increase the enzymatic activity of the histone deacetylase enzyme SIRT6. Accordingly, we are comparing the changes H3K9 acetylation changes in the whole genome induced by both drugs using leukemia cells. Description of Methods and Materials: Mononuclear cells from the bone marrow of six de-identified naive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients were cultured with either 500 nM of DC or 5AC for 72 h followed by ChIP-Seq analysis using a ChIP-validated acetylated-H3K9 (H3K9ac) antibody. Chip-Seq libraries were prepared from treated and untreated cells using the SMARTer ThruPLEX DNA-seq kit (Takara Bio, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Libraries were purified and size-selected with AMPure XP beads at a 1:1 (v/v) ratio. All libraries were pooled prior to sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 1500. The dual-indexed single-read Rapid Run was performed with 1x120 cycles at a 5 pM final concentration of the library pool. Sequence reads with average Phred quality < 20, with length < 35bp, PCR duplicates and those aligning to blacklisted regions of the genome were filtered out using Trim Galore v0.4.4 and cutadapt v1.18. Reads were aligned to the reference human genome (hg38) using Bowtie v2.3.4.1 in end-to-end alignment mode. H3K9ac enriched (peak) regions were identified using diffReps v1.55.4 software using input samples for background correction. Statistical significance of differential peak counts was assessed using a negative binomial test using all individuals as replicates. Data and Results: The data from the six patients showed significant (Padj<0.05) acetylation changes at 925 loci after 5AC treatment versus 182 loci after DC treatment. Both drugs induced H3K9 acetylation changes at different chromosomal regions, including promoters, coding exons, introns and distal intergenic regions. Ten common genes showed H3K9 acetylation changes by both drugs. Approximately 84% of the genes showed H3K9 acetylation decrease by 5AC versus 54% only by DC. Results show the heatmaps for the top 100 genes and the 99 genes showing H3K9 acetylation decrease after 5AC treatment and DC treatment, respectively. Conclusion: Despite the similarity in hypomethylating activity and chemical structure, the effect of both drugs on H3K9 acetylation change was significantly different. More changes in H3K9 acetylation were observed after 5 AC treatments compared to DC. The impact of these changes on gene expression and the clinical efficacy of these drugs requires further investigation.

Keywords: DNA methylation, leukemia, decitabine, 5-Azacytidine, epigenetics

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783 The Importance of Storage Period on Biogas Potential of Cattle Manure

Authors: Seongwon Im, Jimin Kim, Kyeongcheol Kim, Dong-Hoon Kim


Cattle manure (CM) produced from farmhas been utilized to soils for increasing crop production owing to high nutrients content and effective microorganisms. Some cities with the concentrated activity of livestock industry have suffered from environmental problems, such as odorous gas emissions and soil and water pollution, caused by excessive use of compost. As an alternative option, the anaerobic digestion (AD) process can be utilized, which can reduce the volume of organic waste but also produce energy. According to Korea-Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy (KMTIE), the energy potential of CM via biogas production was estimated to be 0.8 million TOE per year, which is higher than that of other organic wastes. However, limited energy is recovered since useful organic matter, capable of converting to biogas, may be degraded during the long storage period (1-6 months).In this study, the effect of storage period on biogas potential of CM was investigated. Compared to fresh CM (VS 14±1 g/L, COD 205±5 g/L, TKN 7.4±0.8 g/L, NH4+-N 1.5±0.1), old CM has higher organic (35-37%) and nitrogen content (50-100%) due to the drying process during storage. After stabilization period, biogas potential of 0.09 L CH4/g VS was obtained in R1 (old CM supplement) at HRT of 150-100 d, and it was decreased further to 0.06 L CH4/g VS at HRT of 80 d. The drop of pH and organic acids accumulation were not observed during the whole operation of R1. Ammonia stripping and pretreatment of CM were found to be not effective to increase CH4 yield. On the other hand, a sudden increase of biogas potential to 0.19-0.22 L CH4/g VS was achieved in R2 after changing feedstock to fresh CM. The expected reason for the low biogas potential of old CM might be related with the composition of organic matters in CM. Easily biodegradable organic matters in the fresh CM were contained in high concentration, butthey were removed by microorganisms during storing CM in a farm, resulting low biogas yield. This study implies that fresh storage is important to make AD process applicable for CM.

Keywords: storage period, cattle manure, biogas potential, microbial analysis

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782 Characterization of Titanium -Niobium Alloys by Powder Metallurgy as İmplant

Authors: Eyyüp Murat Karakurt, Yan Huang, Mehmet Kaya, Hüseyin Demirtaş, Alper İncesu


In this study, Ti-(x) Nb (at. %) master alloys (x:10, 20, and 30) were fabricated following a standard powder metallurgy route and were sintered at 1200 ˚C for 6h, under 300 MPa by powder metallurgy method. The effect of the Nb concentration in Ti matrix and porosity level was examined experimentally. For metallographic examination, the alloys were analysed by optical microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis. In addition, X-ray diffraction was performed on the alloys to determine which compound formed in the microstructure. The compression test was applied to the alloys to understand the mechanical behaviors of the alloys. According to Nb concentration in Ti matrix, the β phase increased. Also, porosity level played a crucial role on the mechanical performance of the alloys.

