Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 968

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Biotechnology and Bioengineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

968 The Development of an Automated Computational Workflow to Prioritize Potential Resistance Variants in HIV Integrase Subtype C

Authors: Keaghan Brown


The prioritization of drug resistance mutations impacting protein folding or protein-drug and protein-DNA interactions within macromolecular systems is critical to the success of treatment regimens. With a continual increase in computational tools to assess these impacts, the need for scalability and reproducibility became an essential component of computational analysis and experimental research. Here it introduce a bioinformatics pipeline that combines several structural analysis tools in a simplified workflow, by optimizing the present computational hardware and software to automatically ease the flow of data transformations. Utilizing preestablished software tools, it was possible to develop a pipeline with a set of pre-defined functions that will automate mutation introduction into the HIV-1 Integrase protein structure, calculate the gain and loss of polar interactions and calculate the change in energy of protein fold. Additionally, an automated molecular dynamics analysis was implemented which reduces the constant need for user input and output management. The resulting pipeline, Automated Mutation Introduction and Analysis (AMIA) is an open source set of scripts designed to introduce and analyse the effects of mutations on the static protein structure as well as the results of the multi-conformational states from molecular dynamic simulations. The workflow allows the user to visualize all outputs in a user friendly manner thereby successfully enabling the prioritization of variant systems for experimental validation.

Keywords: automated workflow, variant prioritization, drug resistance, HIV Integrase

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967 Evaluation of Two DNA Extraction Methods for Minimal Porcine (Pork) Detection in Halal Food Sample Mixture Using Taqman Real-time PCR Technique

Authors: Duaa Mughal, Syeda Areeba Nadeem, Shakil Ahmed, Ishtiaq Ahmed Khan


The identification of porcine DNA in Halal food items is critical to ensuring compliance with dietary restrictions and religious beliefs. In Islam, Porcine is prohibited as clearly mentioned in Quran (Surah Al-Baqrah, Ayat 173). The purpose of this study was to compare two DNA extraction procedures for detecting 0.001% of porcine DNA in processed Halal food sample mixtures containing chicken, camel, veal, turkey and goat meat using the TaqMan Real-Time PCR technology. In this research, two different commercial kit protocols were compared. The processed sample mixtures were prepared by spiking known concentration of porcine DNA to non-porcine food matrices. Afterwards, TaqMan Real-Time PCR technique was used to target a particular porcine gene from the extracted DNA samples, which was quantified after extraction. The results of the amplification were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. The results of the study demonstrated that two DNA extraction techniques can detect 0.01% of porcine DNA in mixture of Halal food samples. However, as compared to the alternative approach, Eurofins| GeneScan GeneSpin DNA Isolation kit showed more effective sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, the commercial kit-based approach showed great repeatability with minimal variance across repeats. Quantification of DNA was done by using fluorometric assay. In conclusion, the comparison of DNA extraction methods for detecting porcine DNA in Halal food sample mixes using the TaqMan Real-Time PCR technology reveals that the commercial kit-based approach outperforms the other methods in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and repeatability. This research helps to promote the development of reliable and standardized techniques for detecting porcine DNA in Halal food items, religious conformity and assuring nutritional.

Keywords: real time PCR (qPCR), DNA extraction, porcine DNA, halal food authentication, religious conformity

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966 Microplastics in Different Coastal Zone Compartments at the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

Authors: Viktorija Sabaliauskaitė, Arūnas Balčiūnas, Renata Rubavičiūtė


The castaway of algae is a significant natural process in marine environments, taking an important part in beach sand sedimentation. Accumulated algae provide valuable materials for the coastal ecosystems with organic matter. Even more, it serves as a primary nutrient source for coastal organisms. The importance of beach wrack to the regulating and maintenance of ecosystem services is well known, as it is a major source of nutrients to the sandy coast ecosystems and is a part of habitat formation, also it serves as the natural beach sediment storage. However, human-generated marine litter, predominantly composed of synthetic polymers-plastics, is increasingly observed within algal drifts, posing a threat to marine ecosystems. The increase in recreational activities in the coastal zone also brings the inevitable pressures related to marine litter pollution. Such pollution, coupled with climate change, invasive species, unsustainable water use, and biodiversity loss, stands out as a key ecological concern in marine environments.

