Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 895

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Biotechnology and Bioengineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

895 Feasibility Study on the Bioattactants from Pandanus Palm Extracts for Trapping Rice Insect Pests

Authors: Pisit Poolprasert, Phakin Kubchanan, Keerati Tanruean, Wisanu Thongchai, Yuttasak Chammui, Wirot Likittrakulwong


Rice insect pests are problems to rice production. Use of chemicals to minimize these problems of insect pests in paddy field can lead to the residue and affect the health of farmers. Therefore, botanical extracts applied for controlling rice serious enemies should be promoted especially use of plant extract as attractants to lure insects. This research aimed to feasibility study of bioattractants from pandanus palm extracts for trapping insect pets using two different trap models, including plastic bottle and yellow sticky traps. Two main growth and development stages of rice, namely tillering and booting stages, were selected and trapped. The results from both trap models revealed that four rice insect species, including Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason), Nilaparvata lugens, Recilia dorsalis, and Nephotettix nigropictus from three families (Cecidomyiidae, Cicadellidae and Delphacidae) and two main orders (Diptera and Hemiptera) were exhibited. All rice insect species mentioned could be found from the yellow sticky trap that were higher than in the bottle trap in which only O. oryzae could be only trapped. From this survey, it was indicated that the yellow sticky trap coated with pandanus palm extracts had a promising potential to use as an attractant for the detection of rice paddy insects in the next future.

Keywords: pandanus palm, bioattractant, bottle trap, yellow sticky trap

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894 Physicochemical Properties and Thermal Inactivation of Polyphenol Oxidase of African Bush Mango (Irvingia Gabonensis) Fruit

Authors: Catherine Joke Adeseko


Enzymatic browning is an economically important disorder that degrades organoleptic properties and prevent the consumer from purchasing fresh fruit and vegetables. Prevention and control of enzymatic browning in fruit and its product is imperative. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the catalytic effect of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the adverse browning of African bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) fruit peel and pulp. PPO was isolated and purified, and its physicochemical properties, such as the effect of pH with SDS, temperature, and thermodynamic studies, which invariably led to thermal inactivation of purified PPO at 80 °C, were evaluated. The pH and temperature optima of PPO were found at 7.0 and 50, respectively. There was a gradual increase in the activity of PPO as the pH increases. However, the enzyme exhibited a higher activity at neutral pH 7.0, while enzymatic inhibition was observed at acidic region, pH 2.0. The presence of SDS at pH 5.0 downward was found to inhibit the activity of PPO from the peel and pulp of I. gabonensis. The average value of enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), and Gibbs free energy (ΔG) obtained at 20 min of incubation and temperature 30 – 80 °C were respectively 39.93 kJ.mol-1, 431.57 J.mol-1 .K-1 and -107.99 kJ.mol-1 for peel PPO, and 37.92 kJ.mol-1, -442.51J.mol-1.K-1, and -107.22 kJ.mol-1 for pulp PPO. Thermal inactivation of PPO from I. gabonensis exhibited a reduction in catalytic activity as the temperature and duration of heat inactivation increases using catechol, reflected by an increment in k value. The half-life of PPO (t1/2) decreases as the incubation temperature increases due to the instability of the enzyme at high temperatures and was higher in pulp than peel. Both D and Z values decrease with increase in temperature. The information from this study suggests processing parameters for controlling PPO in the potential industrial application of I. gabonensis fruit in order to prolong the shelf-life of this fruit for maximum utilization.

Keywords: enzymatic, browning, characterization, activity

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893 Study on the Effects of Indigenous Biological Face Treatment

Authors: Saron Adisu Gezahegn


Commercial cosmetic has been affecting human health due to their contents and dosage composition. Chemical base cosmetics exposes users to unnecessary health problems and financial cost. Some of the cosmetics' interaction with the environment has negative impacts on health such as burning, cracking, coloring, and so on. The users are looking for a temporary service without evaluating the side effects of cosmetics that contain chemical compositions that result in irritation, burning, allergies, cracking, and the nature of the face. Every cosmetic contains a heavy metal such as lead, zinc, cadmium, silicon, and other heavy cosmetics materials. The users may expose at the end of the day to untreatable diseases like cancer. The objective of the research is to study the effects of indigenous biological face treatment without any additives like chemicals. In ancient times this thought was highly tremendous in the world but things were changing bit by bit and reached chemical base cosmetics to maintain the beauty of hair, skin, and faces. The side effects of the treatment on the face were minimum and the side effects with the interaction of the environment were almost nil. But this thought is changed and replaces the indigenous substances with chemical substances by adding additives like heavy chemical lead and cadmium in the sense of preservation, pigments, dye, and shining. Various studies indicated that cosmetics have dangerous side effects that expose users to health problems and expensive financial loss. This study focuses on a local indigenous plant called Kulkual. Kulkual is available everywhere in a study area and sustainable products can harvest to use as indigenous face treatment materials.25 men and 25 women were selected as a sample population randomly to conduct the study effectively.The plant is harvested from the guard in the productive season. The plant was exposed to the sun dry for a week. Then the peel was removed from the plant fruit and the peels were taken to a bath filled with water to soak for three days. Then the flesh of the peel was avoided from the fruit and ready to use as a face treatment. The fleshy peel was smeared on each sample for almost a week and continued for a week. The result indicated that the effects of the treatment were a positive response with minimum cost and minimum side effects due to the environment. The beauty shines, smoothness, and color are better than chemical base cosmetics. Finally, the study is recommended that all users prefer a biological method of treatment with minimum cost and minimums side effects on health with the interaction of the environment.