Keywords: Nb concentration, porosity level, powder metallurgy, The β phase

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781 Metabolome-based Profiling of African Baobab Fruit (Adansonia Digitata L.) Using a Multiplex Approach of MS and NMR Techniques in Relation to Its Biological Activity

Authors: Marwa T. Badawy, Alaa F. Bakr, Nesrine Hegazi, Mohamed A. Farag, Ahmed Abdellatif


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease affecting a large population worldwide. Africa is rich in native medicinal plants with myriad health benefits, though less explored towards the development of specific drug therapy as in diabetes. This study aims to determine the in vivo antidiabetic potential of the well-reported and traditionally used fruits of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) using STZ induced diabetic model. The in-vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant properties were examined using MTT assay on L-929 fibroblast cells and DPPH antioxidant assays, respectively. The extract showed minimal cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 105.7 µg/mL. Histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations showed the hepatoprotective and the renoprotective effects of A. digitata fruits’ extract, implying its protective effects against diabetes complications. These findings were further supported by biochemical assays, which showed that i.p., injection of a low dose (150 mg/kg) of A. digitata twice a week lowered the fasting blood glucose levels, lipid profile, hepatic and renal markers. For a comprehensive overview of extract metabolites composition, ultrahigh performance (UHPLC) analysis coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) in synchronization with molecular networks led to the annotation of 77 metabolites, among which 50% are reported for the first time in A. digitata fruits.

Keywords: adansonia digital, diabetes mellitus, metabolomics, streptozotocin, Sprague, dawley rats

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780 Portable System for the Acquisition and Processing of Electrocardiographic Signals to Obtain Different Metrics of Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Daniel F. Bohorquez, Luis M. Agudelo, Henry H. León


Heart rate variability (HRV) is defined as the temporary variation between heartbeats or RR intervals (distance between R waves in an electrocardiographic signal). This distance is currently a recognized biomarker. With the analysis of the distance, it is possible to assess the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. These systems are responsible for the regulation of the cardiac muscle. The analysis allows health specialists and researchers to diagnose various pathologies based on this variation. For the acquisition and analysis of HRV taken from a cardiac electrical signal, electronic equipment and analysis software that work independently are currently used. This complicates and delays the process of interpretation and diagnosis. With this delay, the health condition of patients can be put at greater risk. This can lead to an untimely treatment. This document presents a single portable device capable of acquiring electrocardiographic signals and calculating a total of 19 HRV metrics. This reduces the time required, resulting in a timelier intervention. The device has an electrocardiographic signal acquisition card attached to a microcontroller capable of transmitting the cardiac signal wirelessly to a mobile device. In addition, a mobile application was designed to analyze the cardiac waveform. The device calculates the RR and different metrics. The application allows a user to visualize in real-time the cardiac signal and the 19 metrics. The information is exported to a cloud database for remote analysis. The study was performed under controlled conditions in the simulated hospital of the Universidad de la Sabana, Colombia. A total of 60 signals were acquired and analyzed. The device was compared against two reference systems. The results show a strong level of correlation (r > 0.95, p < 0.05) between the 19 metrics compared. Therefore, the use of the portable system evaluated in clinical scenarios controlled by medical specialists and researchers is recommended for the evaluation of the condition of the cardiac system.

Keywords: biological signal análisis, heart rate variability (HRV), HRV metrics, mobile app, portable device.

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779 Modelling and Management of Vegetal Pest Based On Case of Xylella Fastidiosa in Alicante

Authors: Maria Teresa Signes Pont, Jose Juan Cortes Plana


Our proposal provides suitable modelling to the spread of plant pest and particularly to the propagation of Xylella fastidiosa in the almond trees. We compared the impact of temperature and humidity on the propagation of Xylella fastidiosa in various subspecies. Comparison between Balearic Islands and Alicante (Spain). Most sharpshooter and spittlebug species showed peaks in population density during the month of higher mean temperature and relative humidity (April-October), except for the splittlebug Clastoptera sp.1, whose adult population peaked from September-October (late summer and early autumn). The critical season is from when they hatch from the eggs until they are in the pre-reproductive season (January -April) to expand. We focused on winters in the egg state, which normally hatches in early March. The nymphs secrete a foam (mucilage) in which they live and that protects them from natural enemies of temperature changes and prevents dry as long as the humidity is above 75%. The interaction between the life cycles of vectors and vegetation influences the food preferences of vectors and is responsible for the general seasonal shift of the population from vegetation to trees and vice versa, In addition to the temperature maps, we have observed humidity as it affects the spread of the pest Xylella fastidiosa (Xf).