Keywords: beach wrack, marine litter, microplastics, pollution

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965 Genome Editing in Sorghum: Advancements and Future Possibilities: A Review

Authors: Micheale Yifter Weldemichael, Hailay Mehari Gebremedhn, Teklehaimanot Hailesslasie


The advancement of target-specific genome editing tools, including clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein9 (Cas9), mega-nucleases, base editing (BE), prime editing (PE), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENs), and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), have paved the way for a modern era of gene editing. CRISPR/Cas9, as a versatile, simple, cost-effective and robust system for genome editing, has dominated the genome manipulation field over the last few years. The application of CRISPR/Cas9 in sorghum improvement is particularly vital in the context of ecological, environmental and agricultural challenges, as well as global climate change. In this context, gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 can improve nutritional value, yield, resistance to pests and disease and tolerance to different abiotic stress. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9 can potentially perform complex editing to reshape already available elite varieties and new genetic variations. However, existing research is targeted at improving even further the effectiveness of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing techniques to fruitfully edit endogenous sorghum genes. These findings suggest that genome editing is a feasible and successful venture in sorghum. Newer improvements and developments of CRISPR/Cas9 techniques have further qualified researchers to modify extra genes in sorghum with improved efficiency. The fruitful application and development of CRISPR techniques for genome editing in sorghum will not only help in gene discovery, creating new, improved traits in sorghum regulating gene expression sorghum functional genomics, but also in making site-specific integration events.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9, genome editing, quality, sorghum, stress, yield

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964 Measures of Phylogenetic Support for Phylogenomic and the Whole Genomes of Two Lungfish Restate Lungfish and Origin of Land Vertebrates

Authors: Yunfeng Shan, Xiaoliang Wang, Youjun Zhou


Whole-genome data from two lungfish species, along with other species, present a valuable opportunity to reassess the longstanding debate regarding the evolutionary relationships among tetrapods, lungfishes, and coelacanths. However, the use of bootstrap support has become outdated for large-scale phylogenomic data. Without robust phylogenetic support, the phylogenetic trees become meaningless. Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate the phylogenies of tetrapods, lungfishes, and coelacanths using novel measures of phylogenetic support specifically designed for phylogenomic data, as the previous phylogenies were based on 100% bootstrap support. Our findings consistently provide strong evidence favoring lungfish as the closest living relative of tetrapods. This conclusion is based on high gene support confidence with confidence intervals exceeding 95%, high internode certainty, and high gene concordance factor. The evidence stems from two datasets containing recently deciphered whole genomes of two lungfish species, as well as five previous datasets derived from lungfish transcriptomes. These results yield fresh insights into the three hypotheses regarding the phylogenies of tetrapods, lungfishes, and coelacanths. Importantly, these hypotheses are not mere conjectures but are substantiated by a significant number of genes. Analyzing real biological data further demonstrates that the inclusion of additional taxa diminishes the number of orthologues and leads to more diverse tree topologies. Consequently, gene trees and species trees may not be identical even when whole-genome sequencing data is utilized. However, it is worth noting that many gene trees can accurately reflect the species tree if an appropriate number of taxa, typically ranging from six to ten, are sampled. Therefore, it is crucial to carefully select the number of taxa and an appropriate outgroup while excluding fast-evolving taxa as outgroups to mitigate the adverse effects of long-branch attraction (LBA) and achieve an accurate reconstruction of the species tree. This is particularly important as more whole-genome sequencing data becomes available.

Keywords: gene support confidence (GSC), origin of land vertebrates, coelacanth, two whole genomes of lungfishes, confidence intervals

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963 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Total Phenolics from Waste Orange Peels