Keywords: cosmetic, indigneous, heavymetals, toxic

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892 Eggshell Waste Bioprocessing for Sustainable Acid Phosphatase Production and Minimizing Environmental Hazards

Authors: Soad Abubakr Abdelgalil, Gaber Attia Abo-Zaid, Mohamed Mohamed Yousri Kaddah


Background: The Environmental Protection Agency has listed eggshell waste as the 15th most significant food industry pollution hazard. The utilization of eggshell waste as a source of renewable energy has been a hot topic in recent years. Therefore, finding a sustainable solution for the recycling and valorization of eggshell waste by investigating its potential to produce acid phosphatase (ACP) and organic acids by the newly-discovered B. sonorensis was the target of the current investigation. Results: The most potent ACP-producing B. sonorensis strain ACP2 was identified as a local bacterial strain obtained from the effluent of paper and pulp industries on basis of molecular and morphological characterization. The use of consecutive statistical experimental approaches of Plackett-Burman Design (PBD), and Orthogonal Central Composite Design (OCCD), followed by pH-uncontrolled cultivation conditions in a 7 L bench-top bioreactor, revealed an innovative medium formulation that substantially improved ACP production, reaching 216 U L⁻¹ with ACP yield coefficient Yp/x of 18.2 and a specific growth rate (µ) of 0.1 h⁻¹. The metals Ag+, Sn+, and Cr+ were the most efficiently released from eggshells during the solubilization process by B. sonorensis. The uncontrolled pH culture condition is the most suited and favored setting for improving the ACP and organic acids production simultaneously. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of produced organic acids were carried out using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Lactic acid, citric acid, and hydroxybenzoic acid isomer were the most common organic acids produced throughout the cultivation process. The findings of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scan calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis emphasize the significant influence of organic acids and ACP activity on the solubilization of eggshells particles. Conclusions: This study emphasized robust microbial engineering approaches for the large-scale production of a newly discovered acid phosphatase accompanied by organic acids production from B. sonorensis. The biovalorization of the eggshell waste and the production of cost-effective ACP and organic acids were integrated into the current study, and this was done through the implementation of a unique and innovative medium formulation design for eggshell waste management, as well as scaling up ACP production on a bench-top scale.

Keywords: chicken eggshells waste, bioremediation, statistical experimental design, batch fermentation

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891 Production of Biosurfactant by Pseudomonas luteola on a Reject from the Production of Anti-scorpion Serum

Authors: Radia Chemlal, Youcef Hamidi, Nabil Mameri


This study deals with the production of biosurfactant by the Pseudomonas luteola strain on three different culture media (semi-synthetic medium M1, whey, and pharmaceutical reject) in the presence of gasoil. The monitoring of bacterial growth by measuring the optical density at 600 nm by spectrophotometer and the surface tension clearly showed the ability of Pseudomonas luteola to produce biosurfactants at various conditions of the culture medium. The biosurfactant produced in the pharmaceutical reject medium generated a decrease in the surface tension with a percentage of 19.4% greater than the percentage obtained when using whey which is 7.0%. The pharmaceutical rejection is diluted at various percentages ranging from 5% to 100% in order to study the effect of the concentration on the biosurfactant production. The best result inducing the great reduction of the surface tension value is obtained at the dilution of 30% with the pharmaceutical reject.

Keywords: biosurfactant, pseudomonas luteola, whey, antiscorpionic serum, gas oil

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890 Interconnections between Chronic Jet Lag and Neurological Disorders

Authors: Suliman Khan, Rabeea Siddique, Mengzhou Xue


Background: Patients with neurological disorders often display altered circadian rhythms. The disrupted circadian rhythms through chronic jetlag or shiftwork are thought to increase the risk and severity of human disease, including cancer, psychiatric, and related brain diseases. In this study, we investigated the impact of shiftwork or chronic jetlag (CJL) like conditions on mice’s brains. Transcriptome profiling based on RNA sequencing revealed that genes associated with serious neurological disorders were differentially expressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). According to the qPCR analysis, several key regulatory genes associated with neurological disorders were significantly altered in the NAc, PFC, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and striatum. Serotonin levels and the expression levels of serotonin transporters and receptors were significantly altered in mice treated with CJL. Overall, these results indicate that CJL may increase the risk of neurological disorders by disrupting the key regulatory genes, biological functions, serotonin, and corticosterone. These molecular linkages can further be studied to investigate the mechanism underlying CJL or shiftwork-mediated neurological disorders in order to develop treatment strategies.

Keywords: chronic jetlag, molecular profiles, brain disorders, circadian rhythms

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889 Fuels and Platform Chemicals Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Status and Future Prospects

Authors: Chandan Kundu, Sankar Bhattacharya


A significant disadvantage of fossil fuel energy production is the considerable amount of carbon dioxide (CO₂) released, which is one of the contributors to climate change. Apart from environmental concerns, changing fossil fuel prices have pushed society gradually towards renewable energy sources in recent years. Biomass is a plentiful and renewable resource and a source of carbon. Recent years have seen increased research interest in generating fuels and chemicals from biomass. Unlike fossil-based resources, biomass is composed of lignocellulosic material, which does not contribute to the increase in atmospheric CO₂ over a longer term. These considerations contribute to the current move of the chemical industry from non-renewable feedstock to renewable biomass. This presentation focuses on generating bio-oil and two major platform chemicals that can potentially improve the environment. Thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis are considered viable methods for producing bio-oil and biomass-based platform chemicals. Fluidized bed reactors, on the other hand, are known to boost bio-oil yields during pyrolysis due to their superior mixing and heat transfer features, as well as their scalability. This review and the associated experimental work are focused on the thermochemical conversion of biomass to bio-oil and two high-value platform chemicals, Levoglucosenone (LGO) and 5-Chloromethyl furfural (5-CMF), in a fluidized bed reactor. These two active molecules with distinct features can potentially be useful monomers in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries since they are well adapted to the manufacture of biologically active products. This process took several meticulous steps. To begin, the biomass was delignified using a peracetic acid pretreatment to remove lignin. Because of its complicated structure, biomass must be pretreated to remove the lignin, increasing access to the carbohydrate components and converting them to platform chemicals. The biomass was then characterized by Thermogravimetric analysis, Synchrotron-based THz spectroscopy, and in-situ DRIFTS in the laboratory. Based on the results, a continuous-feeding fluidized bed reactor system was constructed to generate platform chemicals from pretreated biomass using hydrogen chloride acid-gas as a catalyst. The procedure also yields biochar, which has a number of potential applications, including soil remediation, wastewater treatment, electrode production, and energy resource utilization. Consequently, this research also includes a preliminary experimental evaluation of the biochar's prospective applications. The biochar obtained was evaluated for its CO₂ and steam reactivity. The outline of the presentation will comprise the following: Biomass pretreatment for effective delignification Mechanistic study of the thermal and thermochemical conversion of biomass Thermochemical conversion of untreated and pretreated biomass in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce LGO and CMF A thermo-catalytic process for the production of LGO and 5-CMF in a continuously-fed fluidized bed reactor and efficient separation of chemicals Use of biochar generated from the platform chemicals production through gasification