Keywords: xylella fastidiosa, almod tree, temperature, humidity, environmental model

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778 Immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase onto Bio-Linked Magnetic Particles with Allium Cepa Peel Water Extracts

Authors: Mirjana Petronijević, Sanja Panić, Aleksandra Cvetanović, Branko Kordić, Nenad Grba


Enzyme peroxidases are biological catalysts and play a major role in phenolic wastewater treatments and other environmental applications. The most studied species from the peroxidases family is horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In environmental processes, HRP could be used in its free or immobilized form. Enzyme immobilization onto solid support is performed to improve the enzyme properties, prolong its lifespan and operational stability and allow its reuse in industrial applications. One of the enzyme supports of a newer generation is magnetic particles (MPs). Fe₃O₄ MPs are the most widely pursued immobilization of enzymes owing to their remarkable advantages of biocompatibility and non-toxicity. Also, MPs can be easily separated and recovered from the water by applying an external magnetic field. On the other hand, metals and metal oxides are not suitable for the covalent binding of enzymes, so it is necessary to perform their surface modification. Fe₃O₄ MPs functionalization could be performed during the process of their synthesis if it takes place in the presence of plant extracts. Extracts of plant material, such as wild plants, herbs, even waste materials of the food and agricultural industry (bark, shell, leaves, peel), are rich in various bioactive components such as polyphenols, flavonoids, sugars, etc. When the synthesis of magnetite is performed in the presence of plant extracts, bioactive components are incorporated into the surface of the magnetite, thereby affecting its functionalization. In this paper, the suitability of bio-magnetite as solid support for covalent immobilization of HRP across glutaraldehyde was examined. The activity of immobilized HRP at different pH values (4-9) and temperatures (20-80°C) and reusability were examined. Bio-MP was synthesized by co-precipitation method from Fe(II) and Fe(III) sulfate salts in the presence of water extract of the Allium cepa peel. The water extract showed 81% of antiradical potential (according to DPPH assay), which is connected with the high content of polyphenols. According to the FTIR analysis, the bio-magnetite contains oxygen functional groups (-OH, -COOH, C=O) suitable for binding to glutaraldehyde, after which the enzyme is covalently immobilized. The immobilized enzyme showed high activity at ambient temperature and pH 7 (30 U/g) and retained ≥ 80% of its activity at a wide range of pH (5-8) and temperature (20-50°C). The HRP immobilized onto bio-MPs showed remarkable stability towards temperature and pH variations compared to the free enzyme form. On the other hand, immobilized HRP showed low reusability after the first washing cycle enzyme retains 50% of its activity, while after the third washing cycle retains only 22%.

Keywords: bio-magnetite, enzyme immobilization, water extracts, environmental protection

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777 AMF activates PDH 45 and G-proteins Genes to Alleviate Abiotic Stress in Tomato Plants

Authors: Deepak Bhardwaj, Narendra Tuteja


Global climate change is impacting large agrarian societies, especially those in countries located near the equator. Agriculture, and consequently, plant-based food, is the hardest hit in tropical and sub-tropical countries such as India due to an increased incidence of drought as well as an increase in soil salinity. One method that holds promise is AMF-rich biofertilizers which assist in activating proteins which in turn help alleviate abiotic stress in plants. In the present study, we identified two important species of (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus) AMF belonging to Glomus and Gigaspora from the rhizosphere of the important medicinal plant Justicia adathoda. These two species have been found to be responsible for the abundance of Justicia adathoda in the semi-arid areas of the Jammu valley located in northern India, namely, the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. We isolated the species of Glomus and Gigaspora from the rhizosphere of Justicia adathoda and used them as biofertilizers for the tomato plant. Significant improvements in the growth parameters were observed in the tomato plants inoculated with Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp. in comparison with the tomato plants that were grown without AMF treatments. Tomato plants grown along with Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp. have been observed to withstand 200 mM of salinity and 25% PEG stress. AMF also resulted in an increased concentration of proline and antioxidant enzymes in tomato plants. We also examined the expression levels of salinity and drought stress-inducible genes such as pea DNA helicase 45 (PDH 45) and genes of G-protein subunits of the tomato plants inoculated with and without AMF under stress and normal conditions. All the stress-inducible genes showed a significant increase in their gene expression under stress and AMF inoculation, while their levels were found to be normal under AMF inoculation without stress. We propose a model of abiotic stress alleviation in tomato plants with the help of external factors such as AMF and internally with the help of proteins like PDH 45 and G-proteins.

Keywords: AMF, abiotic stress, g-proteins, PDH-45

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776 Design of DNA Origami Structures Using LAMP Products as a Combined System for the Detection of Extended Spectrum B-Lactamases

Authors: Kalaumari Mayoral-Peña, Ana I. Montejano-Montelongo, Josué Reyes-Muñoz, Gonzalo A. Ortiz-Mancilla, Mayrin Rodríguez-Cruz, Víctor Hernández-Villalobos, Jesús A. Guzmán-López, Santiago García-Jacobo, Iván Licona-Vázquez, Grisel Fierros-Romero, Rosario Flores-Vallejo