Authors: Kanika Kalra, Harmeet Kaur, Dinesh Goyal


Total phenolics were extracted from waste orange peels by solvent extraction and alkali hydrolysis method. The most efficient solvents for extracting phenolic compounds from waste biomass were methanol (60%) > dimethyl sulfoxide > ethanol (60%) > distilled water. The extraction yields were significantly impacted by solvents (ethanol, methanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide) due to varying polarity and concentrations. Extraction of phenolics using 60% methanol yielded the highest phenolics (in terms of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of biomass) in orange peels. Alkali hydrolyzed extract from orange peels contained 7.58±0.33 mg GAE g⁻¹. By using the solvent extraction technique, it was observed that 60% methanol is comparatively the best-suited solvent for extracting polyphenolic compounds and gave the maximum yield of 4.68 ± 0.47 mg GAE g⁻¹ in orange peel extracts. DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing the power of orange peel extract were checked, where 60% methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity, 85.50±0.009% for DPPH, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extract gave the highest yield of 1.75±0.01% for reducing power ability of the orange peels extract. Characterization of the polyphenolic compounds was done by using Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Solvent and alkali hydrolysed extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis MTCC441 and Gram-negative Escherichia coli MTCC729. Methanolic extract at 300µl concentration showed an inhibition zone of around 16.33±0.47 mm against Bacillus subtilis, whereas, for Escherichia coli, it was comparatively less. Broth-based turbidimetric assay revealed the antibacterial effect of different volumes of orange peel extracts against both organisms.

Keywords: orange peels, total phenolic content, antioxidant, antibacterial

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962 Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.): Molecular Breeding and Transformation

Authors: Micheale Yifter Weldemichael, Stefaan Werbrouck, Hailay Mehari Gebremedhn


Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is among the most important oilseed crops for its high edible oil quality and quantity. Sesame is grown for food, medicinal, pharmaceutical, and industrial uses. Sesame is also cultivated as a main cash crop in Asia and Africa by smallholder farmers. Despite the global exponential increase in sesame cultivation area, its production and productivity remain low, mainly due to biotic and abiotic constraints. Notwithstanding the efforts to solve these problems, a low level of genetic variation and inadequate genomic resources hinder the progress of sesame improvement. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to review recent advances in the area of molecular breeding and transformation to overcome major production constraints and could result in enhanced and sustained sesame production. This paper reviews various researches conducted to date on molecular breeding and genetic transformation in sesame focusing on molecular markers used in assessing the available online database resources, genes responsible for key agronomic traits as well as transgenic technology and genome editing. The review concentrates on quantitative and semi-quantitative studies on molecular breeding for key agronomic traits such as improvement of yield components, oil and oil-related traits, disease and insect/pest resistance, and drought, waterlogging and salt tolerance, as well as sesame genetic transformation and genome editing techniques. Pitfalls and limitations of existing studies and methodologies used so far are identified and some priorities for future research directions in sesame genetic improvement are identified in this review.

Keywords: molecular breeding, oil, sesame, shattering

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961 Antibiotic and Fungicide Exposure Reveal the Evolution of Soil-Lettuce System Resistome

Authors: Chenyu Huang, Minrong Cui, Hua Fang, Luqing Zhang, Yunlong Yu


The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become a pressing issue in global agricultural production. However, understanding how these ARGs spread across different spatial scales, especially when exposed to both pesticides and antibiotics, has remained a challenge. Here, metagenomic assembly and binning methodologies were used to determine the mechanism of ARG propagation within soil-lettuce systems exposed to both fungicides and antibiotics. The results of our study showed that the presence of fungicide and antibiotic stresses had a significant impact on certain bacterial communities. Notably, we observed that ARGs were primarily transferred from the soil to the plant through plasmids. The selective pressure exerted by fungicides and antibiotics contributed to an increase in unique ARGs present on lettuce leaves. Moreover, ARGs located on chromosomes and plasmids followed different transmission patterns. The presence of diverse selective pressures, a result of compound treatments involving antibiotics and fungicides, amplifies this phenomenon. Consequently, there is a higher probability of bacteria developing multi-antibiotic resistance under the combined pressure of fungicides and antibiotics. In summary, our findings highlight that combined fungicide and antibiotic treatments are more likely to drive the acquisition of ARGs within the soil-plant system and may increase the risk of human ingestion.

Keywords: soil-lettuce system, fungicide, antibiotic, ARG, transmission

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960 One-Step Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Dots in a Green Way as Effective Fluorescent Probes for Detection of Iron Ions and pH Value

Authors: Mostafa Ghasemi, Andrew Urquhart


In this study, fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) were synthesized in a green way using a one-step hydrothermal method. Carbon dots are carbon-based nanomaterials with a size of less than 10 nm, unique structure, and excellent properties such as low toxicity, good biocompatibility, tunable fluorescence, excellent photostability, and easy functionalization. These properties make them a good candidate to use in different fields such as biological sensing, photocatalysis, photodynamic, and drug delivery. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra approved OH/NH groups on the surface of the as-synthesized CDs, and UV-vis spectra showed excellent fluorescence quenching effect of Fe (III) ion on the as-synthesized CDs with high selectivity detection compared with other metal ions. The probe showed a linear response concentration range (0–2.0 mM) to Fe (III) ion, and the limit of detection was calculated to be about 0.50 μM. In addition, CDs also showed good sensitivity to the pH value in the range from 2 to 14, indicating great potential as a pH sensor.