Keywords: biomass, pretreatment, pyrolysis, levoglucosenone

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888 Fam111b Gene Dysregulation Contributes to the Malignancy in Fibrosarcoma, Poor Clinical Outcomes in Poiktmp and a Low-cost Method for Its Mutation Screening

Authors: Cenza Rhoda, Falone Sunda, Elvis Kidzeru, Nonhlanhla P. Khumalo, Afolake Arowolo


Introduction: The human FAM111B gene mutations are associated with POIKTMP, a rare multi-organ fibrosing disease. Recent studies also reported the overexpression of FAM111B in specific cancers. However, the role of FAM111B in these pathologies, particularly fibrosarcoma, remains unknown. Materials and Methods: FAM111B RNA expression in some cancer cell lines was assessed in silico and validated in vitro in these cell lines and skin fibroblasts derived from the South African family member affected by POIKTMP with the heterozygous FAM111B gene mutation: NM_198947.4: c.1861T>G (p. Tyr621Asp or Y621D) by qPCR and western blot. The cellular function of FAM111B was also studied in HT1080 using various cell-based functional assays and a simple and cost-effective PCR-RFLP method for genotyping/screening FAM111B gene mutations described. Results: Expression studies showed upregulated FAM111B mRNA and protein in the cancer cells. High FAM111B expression with robust nuclear localization occurred in HT1080. Additionally, expression data and cell-based assays indicated that FAM111B led to the upregulation of cell migration and decreased cell apoptosis and cell proliferation modulation. FAM111B Y621D mutation showed similar effects on cell migration but minimal impact on cell apoptosis. FAM111B mRNA and protein expression were markedly downregulated (p ≤ 0.05) in the patient's skin-derived fibroblasts. Lastly, the PCR-RFLP method successfully genotyped FAM111B Y621D gene mutation. Discussion: FAM111B is a cancer-associated nuclear protein: Its modulation by mutations may enhance cell migration and proliferation and decrease apoptosis, as seen in cancers and POIKTMP/fibrosis, thus representing a viable therapeutic target in these disorders. Furthermore, the PCR-RFLP method could prove a valuable tool for FAM111B mutation validation or screening in resource-constrained laboratories.

Keywords: FAM111B, POIKTMP, cancer, fibrosis, PCR-RFLP

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887 Study of the Effect of the Continuous Electric Field on the Rd Cancer Cell Line by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Radia Chemlal, Salim Mehenni, Dahbia Leila Anes-boulahbal, Mohamed Kherat, Nabil Mameri


The application of the electric field is considered to be a very promising method in cancer therapy. Indeed, cancer cells are very sensitive to the electric field, although the cellular response is not entirely clear. The tests carried out consisted in subjecting the RD cell line under the effect of the continuous electric field while varying certain parameters (voltage, exposure time, and cell concentration). The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the effect of the chosen parameters, as well as the existence of interactions between them. The results obtained showed that the voltage, the cell concentration as well as the interaction between voltage and exposure time have an influence on the mortality rate of the RD cell line.

Keywords: continuous electric field, RD cancer cell line, RSM, voltage

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886 Self-Assembly of Monodisperse Oleic Acid-Capped Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Huseyin Kavas


Oleic acid (OA) capped superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) were synthesized by a thermal decomposition method. The composition of nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction, and the morphology of particles was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystalline and particle size distribution of SPIONS capped with OA were investigated with a mean size of 6.99 nm and 8.9 nm, respectively. It was found that SPIONS have superparamagnetic characteristics with a saturation magnetization value of 64 emu/g. The thin film form of self-assembled SPIONS was fabricated by coating techniques of spin coating and dip coating. SQUID-VSM magnetometer and FMR techniques were performed in order to evaluate the magnetic properties of thin films, especially the existence of magnetic anisotropy. The thin films with magnetic anisotropy were obtained by self-assembled monolayers of SPION.

Keywords: magnetic materials, nanostructures, self-assembly, FMR

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885 Genetics of Atopic Dermatitis: Role of Cytokines Genes Polymorphisms

Authors: Ghaleb Bin Huraib, Fahad Al Harthi, Misbahul Arfin, Abdulrahman Al-Asmari


Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe itching and recurrent relapsing eczema-like skin lesions, affecting up to 20% of children and 10% of adults in industrialized countries. AD is a complex multifactorial disease, and its exact etiology and pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of gene polymorphisms of T helper cell subtype Th1 and Th2 cytokines, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1on AD susceptibility in a Saudi cohort. One hundred four unrelated patients with AD and 195 healthy controls were genotyped for IFN-γ (874A/T), IL-6 (174G/C) and TGF-β1 (509C/T) polymorphisms using ARMS-PCR and PCR-RFLP technique. The frequency of genotypes AA and AT of IFN-γ (874A/T) differed significantly among patients and controls (P 0.001). The genotype AT was increased while genotype AA was decreased in AD patients as compared to controls. AD patients also had higher frequency of T containing genotypes (AT+TT) than controls (P = 0.001). The frequencies of allele T and A were statistically different in patients and controls (P = 0.04). The frequencies of genotype GG and allele G of IL-6 (174G/C) were significantly higher while genotype GC and allele C were lower in AD patients than controls. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of alleles and genotypes of TGF-β1 (509C/T) polymorphism between patient and control groups. These results showed that susceptibility to AD is influenced by presence or absence of genotypes of IFN-γ (874A/T) and IL-6 (174G/C) polymorphisms. It is concluded that T-allele and T-containing genotypes (AT+TT) of IFN-γ (874A/T) and G-allele and GG genotype ofIL-6 (174G/C) polymorphisms are susceptible to AD in Saudis.On the other hand, the TGF-β1 (509C/T) polymorphism may not be associated with AD risk in Saudi population however further studies with large sample size are required to confirm these findings.