The group B-lactamic antibiotics include some of the most frequently used small drug molecules against bacterial infections. Nevertheless, an alarming decrease in their efficacy has been reported due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Infections caused by bacteria expressing extended Spectrum B-lactamases (ESBLs) are difficult to treat and account for higher morbidity and mortality rates, delayed recovery, and high economic burden. According to the Global Report on Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance, it is estimated that mortality due to resistant bacteria will ascend to 10 million cases per year worldwide. These facts highlight the importance of developing low-cost and readily accessible detection methods of drug-resistant ESBLs bacteria to prevent their spread and promote accurate and fast diagnosis. Bacterial detection is commonly done using molecular diagnostic techniques, where PCR stands out for its high performance. However, this technique requires specialized equipment not available everywhere, is time-consuming, and has a high cost. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) is an alternative technique that works at a constant temperature, significantly decreasing the equipment cost. It yields double-stranded DNA of several lengths with repetitions of the target DNA sequence as a product. Although positive and negative results from LAMP can be discriminated by colorimetry, fluorescence, and turbidity, there is still a large room for improvement in the point-of-care implementation. DNA origami is a technique that allows the formation of 3D nanometric structures by folding a large single-stranded DNA (scaffold) into a determined shape with the help of short DNA sequences (staples), which hybridize with the scaffold. This research aimed to generate DNA origami structures using LAMP products as scaffolds to improve the sensitivity to detect ESBLs in point-of-care diagnosis. For this study, the coding sequence of the CTM-X-15 ESBL of E. coli was used to generate the LAMP products. The set of LAMP primers were designed using PrimerExplorerV5. As a result, a target sequence of 200 nucleotides from CTM-X-15 ESBL was obtained. Afterward, eight different DNA origami structures were designed using the target sequence in the SDCadnano and analyzed with CanDo to evaluate the stability of the 3D structures. The designs were constructed minimizing the total number of staples to reduce costs and complexity for point-of-care applications. After analyzing the DNA origami designs, two structures were selected. The first one was a zig-zag flat structure, while the second one was a wall-like shape. Given the sequence repetitions in the scaffold sequence, both were able to be assembled with only 6 different staples each one, ranging between 18 to 80 nucleotides. Simulations of both structures were performed using scaffolds of different sizes yielding stable structures in all the cases. The generation of the LAMP products were tested by colorimetry and electrophoresis. The formation of the DNA structures was analyzed using electrophoresis and colorimetry. The modeling of novel detection methods through bioinformatics tools allows reliable control and prediction of results. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses LAMP products and DNA-origami in combination to delect ESBL-producing bacterial strains, which represent a promising methodology for diagnosis in the point-of-care.

Keywords: beta-lactamases, antibiotic resistance, DNA origami, isothermal amplification, LAMP technique, molecular diagnosis

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775 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres and Their Electrochemical Properties for Glucose Detection

Authors: Ali Akbar Kazemi Asl, Mansour Rahsepar


Mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs) with uniform particle size distribution having an average of 290 nm and large specific surface area (274.4 m²/g) were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method followed by the calcination process and then utilized as an enzyme-free glucose biosensor. Morphology, crystal structure, and porous nature of the synthesized nanospheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, respectively. Also, the electrochemical performance of the [email protected] electrode for the measurement of glucose concentration in alkaline media was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and chronoamperometry (CA). [email protected] electrode shows good sensing performance, including a rapid glucose oxidation response within 3.1 s, a wide linear range of 0.026-12 mM, a sensitivity of 212.34 μA.mM⁻¹.cm⁻², and a detection limit of 25.7 μM with excellent selectivity.

Keywords: biosensor, electrochemical, glucose, mesoporous carbon, non-enzymatic

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774 The Clarification of Palm Oil Wastewater Treatment by Coagulant Composite from Palm Oil Ash

Authors: Rewadee Anuwattana, Narumol Soparatana, Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Worapong Pattayawan, Atiporn Jinprayoon, Saroj Klangkongsap, Supinya Sutthima


In this work focus on clarification in palm oil wastewater treatment by using coagulant composite from palm oil ash. The design of this study was carried out by two steps; first, synthesis of new coagulant composite from palm oil ash which was fused by using Al source combined with Fe source and form to the crystal by the hydrothermal crystallization process. The characterization of coagulant composite from palm oil ash was analyzed by advanced instruments, and The pattern was analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), chemical composition by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRFS) and morphology characterized by SEM. The second step, the clarification wastewater treatment efficiency of synthetic coagulant composite, was evaluated by coagulation/flocculation process based on the COD, turbidity, phosphate and color removal of wastewater from palm oil factory by varying the coagulant dosage (1-8 %w/v) with no adjusted pH and commercial coagulants (Alum, Ferric Chloride and poly aluminum chloride) which adjusted the pH (6). The results found that the maximum removal of 6% w/v of synthetic coagulant from palm oil ash can remove COD, turbidity, phosphate and color was 88.44%, 93.32%, 93.32% and 93.32%, respectively. The experiments were compared using 6% w/v of commercial coagulants (Alum, Ferric Chloride and Polyaluminum Chloride) can remove COD of 74.29%, 71.43% and 57.14%, respectively.