Keywords: carbon dots, fluorescence, pH sensing, metal ions sensor

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959 Improvement of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) Bio-Fixation by Microalgae Using Concept of “Plasmon-Enhanced Photobioreactor”

Authors: Francisco Pereira, António Augusto Vicente, Filipe Vaz, Joel Borges, Pedro Geada


Light is a growth-limiting factor in microalgae cultivation, where factors like spectral components, intensity, and duration, often characterized by its wavelength, are well-reported to have a substantial impact on cell growth rates and, consequently, photosynthetic performance and mitigation of CO₂, one of the most significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Photobioreactors (PBRs) are commonly used to grow microalgae under controlled conditions, but they often fail to provide an even light distribution to the cultures. For this reason, there is a pressing need for innovations aimed at enhancing the efficient utilization of light. So, one potential approach to address this issue is by implementing plasmonic films, such as the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). LSPR is an optical phenomenon connected to the interaction of light with metallic nanostructures. LSPR excitation is characterized by the oscillation of unbound conduction electrons of the nanoparticles coupled with the electromagnetic field from incident light. As a result of this excitation, highly energetic electrons and a strong electromagnetic field are generated. These effects lead to an amplification of light scattering, absorption, and extinction of specific wavelengths, contingent on the nature of the employed nanoparticle. Thus, microalgae might benefit from this biotechnology as it enables the selective filtration of inhibitory wavelengths and harnesses the electromagnetic fields produced, which could lead to enhancements in both biomass and metabolite productivity. This study aimed at implementing and evaluating a novel concept – the “plasmon-enhanced PBR”. The goal was to utilize LSPR thin films to enhance the growth and CO₂ bio-fixation rate of Chlorella vulgaris. The internal/external walls of the PBRs were coated with a TiO₂ matrix containing different nanoparticles (Au, Ag, and Au-Ag) in order to evaluate the impact of this new approach on microalgae’s performance. Plasmonic films with distinct compositions resulted in different Chlorella vulgaris growth, ranging from 4.85 to 6.13 g.L-¹. The highest cell concentrations were obtained with the metallic Ag films, demonstrating a 14% increase compared to the control condition. Moreover, there appeared to be no differences in growth between PBRs with inner and outer wall coatings. In terms of CO₂ bio-fixation, distinct rates were obtained depending on the coating applied, ranging from 0.42 to 0.53 gCO2L-¹d-¹. Ag coating was demonstrated to be the most effective condition for carbon fixation by C. vulgaris. The impact of LSPR films on the biochemical characteristics of biomass (e.g., proteins, lipids, pigments) was analyzed as well. Interestingly, Au coating yielded the most significant enhancements in protein content and total pigments, with increments of 15 % and 173 %, respectively, when compared to the PBR without any coating (control condition). Overall, the incorporation of plasmonic films in PBRs seems to have the potential to improve the performance and efficiency of microalgae cultivation, thereby representing an interesting approach to increase both biomass production and GHG bio-mitigation.

Keywords: CO₂ bio-fixation, plasmonic effect, photobioreactor, photosynthetic microalgae

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958 Noninvasive Continuous Glucose Monitoring Device Using a Photon-Assisted Tunneling Photodetector Based on a Quantum Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor

Authors: Wannakorn Sangthongngam, Melissa Huerta, Jaewoo Kim, Doyeon Kim


Continuous glucose monitoring systems are essential for diabetics to avoid health complications but come at a costly price, especially when insurance does not fully cover the diabetic testing kits needed. This paper proposes a noninvasive continuous glucose monitoring system to provide an accessible, low-cost, and painless alternative method of accurate glucose measurements to help improve quality of life. Using a light source with a wavelength of 850nm illuminates the fingertip for the photodetector to detect the transmitted light. Utilizing SeeDevice’s photon-assisted tunneling photodetector (PAT-PD)-based QMOS™ sensor, fluctuations of voltage based on photon absorption in blood cells are comparable to traditional glucose measurements. The performance of the proposed method was validated using 4 test participants’ transmitted voltage readings compared with measurements obtained from the Accu-Chek glucometer. The proposed method was able to successfully measure concentrations from linear regression calculations.