Keywords: atopic dermatitis, interferon-γ, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β1, polymorphism

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884 Nanoparticles Using in Chiral Analysis with Different Methods of Separation

Authors: Bounoua Nadia, Rebizi Mohamed Nadjib


Chiral molecules in relation to particular biological roles are stereoselective. Enantiomers differ significantly in their biochemical responses in a biological environment. Despite the current advancement in drug discovery and pharmaceutical biotechnology, the chiral separation of some racemic mixtures continues to be one of the greatest challenges because the available techniques are too costly and time-consuming for the assessment of therapeutic drugs in the early stages of development worldwide. Various nanoparticles became one of the most investigated and explored nanotechnology-derived nanostructures, especially in chirality, where several studies are reported to improve the enantiomeric separation of different racemic mixtures. The production of surface-modified nanoparticles has contributed to these limitations in terms of sensitivity, accuracy, and enantioselectivity that can be optimized and therefore makes these surface-modified nanoparticles convenient for enantiomeric identification and separation.

Keywords: chirality, enantiomeric recognition, selectors, analysis, surface-modified nanoparticles

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883 Management and Evaluation of the Importance of Porous Media in Biomedical Engineering as Associated with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Besides Drug Delivery

Authors: Fateme Nokhodchi Bonab


Studies related to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and drug delivery are reviewed in this study to demonstrate the role of transport theory in porous media in facilitating advances in biomedical applications. Diffusion processes are believed to be important in many therapeutic modalities such as: B. Delivery of drugs to the brain. We analyse the progress in the development of diffusion equations using the local volume average method and the evaluation of applications related to diffusion equations. Torsion and porosity have significant effects on diffusive transport. In this study, various relevant models of torsion are presented and mathematical modeling of drug release from biodegradable delivery systems is analysed. In this study, a new model of drug release kinetics from porous biodegradable polymeric microspheres under bulk and surface erosion of the polymer matrix is presented. Solute drug diffusion, drug dissolution from the solid phase, and polymer matrix erosion have been found to play a central role in controlling the overall drug release process. This work paves the way for MRI and drug delivery researchers to develop comprehensive models based on porous media theory that use fewer assumptions compared to other approaches.

Keywords: MRI, porous media, drug delivery, biomedical applications

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882 Indigenous Hair Treatment in Abyssinia

Authors: Makda Yeshitela Kifele


Hair treatment prevents the hair from loss of volume, changing colour, and damaging its properties of the hair. Hair is the beauty of human beings that makes people beautiful and takes the other hearts to see them and to give them an appreciation for their effort to treat their hair and save it from damage. There are different methods to protect human hair from loss and damage that influence human psychology better than the problems. Chemicals products are available in the world that keeps safely the hair and provide beauty for the hair. But chemical products have side effects and are not cost-effective. Even some of the chemicals are allergic for users and left some changes in the hair. Indigenous hair treatment is an effective method that reduces the bad effects and the problems of the chemical that are lefts in human being’slife. Indigenous hair treatment can treat the hair safely and effectively that does not have much effect or spots in the human hair the users rather, it improves some attributes of the hair such that shine, quality, quantity improvements, length, and flexibility can be modified by these indigenous treatments. Rate is the local plant that plays a significant role in hair treatment. Rate is the local plant that can be available everywhere in the country, and anybody can be used for hair treatments. For this research, 50 women are identified as sample populations with different hair characteristics. The treatments were collected from the fields and squeezed into the pots to be prepared as specimens. The squeezed plants were deposited in the refrigerator for three days with some amounts of salts to prevent some bacteria. Chemical analysis has been done to sort out some detrimental substances. So the result showed that there are no detrimental substances that affect the hair properties and the health of the users. The sample population used the oil for one month without any other oily cosmetics that disturbs the treatment. The output is very effective and brings shining the hair, preventing greying of the hair, showing fast-growing, increasing the volume of the hair, and becoming flexible and curly, straight hair, thicker, and with no allergic effects.

Keywords: indigenous, chemicals, curly, treatment

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881 Monitoring of Wound Healing Through Structural and Functional Mechanisms Using Photoacoustic Imaging Modality

Authors: Souradip Paul, Arijit Paramanick, M. Suheshkumar Singh


Traumatic injury is the leading worldwide health problem. Annually, millions of surgical wounds are created for the sake of routine medical care. The healing of these unintended injuries is always monitored based on visual inspection. The maximal restoration of tissue functionality remains a significant concern of clinical care. Although minor injuries heal well with proper care and medical treatment, large injuries negatively influence various factors (vasculature insufficiency, tissue coagulation) and cause poor healing. Demographically, the number of people suffering from severe wounds and impaired healing conditions is burdensome for both human health and the economy. An incomplete understanding of the functional and molecular mechanism of tissue healing often leads to a lack of proper therapies and treatment. Hence, strong and promising medical guidance is necessary for monitoring the tissue regeneration processes. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI), is a non-invasive, hybrid imaging modality that can provide a suitable solution in this regard. Light combined with sound offers structural, functional and molecular information from the higher penetration depth. Therefore, molecular and structural mechanisms of tissue repair will be readily observable in PAI from the superficial layer and in the deep tissue region. Blood vessel formation and its growth is an essential tissue-repairing components. These vessels supply nutrition and oxygen to the cell in the wound region. Angiogenesis (formation of new capillaries from existing blood vessels) contributes to new blood vessel formation during tissue repair. The betterment of tissue healing directly depends on angiogenesis. Other optical microscopy techniques can visualize angiogenesis in micron-scale penetration depth but are unable to provide deep tissue information. PAI overcomes this barrier due to its unique capability. It is ideally suited for deep tissue imaging and provides the rich optical contrast generated by hemoglobin in blood vessels. Hence, an early angiogenesis detection method provided by PAI leads to monitoring the medical treatment of the wound. Along with functional property, mechanical property also plays a key role in tissue regeneration. The wound heals through a dynamic series of physiological events like coagulation, granulation tissue formation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Therefore tissue elasticity changes, can be identified using non-contact photoacoustic elastography (PAE). In a nutshell, angiogenesis and biomechanical properties are both critical parameters for tissue healing and these can be characterized in a single imaging modality (PAI).