Keywords: coagulation, coagulant, wastewater treatment, waste utilization, palm oil ash

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773 Preparation of Water Hyacinth and Oil Palm Fiber for Plastic Waste Composite

Authors: Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Rewadee Anuwattana, Narumon Soparatana, Nestchanok Yongpraderm, Atiporn Jinpayoon, Supinya Sutthima, Saroj Klangkongsub, Worapong Pattayawan


This research aims to utilize the agricultural waste and plastic waste in Thailand in a study of the optimum conditions for preparing composite materials from water hyacinth and oil palm fiber and plastic waste in landfills. The water hyacinth and oil palm fiber were prepared by alkaline treatment with NaOH (5, 15 wt%) at 25-60 °C for 1 h. The treated fiber (5 and 10 phr) was applied to plastic waste composite. The composite was prepared by using a screw extrusion process from 185 °C to 200 °C with a screw speed of 60 rpm. The result confirmed that alkaline treatment can remove lignin, hemicellulose and other impurities on the fiber surface and also increase the cellulose content. The optimum condition of composite material is 10 phr of fiber coupling with 3 wt% PE-g-MA as compatibilizer. The composite of plastic waste and oil palm fiber has good adhesion between fiber and plastic matrix. The PE-g-MA has improved fiber-plastic interaction. The results suggested that the composite material from plastic waste and agricultural waste has the potential to be used as value-added products.

Keywords: agricultural waste, waste utilization, biomaterials, cellulose fiber, composite material

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772 Landfill Leachate Wastewater Treatment by Fenton Process

Authors: Rewadee Anuwattana, Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Narumon Soparatana, Supinya Sutthima, Worapong Pattayawan, Saroj Klangkongsub, Songkiat Roddang, Pluek Wongpanich


The leachate wastewater is high contaminant water; hence it needs to be treated. The objective of this research was to determine the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentration, Phosphate (PO₄³⁻), Ammonia (NH₃) and color in leachate wastewater in the landfill area. The experiments were carried out in the optimum condition by pH, the Fenton reagent dosage (concentration of dosing Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂). The optimum pH is 3, the optimum [Fe²⁺]/[COD] and [H₂O₂]/[COD₀] = 0.03 and 0.03, respectively. The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD₅)/Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ratio can be adjusted to 1 for landfill leachate wastewater (BOD₅/COD = 0.11). From the results, the Fenton process shall be investigated further to achieve the removal of phosphates in addition to COD and color.

Keywords: landfill leachate treatment, open dumpsite, Fenton process, wastewater treatment

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771 Cybernetic Model-Based Optimization of a Fed-Batch Process for High Cell Density Cultivation of E. Coli In Shake Flasks

Authors: Snehal D. Ganjave, Hardik Dodia, Avinash V. Sunder, Swati Madhu, Pramod P. Wangikar


Batch cultivation of recombinant bacteria in shake flasks results in low cell density due to nutrient depletion. Previous protocols on high cell density cultivation in shake flasks have relied mainly on controlled release mechanisms and extended cultivation protocols. In the present work, we report an optimized fed-batch process for high cell density cultivation of recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) for protein production. A cybernetic model-based, multi-objective optimization strategy was implemented to obtain the optimum operating variables to achieve maximum biomass and minimized substrate feed rate. A syringe pump was used to feed a mixture of glycerol and yeast extract into the shake flask. Preliminary experiments were conducted with online monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) and offline measurements of biomass and glycerol to estimate the model parameters. Multi-objective optimization was performed to obtain the pareto front surface. The selected optimized recipe was tested for a range of proteins that show different extent soluble expression in E. coli. These included eYFP and LkADH, which are largely expressed in soluble fractions, CbFDH and GcanADH , which are partially soluble, and human PDGF, which forms inclusion bodies. The biomass concentrations achieved in 24 h were in the range 19.9-21.5 g/L, while the model predicted value was 19.44 g/L. The process was successfully reproduced in a standard laboratory shake flask without online monitoring of DO and pH. The optimized fed-batch process showed significant improvement in both the biomass and protein production of the tested recombinant proteins compared to batch cultivation. The proposed process will have significant implications in the routine cultivation of E. coli for various applications.

Keywords: cybernetic model, E. coli, high cell density cultivation, multi-objective optimization

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770 Development of Broad Spectrum Nitrilase Biocatalysts and Bioprocesses for Nitrile Biotransformation

Authors: Avinash Vellore Sunder, Shikha Shah, Pramod P. Wangikar


The enzymatic conversion of nitriles to carboxylic acids by nitrilases has gained significance in the green synthesis of several pharmaceutical precursors and fine chemicals. While nitrilases have been characterized from different sources, the industrial application requires the identification of nitrilases that possess higher substrate tolerance, wider specificity and better thermostability, along with the development of an efficient bioprocess for producing large amounts of nitrilase. To produce large amounts of nitrilase, we developed a fed-batch fermentation process on defined media for the high cell density cultivation of E. coli cells expressing the well-studied nitrilase from Alcaligenes fecalis. A DO-stat feeding approach was employed combined with an optimized post-induction strategy to achieve nitrilase titer of 2.5*105 U/l and 78 g/l dry cell weight. We also identified 16 novel nitrilase sequences from genome mining and analysis of substrate binding residues. The nitrilases were expressed in E. coli and their biocatalytic potential was evaluated on a panel of 22 industrially relevant nitrile substrates using high-throughput screening and HPLC analysis. Nine nitrilases were identified to exhibit high activity on structurally diverse nitriles including aliphatic and aromatic dinitriles, heterocyclic, -hydroxy and -keto nitriles. With fed-batch biotransformation, whole-cell Zobelia galactanivorans nitrilase achieved yields of 2.4 M nicotinic acid and 1.8 M isonicotinic acid from 3-cyanopyridine and 4-cyanopyridine respectively within 5 h, while Cupravidus necator nitrilase enantioselectively converted 740 mM mandelonitrile to (R)–mandelic acid. The nitrilase from Achromobacter insolitus could hydrolyze 542 mM iminodiacetonitrile in 1 h. The availability of highly active nitrilases along with bioprocesses for enzyme production expands the toolbox for industrial biocatalysis.