Keywords: continuous glucose monitoring, non-invasive continuous glucose monitoring, NIR, photon-assisted tunneling photodetector, QMOS™, wearable device

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957 Characterization and Degradation of 3D Printed Polycaprolactone-Freeze Dried Bone Matrix Constructs for Use in Critical Sized Bone Defects

Authors: Samantha Meyr, Eman Mirdamadi, Martha Wang, Tao Lowe, Ryan Smith, Quinn Burke


Critical-sized bone defects (CSD) treatment options remain a major clinical orthopedic challenge. They are uniquely contoured diseased or damaged bones and can be defined as those that will not heal spontaneously and require surgical intervention. Autografts are the current gold standard CSD treatment, which are histocompatible and provoke a minimal immunogenic response; however, they can cause donor site morbidity and will not suffice for the size required for replacement. As an alternative to traditional surgical methods, bone tissue engineering will be implemented via 3D printing methods. A freeze-dried bone matrix (FDBM) is a type of graft material available but will only function as desired when in the presence of bone growth factors. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a known biodegradable material with good biocompatibility that has been proven manageable in 3D printing as a medical device. A 3D-extrusion printing strategy is introduced to print these materials into scaffolds for bone grafting purposes, which could be more accessible and rapid than the current standard. Mechanical, thermal, cytotoxic, and physical properties were investigated throughout a degradation period of 6 months using fibroblasts and dental pulp stem cells. PCL-FDBM scaffolds were successfully printed with high print fidelity in their respective pore sizes and allograft content. Additionally, we have created a method for evaluating PCL using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and have evaluated PCL degradation over roughly 6 months.

Keywords: 3D printing, bone tissue engineering, cytotoxicity, degradation, scaffolds

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956 Toehold Mediated Shape Transition of Nucleic Acid Nanoparticles

Authors: Emil F. Khisamutdinov


Development of functional materials undergoing structural transformations in response to an external stimulus such as environmental changes (pH, temperature, etc.), the presence of particular proteins, or short oligonucleotides are of great interest for a variety of applications ranging from medicine to electronics. The dynamic operations of most nucleic acid (NA) devices, including circuits, nano-machines, and biosensors, rely on networks of NA strand displacement processes in which an external or stimulus strand displaces a target strand from a DNA or RNA duplex. The rate of strand displacement can be greatly increased by the use of “toeholds,” single-stranded regions of the target complex to which the invading strand can bind to initiate the reaction, forming additional base pairs that provide a thermodynamic driving force for transformation. Herein, we developed a highly robust nanoparticle shape transition, sequentially transforming DNA polygons from one shape to another using the toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement technique. The shape transformation was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our approach is applicable for RNA shape transformation from triangle to square, which can be detected by fluorescence emission from malachite green binding RNA aptamer. Using gel-shift and fluorescence assays, we demonstrated efficient transformation occurs at isothermal conditions (37°C) that can be implemented within living cells as reporter molecules. This work is intended to provide a simple, cost-effective, and straightforward model for the development of biosensors and regulatory devices in nucleic acid nanotechnology.

Keywords: RNA nanotechnology, bionanotechnology, toehold mediated DNA switch, RNA split fluorogenic aptamers

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955 Agarose Amplification Based Sequencing (AG-seq) Characterization Cell-free RNA in Preimplantation Spent Embryo Medium