Keywords: PAT, wound healing, tissue coagulation, angiogenesis

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880 Computational Models for Accurate Estimation of Joint Forces

Authors: Ibrahim Elnour Abdelrahman Eltayeb


Computational modelling is a method used to investigate joint forces during a movement. It can get high accuracy in the joint forces via subject-specific models. However, the construction of subject-specific models remains time-consuming and expensive. The purpose of this paper was to identify what alterations we can make to generic computational models to get a better estimation of the joint forces. It appraised the impact of these alterations on the accuracy of the estimated joint forces. It found different strategies of alterations: joint model, muscle model, and an optimisation problem. All these alterations affected joint contact force accuracy, so showing the potential for improving the model predictions without involving costly and time-consuming medical images.

Keywords: joint force, joint model, optimisation problem, validation

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879 Characterization and Selection of Phosphorus Deficiency Tolerant Genotypes in Nigeria Based on Morpho-Physiologic Traits

Authors: Umego Chukwudi T., Ntui Valentine O., Uyoh Edak A.


Phosphorus (P) deficiency has been identified as a major hindrance to rice production the world over. Eleven (11) rice genotypes predominantly used by local farmers in Nigeria were studied for their responses to P deficient conditions. The characterization was based on morpho-physiologic parameters. The genotypes were screened using a hydroponic system in a modified Hoagland’s solution. Morphological and physiologic parameters, including Plant height (PH), number of tillers per plant, shoot dry weight (SDW), shoot phosphate concentration (SPC), and chlorophyll content, were recorded after exposure to three levels of phosphate concentration (0µM, 400 µM, and 800 µM). The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the means were separated using least significance difference tests. The results obtained showed that P starvation caused a significant (p≤0.05) reduction in PH, SDW, and tillering and also triggered a significant (p≤0.05) increase in root length among the genotypes. The Pearsons correlation coefficient was used to estimate the relationships among studied parameters, and a significant negative correlation was observed between plant height and root length. FARO63 was identified as a highly tolerant genotype to P deficiency with a low (0.24) SPC and higher (4.81) phosphate utilization efficiency (PUE). This study has identified FARO63 as a true tolerant genotype to Phosphate deficiency, which will be useful in breeding for phosphate deficiency tolerance in rice and thus combating food insecurity.

Keywords: phosphate deficiency, rice genotypes, hydroponic system, food security

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878 Synthesize And Physicochemical Characterization Of Biomimetic Scaffold Of Gelatin/zn-incorporated 58s Bioactive Glass

Authors: SeyedMohammad Hosseini, Amirhossein Moghanian


The main purpose of this research was to design a biomimetic system by freeze-drying method for evaluating the effect of adding 5 and 10 mol. % of zinc (Zn)in 58S bioactive glass and gelatin (5ZnBG/G and 10ZnBG/G) in terms of structural and biological changes. The structural analyses of samples were performed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Also, 3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide(MTT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity test were carried out for investigation of MC3T3-E1cell behaviors. The SEM results demonstrated the spherical shape of the formed hydroxyapatite (HA) phases, and also HA characteristic peaks were detected by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD)after 3 days of immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Meanwhile, FTIR spectra proved that the intensity of P–O peaks for 5ZnBG/G was more than 10ZnBG/G and control samples. Moreover, the results of alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) test illustrated that the optimal amount of Zn (5ZnBG/G) caused a considerable enhancement in bone cell growth. Taken together, the scaffold with 5 mol.% Zn was introduced as an optimal sample because of its higher biocompatibility, in vitro bioactivity, and growth of MC3T3-E1cellsin in comparison with other samples in bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: scaffold, gelatin, modified bioactive glass, alp, bone tissue engineering

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877 An Exploration of the Pancreatic Cancer miRNome during the Progression of the Disease

Authors: Barsha Saha, Shouvik Chakravarty, Sukanta Ray, Kshaunish Das, Nidhan K. Biswas, Srikanta Goswami


Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma is a well-recognised cause of cancer death with a five-year survival rate of about 9%, and its incidence in India has been found to be increased manifold in recent years. Due to delayed detection, this highly metastatic disease has a poor prognosis. Several molecular alterations happen during the progression of the disease from pre-cancerous conditions, and many such alterations could be investigated for their biomarker potential. MicroRNAs have been shown to be prognostic for PDAC patients in a variety of studies. We hereby used NGS technologies to evaluate the role of small RNA changes during pancreatic cancer development from chronic pancreatitis. Plasma samples were collected from pancreatic cancer patients (n=16), chronic pancreatitis patients (n=8), and also from normal individuals (n=16). Pancreatic tumour tissue (n=5) and adjacent normal tissue samples (n=5) were also collected. Sequencing of small RNAs was carried out after small RNAs were isolated from plasma samples and tissue samples. We find that certain microRNAs are highly deregulated in pancreatic cancer patients in comparison to normal samples. A combinatorial analysis of plasma and tissue microRNAs and subsequent exploration of their targets and altered molecular pathways could not only identify potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis but also help to understand the underlying mechanism.