Keywords: biocatalysis, isonicotinic acid, iminodiacetic acid, mandelic acid, nitrilase

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769 Intentional Cultivation of Non-toxic Filamentous Cyanobacteria Tolypothrix as an Approach to Treat Eutrophic Waters

Authors: Simona Lucakova, Irena Branyikova


Eutrophication, a condition when water becomes over-enriched with nutrients (P, N), can lead to undesirable excessive growth of phytoplankton, so-called algal bloom. This process results in the accumulation of toxin-producing cyanobacteria and oxygen depletion, both possibly leading to the collapse of the whole ecosystem. In real conditions, the limiting nutrient, which determines the possible growth of harmful algal bloom, is usually phosphorus. Algicides or flocculants have been applied in the eutrophicated waterbody in order to reduce the phytoplankton growth, which leads to the introduction of toxic chemicals into the water. In our laboratory, the idea of the prevention of harmful phytoplankton growth by the intentional cultivation of non-toxic cyanobacteria Tolypothrix tenuis in semi-open floating photobioreactors directly on the surface of phosphorus-rich waterbody is examined. During the process of cultivation, redundant phosphorus is incorporated into cyanobacterial biomass, which can be subsequently used for the production of biofuels, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, or biostimulants for agricultural use. To determine the ability of phosphorus incorporation, batch-cultivation of Tolypothrix biomass in media simulating eutrophic water (10% BG medium) and in effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant, both with the initial phosphorus concentration in the range 0.5-1.0 mgP/L was performed in laboratory-scale models of floating photobioreactors. After few hours of cultivation, the phosphorus content was decreased below the target limit of 0.035 mgP/L, which was given as a borderline for the algal bloom formation. Under laboratory conditions, the effect of several parameters on the rate of phosphorus decrease was tested (illumination, temperature, stirring speed/aeration gas flow, biomass to medium ratio). Based on the obtained results, a bench-scale floating photobioreactor was designed and will be tested for Tolypothrix growth in real conditions. It was proved that intentional cultivation of cyanobacteria Tolypothrix could be a suitable approach for extracting redundant phosphorus from eutrophic waters as prevention of algal bloom formation.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, eutrophication, floating photobioreactor, Tolypothrix

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768 Cloning and Expression of the ansZ Gene from Bacillus sp. CH11 Isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru

Authors: Stephy Saavedra, Annsy C. Arredondo, Gisele Monteiro, Adalberto Pessoa Jr, Carol N. Flores-Fernandez, Amparo I. Zavaleta


L-asparaginase from bacterial sources is used in leukemic treatment and food industry. This enzyme is classified based on its affinity towards L-asparagine and L-glutamine. Likewise, ansZ genes express L-asparaginase with higher affinity to L-asparagine. The aim of this work was to clone and express of ansZ gene from Bacillus sp. CH11 isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru. The gene encoding L-asparaginase was cloned into pET15b vector and transformed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The expression was carried out in a batch culture using LB broth and 0.5 mM IPTG. The recombinant L-asparaginase showed a molecular weight of ~ 39 kDa by SDS PAGE and a specific activity of 3.19 IU/mg of protein. The cloning and expression of ansZ gene from this halotolerant Bacillus sp. CH11 allowed having a biological input to improve a future scaling-up.

Keywords: ansZ gene, Bacillus sp, Chilca salterns, recombinant L-asparaginase

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767 Determination of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients by Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Gökçe Erdemir, İlhan Yaylım, Serap Erdem-Kuruca, Musa Mutlu Can


It has been determined that the main reason for the death of cancer disease is caused by metastases rather than the primary tumor. The cells that leave the primary tumor and enter the circulation and cause metastasis in the secondary organs are called "circulating tumor cells" (CTCs). The presence and number of circulating tumor cells has been associated with poor prognosis in many major types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. It is thought that knowledge of circulating tumor cells, which are seen as the main cause of cancer-related deaths due to metastasis, plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The fact that tissue biopsies used in cancer diagnosis and follow-up are an invasive method and are insufficient in understanding the risk of metastasis and the progression of the disease have led to new searches. Liquid biopsy tests performed with a small amount of blood sample taken from the patient for the detection of CTCs are easy and reliable, as well as allowing more than one sample to be taken over time to follow the prognosis. However, since these cells are found in very small amounts in the blood, it is very difficult to capture them and specially designed analytical techniques and devices are required. Methods based on the biological and physical properties of the cells are used to capture these cells in the blood. Early diagnosis is very important in following the prognosis of tumors of epithelial origin such as breast, lung, colon and prostate. Molecules such as EpCAM, vimentin, and cytokeratins are expressed on the surface of cells that pass into the circulation from very few primary tumors and reach secondary organs from the circulation, and are used in the diagnosis of cancer in the early stage. For example, increased EpCAM expression in breast and prostate cancer has been associated with prognosis. These molecules can be determined in some blood or body fluids to be taken from patients. However, more sensitive methods are required to be able to determine when they are at a low level according to the course of the disease. The aim is to detect these molecules found in very few cancer cells with the help of sensitive, fast-sensing biosensors, first in breast cancer cells reproduced in vitro and then in blood samples taken from breast cancer patients. In this way, cancer cells can be diagnosed early and easily and effectively treated.