Authors: Huajuan Shi


Background: The biopsy of the preimplantation embryo may increase the potential risk and concern of embryo viability. Clinically discarded spent embryo medium (SEM) has entered the view of researchers, sparking an interest in noninvasive embryo screening. However, one of the major restrictions is the extremelty low quantity of cf-RNA, which is difficult to efficiently and unbiased amplify cf-RNA using traditional methods. Hence, there is urgently need to an efficient and low bias amplification method which can comprehensively and accurately obtain cf-RNA information to truly reveal the state of SEM cf-RNA. Result: In this present study, we established an agarose PCR amplification system, and has significantly improved the amplification sensitivity and efficiency by ~90 fold and 9.29 %, respectively. We applied agarose to sequencing library preparation (named AG-seq) to quantify and characterize cf-RNA in SEM. The number of detected cf-RNAs (3533 vs 598) and coverage of 3' end were significantly increased, and the noise of low abundance gene detection was reduced. The increasing percentage 5' end adenine and alternative splicing (AS) events of short fragments (< 400 bp) were discovered by AG-seq. Further, the profiles and characterizations of cf-RNA in spent cleavage medium (SCM) and spent blastocyst medium (SBM) indicated that 4‐mer end motifs of cf-RNA fragments could remarkably differentiate different embryo development stages. Significance: This study established an efficient and low-cost SEM amplification and library preparation method. Not only that, we successfully described the characterizations of SEM cf-RNA of preimplantation embryo by using AG-seq, including abundance features fragment lengths. AG-seq facilitates the study of cf-RNA as a noninvasive embryo screening biomarker and opens up potential clinical utilities of trace samples.

Keywords: cell-free RNA, agarose, spent embryo medium, RNA sequencing, non-invasive detection

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954 New Photosensitizers Encapsulated within Arene-Ruthenium Complexes Active in Photodynamic Therapy: Intracellular Signaling and Evaluation in Colorectal Cancer Models

Authors: Suzan Ghaddar, Aline Pinon, Manuel Gallardo-villagran, Mona Diab-assaf, Bruno Therrien, Bertrand Liagre


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and exhibits a consistently rising incidence worldwide. Despite notable advancements in CRC treatment, frequent occurrences of side effects and the development of therapy resistance persistently challenge current approaches. Eventually, innovations in focal therapies remain imperative to enhance the patient’s overall quality of life. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) emerges as a promising treatment modality, clinically used for the treatment of various cancer types. It relies on the use of photosensitive molecules called photosensitizers (PS), which are photoactivated after accumulation in cancer cells, to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause cancer cell death. Among commonly used metal-based drugs in cancer therapy, ruthenium (Ru) possesses favorable attributes that demonstrate its selectivity towards cancer cells and render it suitable for anti-cancer drug design. In vitro studies using distinct arene-Ru complexes, encapsulating porphin PS, are conducted on human HCT116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cell lines. These studies encompass the evaluation of the antiproliferative effect, ROS production, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, molecular localization, and protein expression. Preliminary results indicated that these complexes exert significant photocytotoxicity on the studied colorectal cancer cell lines, representing them as promising and potential candidates for anti- cancer agents.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, photodynamic therapy, photosensitizers, arene-ruthenium complexes, apoptosis

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953 Dinoflagellate Thecal Plates as a Green Cellulose Source

Authors: Alvin Chun Man Kwok, Wai Sun Chan, Wei Yuan, Joseph Tin Yum Wong


Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer, is the major constituent of plant and dinoflagellate cell walls. Thecate dinoflagellates, in particular, are renowned for their remarkable capacity to synthesize intricate cellulosic thecal plates (CTPs). Unlike the extracellular two-dimensional structure of plant cell walls, these CTPs are three-dimensional and reside within the cellular structure itself. The deposition of CTPs occurs with remarkable precision, and their arrangement serves as crucial taxonomic markers. It is noteworthy that these plates possess the hardness of wood, despite the absence of lignin. Partial and prolonged hydrolysis of CTPs results in the formation of uniform long bundles and lowdimensional, modular crystalline whiskers. This observation aligns with the consistent nanomechanical properties, suggesting a CTPboard structure. The unique composition and structural characteristics of CTPs distinguish them from other cellulose-based materials in the natural world. Spectroscopic studies using Raman and FTIR methods indicate a clear low crystallinity index, with the OH shift becoming more distinct following SDS treatment. Birefringence imaging confirms the highly organized structure of CTPs, demonstrating varying degrees of anisotropy in different regions, including both seaward and cytosolic passages. The knockdown of a cellulose synthase enzyme in dinoflagellates resulted in severe malformation of CTPs and hindered the life-cycle transition. Unlike certain other microalgal groups, these unique circum-spherical depositions of CTPs were not pre-fabricated and transported "to site," but synthesized within alveolar sacs at the specific site. Our research is particularly focused on unraveling the mechanisms underlying the biodeposition of CTPs and exploring their potential biotechnological applications. Understanding the processes involved in CTP formation can pave the way for harnessing their unique properties for various practical applications. Dinoflagellates play a crucial role as major agents of algal blooms and are also known for producing anti-greenhouse sulfur compounds such as DMS/DMSP, highlighting the significance of CTPs as a carbon-neutral source of cellulose. Grant acknowledgement: Research in the laboratory are supported by GRF16104523 from Research Grant Council to JTYW.