Keywords: small RNA sequencing, pancreatic cancer, biomarkers, tissue sample

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876 Platform Integration for High-Throughput Functional Screening Applications

Authors: Karolis Leonavičius, Dalius Kučiauskas, Dangiras Lukošius, Arnoldas Jasiūnas, Kostas Zdanys, Rokas Stanislovas, Emilis Gegevičius, Žana Kapustina, Juozas Nainys


Screening throughput is a common bottleneck in many research areas, including functional genomics, drug discovery, and directed evolution. High-throughput screening techniques can be classified into two main categories: (i) affinity-based screening and (ii) functional screening. The first one relies on binding assays that provide information about the affinity of a test molecule for a target binding site. Binding assays are relatively easy to establish; however, they reveal no functional activity. In contrast, functional assays show an effect triggered by the interaction of a ligand at a target binding site. Functional assays might be based on a broad range of readouts, such as cell proliferation, reporter gene expression, downstream signaling, and other effects that are a consequence of ligand binding. Screening of large cell or gene libraries based on direct activity rather than binding affinity is now a preferred strategy in many areas of research as functional assays more closely resemble the context where entities of interest are anticipated to act. Droplet sorting is the basis of high-throughput functional biological screening, yet its applicability is limited due to the technical complexity of integrating high-performance droplet analysis and manipulation systems. As a solution, the Droplet Genomics Styx platform enables custom droplet sorting workflows, which are necessary for the development of early-stage or complex biological therapeutics or industrially important biocatalysts. The poster will focus on the technical design considerations of Styx in the context of its application spectra.

Keywords: functional screening, droplet microfluidics, droplet sorting, dielectrophoresis

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875 The Magnitude and Associated Factors of Immune Hemolytic Anemia among Human Immuno Deficiency Virus Infected Adults Attending University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital North West Ethiopia 2021 GC, Cross Sectional Study Design

Authors: Samul Sahile Kebede


Back ground: -Immune hemolytic anemia commonly affects human immune deficiency, infected individuals. Among anemic HIV patients in Africa, the burden of IHA due to autoantibody was ranged from 2.34 to 3.06 due to the drug was 43.4%. IHA due to autoimmune is potentially a fatal complication of HIV, which accompanies the greatest percent from acquired hemolytic anemia. Objective: -The main aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of immune hemolytic anemia among human immuno deficiency virus infected adults at the university of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital north west Ethiopia from March to April 2021. Methods: - An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 358 human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults selected by systematic random sampling at the University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital from March to April 2021. Data for socio-demography, dietary and clinical data were collected by structured pretested questionnaire. Five ml of venous blood was drawn from each participant and analyzed by Unicel DHX 800 hematology analyzer, blood film examination, and antihuman globulin test were performed to the diagnosis of immune hemolytic anemia. Data was entered into Epidata version 4.6 and analyzed by STATA version 14. Descriptive statistics were computed and firth penalized logistic regression was used to identify predictors. P value less than 0.005 interpreted as significant. Result; - The overall prevalence of immune hemolytic anemia was 2.8 % (10 of 358 participants). Of these, 5 were males, and 7 were in the 31 to 50 year age group. Among individuals with immune hemolytic anemia, 40 % mild and 60 % moderate anemia. The factors that showed association were family history of anemia (AOR 8.30 at 95% CI 1.56, 44.12), not eating meat (AOR 7.39 at 95% CI 1.25, 45.0), and high viral load 6.94 at 95% CI (1.13, 42.6). Conclusion and recommendation; Immune hemolytic anemia is less frequent condition in human immunodeficiency virus infected adults, and moderate anemia was common in this population. The prevalence was increased with a high viral load, a family history of anemia, and not eating meat. In these patients, early detection and treatment of immune hemolytic anemia is necessary.

Keywords: anemia, hemolytic, immune, auto immune, HIV/AIDS

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874 In Vitro Study on the Antimicrobial Activity of Ass Hay (Donkey Skin) On Some Pathogenic Microorganisms

Authors: Emmanuel Jaluchimike Iloputaife, Kelechi Nkechinyere Mbah-Omeje


This study was designed to determine the antimicrobial activities and minimum inhibitory concentration of three different batches (Fresh, Oven dried and Sundried) of Ass Hay extracted with water, ethanol and methanolagainst selected human pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella Pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candidaalbicans). All extracts were reconstituted with peptone water and tested for antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal concentrations were determined by agar well diffusion methodagainst test organismsin which aseptic conditions were observed. The antimicrobial activities of the different batches of Ass Hay on the test organisms varied considerably. The highest inhibition zone diameter at 200 mg/ml for the different batches of Ass Hay was recorded by sundried methanol extract against Escherichia coli at 36.4 ± 0.2 mm while fresh methanol extract inhibited Klebsiela pneumonia with the least inhibition zone diameter at 20.1 ± 0.1mm. At 100 mg/ml the highest inhibition zone diameter was recorded by oven dried water extract against Escherichia coli at 30.3 ± 0.3 mm while sun dried water extract inhibited Staphylococcus aureus with the least inhibition zone diameter at 15.1 ± 0.1 mm. At 50mg/ml, the highest inhibition zone diameter was recorded by fresh water extract against Escherichia coli at 25.9 ± 0.1 mm while oven dried water extract inhibited Klebsiela pneumonia with least inhibition zone diameter at 12.1 ± 0.2 mm. At 25mg/ml, the highest inhibition zone diameter was recorded by fresh water extract against Escherichia coli at 18.3 ± 0.2 mm while sun dried ethanol extract inhibited Escherichia coli with least inhibition zone diameter at 10.1 ± 0.1 mm. The MIC and MBC result of ethanol extract of fresh Ass Hay showed a uniform value of 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml respectively for all test bacterial isolates. The Minimum Inhibitory concentration and Minimum bactericidal concentration results of Oven dried ethanol Ass Hay extract showed a uniform value of 3.125 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml respectively for all test bacterial isolates and Minimum fungicidal concentration value of 12.5 mg/ml for Aspergillus niger. Statistical analysis showed there is significant difference in mean zone inhibition diameter of the products at p < 0.05, p = 0.019. This study has shown there is antimicrobial potential in Ass Hay and at such there is need to further exploit Donkey Ass Hay in order to maximize the potential.