Keywords: electrochemical biosensors, breast cancer, circulating tumor cells, EpCAM, Vimentin, Cytokeratins

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766 Role of Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Conditioned Media in Alleviating Kidney Injury via Inhibition of Renin-Angiotensin System in Diabetic Nephropathy

Authors: Pardis Abolghasemi, Benyamin Hatamsaz


Background: Diabetic nephropathy is a serious health problem described by specific kidney structure and functional disturbance. Renoprotective effects of the stem cells secretase have been shown in many kidney diseases. The aim is to evaluate the capability of human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells conditioned media (hWJMSCs-CM) to alleviate DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Methods: Diabetic nephropathy was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, IP) in twenty rats. Conditioned media was extracted from hWJMSCs at third passages. At week 8, diabetic rats were divided into two groups: treated (hWJMSCs-CM, 500 μl/rat for three weeks, IP) and not treated (DN). In the 11th week, three groups (control, DN and DN+hWJMSCs-CM) were kept in metabolic cages and urine was collected for 24h. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded. The serum samples were maintained for measuring BUN, Cr and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. The left kidney was kept at -80°C for ACE activity assessment. The right kidney and pancreas were used for histopathologic evaluation. Result: Diabetic nephropathy was detected by microalbuminuria and increased albumin/creatinine ratio, as well as the pancreas and renal structural disturbance. Glomerular filtration rate, BP and HR increased in the DN group. The ACE activity was elevated in the serum and kidneys of the DN group. Administration of hWJMSCs-CM modulated the renal functional and structural disturbance and decreased the ACE activity. Conclusion: Conditioned media was extracted from hWJMSCs may have a Renoprotective effect in diabetic nephropathy. This may happen through regulation of ACE activity and renin-angiotensin system inhibition.

Keywords: diabetic nephropathy, mesenchymal stem cells, immunomodulation, anti-inflammation

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765 Construction of Ovarian Cancer-on-Chip Model by 3D Bioprinting and Microfluidic Techniques

Authors: Zakaria Baka, Halima Alem


Cancer is a major worldwide health problem that has caused around ten million deaths in 2020. In addition, efforts to develop new anti-cancer drugs still face a high failure rate. This is partly due to the lack of preclinical models that recapitulate in-vivo drug responses. Indeed conventional cell culture approach (known as 2D cell culture) is far from reproducing the complex, dynamic and three-dimensional environment of tumors. To set up more in-vivo-like cancer models, 3D bioprinting seems to be a promising technology due to its ability to achieve 3D scaffolds containing different cell types with controlled distribution and precise architecture. Moreover, the introduction of microfluidic technology makes it possible to simulate in-vivo dynamic conditions through the so-called “cancer-on-chip” platforms. Whereas several cancer types have been modeled through the cancer-on-chip approach, such as lung cancer and breast cancer, only a few works describing ovarian cancer models have been described. The aim of this work is to combine 3D bioprinting and microfluidic technics with setting up a 3D dynamic model of ovarian cancer. In the first phase, alginate-gelatin hydrogel containing SKOV3 cells was used to achieve tumor-like structures through an extrusion-based bioprinter. The desired form of the tumor-like mass was first designed on 3D CAD software. The hydrogel composition was then optimized for ensuring good and reproducible printability. Cell viability in the bioprinted structures was assessed using Live/Dead assay and WST1 assay. In the second phase, these bioprinted structures will be included in a microfluidic device that allows simultaneous testing of different drug concentrations. This microfluidic dispositive was first designed through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for fixing its precise dimensions. It was then be manufactured through a molding method based on a 3D printed template. To confirm the results of CFD simulations, doxorubicin (DOX) solutions were perfused through the dispositive and DOX concentration in each culture chamber was determined. Once completely characterized, this model will be used to assess the efficacy of anti-cancer nanoparticles developed in the Jean Lamour institute.

Keywords: 3D bioprinting, ovarian cancer, cancer-on-chip models, microfluidic techniques

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764 Optimization of Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate Recovery from Bacillus Subtilis Using Solvent Extraction Process by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Jayprakash Yadav, Nivedita Patra


Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an interesting material in the field of medical science, pharmaceutical industries, and tissue engineering because of its properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophobicity, and elasticity. PHB is naturally accumulated by several microbes in their cytoplasm during the metabolic process as energy reserve material. PHB can be extracted from cell biomass using halogenated hydrocarbons, chemicals, and enzymes. In this study, a cheaper and non-toxic solvent, acetone, was used for the extraction process. The different parameters like acetone percentage, and solvent pH, process temperature, and incubation periods were optimized using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). RSM was performed and the determination coefficient (R2) value was found to be 0.8833 from the quadratic regression model with no significant lack of fit. The designed RSM model results indicated that the fitness of the response variable was significant (P-value < 0.0006) and satisfactory to denote the relationship between the responses in terms of PHB recovery and purity with respect to the values of independent variables. Optimum conditions for the maximum PHB recovery and purity were found to be solvent pH 7, extraction temperature - 43 °C, incubation time - 70 minutes, and percentage acetone – 30 % from this study. The maximum predicted PHB recovery was found to be 0.845 g/g biomass dry cell weight and the purity was found to be 97.23 % using the optimized conditions.