Keywords: cellulosic thecal plates, dinoflagellates, cellulose, cell wall

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952 Redox-labeled Electrochemical Aptasensor Array for Single-cell Detection

Authors: Shuo Li, Yannick Coffinier, Chann Lagadec, Fabrizio Cleri, Katsuhiko Nishiguchi, Akira Fujiwara, Soo Hyeon Kim, Nicolas Clément


The need for single cell detection and analysis techniques has increased in the past decades because of the heterogeneity of individual living cells, which increases the complexity of the pathogenesis of malignant tumors. In the search for early cancer detection, high-precision medicine and therapy, the technologies most used today for sensitive detection of target analytes and monitoring the variation of these species are mainly including two types. One is based on the identification of molecular differences at the single-cell level, such as flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, next generation proteomics, lipidomic studies, another is based on capturing or detecting single tumor cells from fresh or fixed primary tumors and metastatic tissues, and rare circulating tumors cells (CTCs) from blood or bone marrow, for example, dielectrophoresis technique, microfluidic based microposts chip, electrochemical (EC) approach. Compared to other methods, EC sensors have the merits of easy operation, high sensitivity, and portability. However, despite various demonstrations of low limits of detection (LOD), including aptamer sensors, arrayed EC sensors for detecting single-cell have not been demonstrated. In this work, a new technique based on 20-nm-thick nanopillars array to support cells and keep them at ideal recognition distance for redox-labeled aptamers grafted on the surface. The key advantages of this technology are not only to suppress the false positive signal arising from the pressure exerted by all (including non-target) cells pushing on the aptamers by downward force but also to stabilize the aptamer at the ideal hairpin configuration thanks to a confinement effect. With the first implementation of this technique, a LOD of 13 cells (with5.4 μL of cell suspension) was estimated. In further, the nanosupported cell technology using redox-labeled aptasensors has been pushed forward and fully integrated into a single-cell electrochemical aptasensor array. To reach this goal, the LOD has been reduced by more than one order of magnitude by suppressing parasitic capacitive electrochemical signals by minimizing the sensor area and localizing the cells. Statistical analysis at the single-cell level is demonstrated for the recognition of cancer cells. The future of this technology is discussed, and the potential for scaling over millions of electrodes, thus pushing further integration at sub-cellular level, is highlighted. Despite several demonstrations of electrochemical devices with LOD of 1 cell/mL, the implementation of single-cell bioelectrochemical sensor arrays has remained elusive due to their challenging implementation at a large scale. Here, the introduced nanopillar array technology combined with redox-labeled aptamers targeting epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is perfectly suited for such implementation. Combining nanopillar arrays with microwells determined for single cell trapping directly on the sensor surface, single target cells are successfully detected and analyzed. This first implementation of a single-cell electrochemical aptasensor array based on Brownian-fluctuating redox species opens new opportunities for large-scale implementation and statistical analysis of early cancer diagnosis and cancer therapy in clinical settings.

Keywords: bioelectrochemistry, aptasensors, single-cell, nanopillars

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951 Development of an Aptamer-Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Based Electrochemical Sensor to Detect Pathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Meltem Agar, Maisem Laabei, Hannah Leese, Pedro Estrela