Keywords: microorganisms, Ass Hay, antimicrobial activity, extracts

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873 Emotions in Human-Machine Interaction

Authors: Joanna Maj


Awe inspiring is the idea that emotions could be present in human-machine interactions, both on the human side as well as the machine side. Human factors present intriguing components and are examined in detail while discussing this controversial topic. Mood, attention, memory, performance, assessment, causes of emotion, and neurological responses are analyzed as components of the interaction. Problems in computer-based technology, revenge of the system on its users and design, and applications comprise a major part of all descriptions and examples throughout this paper. It also allows for critical thinking while challenging intriguing questions regarding future directions in research, dealing with emotion in human-machine interactions.

Keywords: biocomputing, biomedical engineering, emotions, human-machine interaction, interfaces

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872 Easymodel: Web-based Bioinformatics Software for Protein Modeling Based on Modeller

Authors: Alireza Dantism


Presently, describing the function of a protein sequence is one of the most common problems in biology. Usually, this problem can be facilitated by studying the three-dimensional structure of proteins. In the absence of a protein structure, comparative modeling often provides a useful three-dimensional model of the protein that is dependent on at least one known protein structure. Comparative modeling predicts the three-dimensional structure of a given protein sequence (target) mainly based on its alignment with one or more proteins of known structure (templates). Comparative modeling consists of four main steps 1. Similarity between the target sequence and at least one known template structure 2. Alignment of target sequence and template(s) 3. Build a model based on alignment with the selected template(s). 4. Prediction of model errors 5. Optimization of the built model There are many computer programs and web servers that automate the comparative modeling process. One of the most important advantages of these servers is that it makes comparative modeling available to both experts and non-experts, and they can easily do their own modeling without the need for programming knowledge, but some other experts prefer using programming knowledge and do their modeling manually because by doing this they can maximize the accuracy of their modeling. In this study, a web-based tool has been designed to predict the tertiary structure of proteins using PHP and Python programming languages. This tool is called EasyModel. EasyModel can receive, according to the user's inputs, the desired unknown sequence (which we know as the target) in this study, the protein sequence file (template), etc., which also has a percentage of similarity with the primary sequence, and its third structure Predict the unknown sequence and present the results in the form of graphs and constructed protein files.

Keywords: structural bioinformatics, protein tertiary structure prediction, modeling, comparative modeling, modeller

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871 Biosensor Technologies in Neurotransmitters Detection

Authors: Joanna Cabaj, Sylwia Baluta, Karol Malecha


Catecholamines are vital neurotransmitters that mediate a variety of central nervous system functions, such as motor control, cognition, emotion, memory processing, and endocrine modulation. Dysfunctions in catecholamine neurotransmission are induced in some neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Changeable neurotransmitters level in biological fluids can be a marker of several neurological disorders. Because of its significance in analytical techniques and diagnostics, sensitive and selective detection of neurotransmitters is increasingly attracting a lot of attention in different areas of bio-analysis or biomedical research. Recently, optical techniques for the detection of catecholamines have attracted interests due to their reasonable cost, convenient control, as well as maneuverability in biological environments. Nevertheless, with the observed need for a sensitive and selective catecholamines sensor, the development of a convenient method for this neurotransmitter is still at its basic level. The manipulation of nanostructured materials in conjunction with biological molecules has led to the development of a new class of hybrid-modified enzymatic sensors in which both enhancement of charge transport and biological activity preservation may be obtained. Immobilization of biomaterials on electrode surfaces is the crucial step in fabricating electrochemical as well as optical biosensors and bioelectronic devices. Continuing systematic investigation in manufacturing of enzyme–conducting sensitive systems, here is presented a convenient fluorescence as well as electrochemical sensing strategy for catecholamines detection.

Keywords: biosensors, catecholamines, fluorescence, enzymes

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870 The Function of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) In Plant Retrograde Signaling Pathway

Authors: Mingxi Zhou, Jiří Kubásek, Iva Mozgová


In Arabidopsis thaliana, histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation catalysed byPRC2 is playing essential functions in the regulation of plant development, growth, and reproduction[1-2]. Despite numerous studies related to the role of PRC2 in developmental control, how PRC2 works in the operational control in plants is unknown. In the present, the evidence that PRC2 probably participates in the regulation of retrograde singalling pathway in Arabidopsisis found. Firstly, we observed that the rosette size and biomass in PRC2-depletion mutants (clf-29 and swn-3) is significantly higher than WTunder medium light condition (ML: 125 µmol m⁻² s⁻²), while under medium high light condition (MHL: 300 µmol m⁻² s-2), the increase was reverse. Under ML condition, the photosynthesis related parameters determined by fluorCam did not show significant differences between WT and mutants, while the pigments concentration increased in the leaf of PRC2-depletion mutants, especially in swn. The dynamic of light-responsive genes and circadian clock genes expression by RT-qPCRwithin 24 hours in the mutants were comparable to WT. However, we observed upregulation of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes in the PRC2-depletion mutants under chloroplast damaging condition (treated by lincomycin), corresponding to the so-called genome uncoupled (gun) phenotype. Here, we will present our results describing these phenotypes and our suggestion and outlook for studying the involvement of PRC2 in chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signalling.