Keywords: acetone, PHB, RSM, halogenated hydrocarbons, extraction, bacillus subtilis.

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763 Variation in N₂ Fixation and N Contribution by 30 Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Varieties Grown in Blesbokfontein Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

Authors: Titus Y. Ngmenzuma, Cherian. Mathews, Feilx D. Dakora


In Africa, poor nutrient availability, particularly N and P, coupled with low soil moisture due to erratic rainfall, constitutes the major crop production constraints. Although inorganic fertilizers are an option for meeting crop nutrient requirements for increased grain yield, the high cost and scarcity of inorganic inputs make them inaccessible to resource-poor farmers in Africa. Because crops grown on such nutrient-poor soils are micronutrient deficient, incorporating N₂-fixing legumes into cropping systems can sustainably improve crop yield and nutrient accumulation in the grain. In Africa, groundnut can easily form an effective symbiosis with native soil rhizobia, leading to marked N contribution in cropping systems. In this study, field experiments were conducted at Blesbokfontein in Mpumalanga Province to assess N₂ fixation and N contribution by 30 groundnut varieties during the 2018/2019 planting season using the ¹⁵N natural abundance technique. The results revealed marked differences in shoot dry matter yield, symbiotic N contribution, soil N uptake and grain yield among the groundnut varieties. The percent N derived from fixation ranged from 37 to 44% for varieties ICGV131051 and ICGV13984. The amount of N-fixed ranged from 21 to 58 kg/ha for varieties Chinese and IS-07273, soil N uptake from 31 to 80 kg/ha for varieties IS-07947 and IS-07273, and grain yield from 193 to 393 kg/ha for varieties ICGV15033 and ICGV131096, respectively. Compared to earlier studies on groundnut in South Africa, this study has shown low N₂ fixation and N contribution to the cropping systems, possibly due to environmental factors such as low soil moisture. Because the groundnut varieties differed in their growth, symbiotic performance and grain yield, more field testing is required over a range of differing agro-ecologies to identify genotypes suitable for different cropping environments

Keywords: ¹⁵N natural abundance, percent N derived from fixation, amount of N-fixed, grain yield

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762 Evaluation of Rhizobia for Nodulation, Shoot and Root Biomass from Host Range Studies Using Soybean, Common Bean, Bambara Groundnut and Mung Bean

Authors: Sharon K. Mahlangu, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora


Rural households in Africa depend largely on legumes as a source of high-protein food due to N₂-fixation by rhizobia when they infect plant roots. However, the legume/rhizobia symbiosis can exhibit some level of specificity such that some legumes may be selectively nodulated by only a particular group of rhizobia. In contrast, some legumes are highly promiscuous and are nodulated by a wide range of rhizobia. Little is known about the nodulation promiscuity of bacterial symbionts from wild legumes such as Aspalathus linearis, especially if they can nodulate cultivated grain legumes such as cowpea and Kersting’s groundnut. Determining the host range of the symbionts of wild legumes can potentially reveal novel rhizobial strains that can be used to increase nitrogen fixation in cultivated legumes. In this study, bacteria were isolated and tested for their ability to induce root nodules on their homologous hosts. Seeds were surface-sterilized with alcohol and sodium hypochlorite and planted in sterile sand contained in plastic pots. The pot surface was covered with sterile non-absorbent cotton wool to avoid contamination. The plants were watered with nitrogen-free nutrient solution and sterile water in alternation. Three replicate pots were used per isolate. The plants were grown for 90 days in a naturally-lit glasshouse and assessed for nodulation (nodule number and nodule biomass) and shoot biomass. Seven isolates from each of Kersting’s groundnut and cowpea and two from Rooibos tea plants were tested for their ability to nodulate soybean, mung bean, common bean and Bambara groundnut. The results showed that of the isolates from cowpea, where VUSA55 and VUSA42 could nodulate all test host plants, followed by VUSA48 which nodulated cowpea, Bambara groundnut and soybean. The two isolates from Rooibos tea plants nodulated Bambara groundnut, soybean and common bean. However, isolate L1R3.3.1 also nodulated mung bean. There was a greater accumulation of shoot biomass when cowpea isolate VUSA55 nodulated common bean. Isolate VUSA55 produced the highest shoot biomass, followed by VUSA42 and VUSA48. The two Kersting’s groundnut isolates, MGSA131 and MGSA110, accumulated average shoot biomass. In contrast, the two Rooibos tea isolates induced a higher accumulation of biomass in Bambara groundnut, followed by common bean. The results suggest that inoculating these agriculturally important grain legumes with cowpea isolates can contribute to improved soil fertility, especially soil nitrogen levels.

Keywords: legumes, nitrogen fixation, nodulation, rhizobia

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