Keywords: PRC2, retrograde signalling, light acclimation, photosyntheis

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869 The Association between IFNAR2 and Dpp9 Genes Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Frequency with COVID-19 Severity in Iranian Patients

Authors: Sima Parvizi Omran, Rezvan Tavakoli, Mahnaz Safari, Mohammadreza Aghasadeghi, Abolfazl Fateh, Pooneh Rahimi


Background: SARS-CoV-2, a single-stranded RNA betacoronavirus causes the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several clinical and scientific concerns are raised by this pandemic. Genetic factors can contribute to pathogenesis and disease susceptibility. There are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in many of the genes in the immune system that affect the expression of specific genes or functions of some proteins related to immune responses against viral infections. In this study, we analyzed the impact of polymorphism in the interferon alpha and beta receptor subunit 2 (IFNAR2) and dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (Dpp9) genes and clinical parameters on the susceptibility and resistance to Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 330- SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (188 survivors and 142 nonsurvivors) were included in this study. All single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on IFNAR2 (rs2236757) and Dpp9 (rs2109069) were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: In survivor patients, the frequency of the favourable genotypes of IFNAR2 SNP (rs2236757 GC) was significantly higher than in nonsurvivor patients, and also Dpp9 (rs2109069 AT) genotypes were associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the severity of COVID- 19 patients was strongly associated with clinical parameters and unfavourable IFNAR2, Dpp9 SNP genotypes. In order to establish the relationship between host genetic factors and the severity of COVID-19 infection, further studies are needed in multiple parts of the world.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, interferon alpha and beta receptor subunit 2, dipeptidyl peptidase 9, single-nucleotide polymorphisms

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868 Comparative Study between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Regulatory T-Cells in Macrophage Polarization for Organ Transplant Tolerance: In Vitro Study

Authors: Vijaya Madhuri Devraj, Swarnalatha Guditi, Kiran Kumar Bokara, Gangadhar Taduri


Cell-based strategies may open therapeutic approaches that promote tolerance through manipulation of macrophages to increase long-term transplant survival rates and minimize side effects of the current immune suppressive regimens. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to test and compare the therapeutic potential of MSC and Tregs on macrophage polarization to develop an alternate cell-based treatment option in kidney transplantation. In the current protocol, macrophages from kidney transplant recipients with graft dysfunction were co-cultured with MSCs and Treg cells with and without cell-cell contact on transwell plates, further to quantitatively assess macrophage polarization in response to MSC and Treg treatment over time, M1 and M2 cell surface markers were used. Additionally, multiple soluble analytes were analyzed in cell supernatant by using bead-based immunoassays. Furthermore, to confirm our findings, gene expression analysis was done. MSCs induced the formation of M2 macrophages more than Tregs when macrophages M0 were cultured in transwell without cell contact. From this, we deduced the mechanism that soluble factors present in the MSCs condition media are involved in skewing of macrophages towards type 2 macrophages; similarly, in co-culture with cell-cell contact, MSCs resulted in more M2 type macrophages than Tregs. And an important finding of this study is the combination of both MSC-Treg showed significantly effective and consistent results in both with and without cell contact setups. Hence, it is suggestive to prefer MSCs over Tregs for secretome-based therapy and a combination of both for either therapy for effective transplantation outcomes. Our findings underline a key role of Tregs and MSCs in promoting macrophage polarization towards anti-inflammatory type. The study has great importance in prolongation of allograft and patient survival without any rejection by cell-based therapy, which induce self-tolerance and controlling infection.

Keywords: graft rejection, graft tolerance, macrophage polarization, mesenchymal stem cells, regulatory T cells, transplant immunology

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867 Breast Cancer Prediction Using Score-Level Fusion of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Models

Authors: Sam Khozama, Ali M. Mayya


Breast cancer is one of the most common types in women. Early prediction of breast cancer helps physicians detect cancer in its early stages. Big cancer data needs a very powerful tool to analyze and extract predictions. Machine learning and deep learning are two of the most efficient tools for predicting cancer based on textual data. In this study, we developed a fusion model of two machine learning and deep learning models. To obtain the final prediction, Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) and ensemble learning with hyper parameters optimization are used, and score-level fusion is used. Experiments are done on the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) dataset after balancing and grouping the class categories. Five different training scenarios are used, and the tests show that the designed fusion model improved the performance by 3.3% compared to the individual models.

Keywords: machine learning, deep learning, cancer prediction, breast cancer, LSTM, fusion

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866 Identification and Characterization of Oil-Degrading Bacteria from Crude Oil-Contaminated Desert Soil in Northeastern Jordan

Authors: Mohammad Aladwan, Adelia Skripova


Bioremediation aspects of crude oil-polluted fields can be achieved by isolation and identification of bacterial species from oil-contaminated soil in order to choose the most active isolates and increase the strength of others. In this study, oil-degrading bacteria were isolated and identified from oil-contaminated soil samples in northeastern Jordan. The bacterial growth count (CFU/g) was between 1.06×10⁵ and 0.75×10⁹. Eighty-two bacterial isolates were characterized by their morphology and biochemical tests. The identified bacterial genera included: Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Citrobacter, Lactobacillus, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, Hafnia, Micrococcus, Rhodococcus, Serratia, Enterobacter, Bacillus, Salmonella, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, and Acetobacter. Molecular identification of a universal primer 16S rDNA gene was used to identify four bacterial isolates: Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain L20, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain 13636M, Klebsilla pneumoniae, and uncultured Klebsilla sp., known as new strains. Our results indicate that their specific oil-degrading bacteria isolates might have a high strength of oil degradation from oil-contaminated sites. Staphylococcus intermedius (75%), Corynebacterium xerosis (75%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (50%) showed a high growth rate on different types of hydrocarbons, such as crude oil, toluene, naphthalene, and hexane. In addition, monooxygenase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase were detected in 17 bacterial isolates, indicating their superior hydrocarbon degradation potential. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using gas chromatography for soil samples. Soil samples M5, M7, and M8 showed the highest levels (43,645, 47,805, and 45,991 ppm, respectively), and M4 had the lowest level (7,514 ppm). All soil samples were analyzed for heavy metal contamination (Cu, Cd, Mn, Zn, and Pb). Site M7 contains the highest levels of Cu, Mn, and Pb, while Site M8 contains the highest levels of Mn and Zn. In the future, these isolates of bacteria can be used for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil.

Keywords: bioremediation, 16S rDNA gene, oil-degrading bacteria, hydrocarbons

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