Pathogenic bacteria and the diseases they cause have become a global problem. Their early detection is vital and can only be possible by detecting the bacteria causing the disease accurately and rapidly. Great progress has been made in this field with the use of biosensors. Molecularly imprinted polymers have gain broad interest because of their excellent properties over natural receptors, such as being stable in a variety of conditions, inexpensive, biocompatible and having long shelf life. These properties make molecularly imprinted polymers an attractive candidate to be used in biosensors. In this study it is aimed to produce an aptamer-molecularly imprinted polymer based electrochemical sensor by utilizing the properties of molecularly imprinted polymers coupled with the enhanced specificity offered by DNA aptamers. These ‘apta-MIP’ sensors were used for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The experimental parameters for the fabrication of sensor were optimized, and detection of the bacteria was evaluated via Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Sensitivity and selectivity experiments were conducted. Furthermore, molecularly imprinted polymer only and aptamer only electrochemical sensors were produced separately, and their performance were compared with the electrochemical sensor produced in this study. Aptamer-molecularly imprinted polymer based electrochemical sensor showed good sensitivity and selectivity in terms of detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The performance of the sensor was assessed in buffer solution and tap water.

Keywords: aptamer, electrochemical sensor, staphylococcus aureus, molecularly imprinted polymer

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950 Tracking of Linarin from the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) Seeds Using Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Asep Sukohar, Ramadhan Triyandi, Muhammad Iqbal, Sahidin, Suharyani


Introduction: Resveratrol is a class of bioactive chemicals found in melinjo, which has a wide range of biological actions. The purpose of this study is to determine the linarin content of the melinjo fraksi by using preparative-high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC). Method: Extraction used the soxhletation method with 96% ethanol solvent. Fractionation used ethyl acetate and ethanol in a ratio of 1:1. Tracing of linarin compound used prep-HPLC with a mobile phase ratio of distilled water: methanol (55: 45, v/v). The presence of linarin was detected using a wavelength of 215 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) was used to identify the functional groups of compound. Result: The retention time required to elute the ethyl acetate fraction was 2.601 minutes. Compound separation identification using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy - Quest Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR - QATR) has a similarity value range with standards from 0 to 1000. The elution results of the ethyl acetate fraction have similar values with the standard compounds linarin (668), resveratrol (578), and catechin (455). Conclusion: Tracing for active compound in the ethyl acetate fraction of Gnetum Gnemon L. using prep-HPLC showed a strong suspicion of the presence of linarin compound.

Keywords: Gnetum gnemon L., linarin, prep-HPLC, fraction ethyl acetate

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949 Robotic Exoskeleton Response During Infant Physiological Knee Kinematics

Authors: Breanna Macumber, Victor A. Huayamave, Emir A. Vela, Wangdo Kim, Tamara T. Chamber, Esteban Centeno


Spina bifida is a type of neural tube defect that affects the nervous system and can lead to problems such as total leg paralysis. Treatment requires physical therapy and rehabilitation. Robotic exoskeletons have been used for rehabilitation to train muscle movement and assist in injury recovery; however, current models focus on the adult populations and not on the infant population. The proposed framework aims to couple a musculoskeletal infant model with a robotic exoskeleton using vacuum-powered artificial muscles to provide rehabilitation to infants affected by spina bifida. The study that drove the input values for the robotic exoskeleton used motion capture technology to collect data from the spontaneous kicking movement of a 2.4-month-old infant lying supine. OpenSim was used to develop the musculoskeletal model, and Inverse kinematics was used to estimate hip joint angles. A total of 4 kicks (A, B, C, D) were selected, and the selection was based on range, transient response, and stable response. Kicks had at least 5° of range of motion with a smooth transient response and a stable period. The robotic exoskeleton used a Vacuum-Powered Artificial Muscle (VPAM) the structure comprised of cells that were clipped in a collapsed state and unclipped when desired to simulate infant’s age. The artificial muscle works with vacuum pressure. When air is removed, the muscle contracts and when air is added, the muscle relaxes. Bench testing was performed using a 6-month-old infant mannequin. The previously developed exoskeleton worked really well with controlled ranges of motion and frequencies, which are typical of rehabilitation protocols for infants suffering with spina bifida. However, the random kicking motion in this study contained high frequency kicks and was not able to accurately replicate all the investigated kicks. Kick 'A' had a greater error when compared to the other kicks. This study has the potential to advance the infant rehabilitation field.

Keywords: musculoskeletal modeling, soft robotics, rehabilitation, pediatrics

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948 Quantification and Identification of the Main Components of the Biomass of the Microalgae Scenedesmus SP. – Prospection of Molecules of Commercial Interest

Authors: Carolina V. Viegas, Monique Gonçalves, Gisel Chenard Diaz, Yordanka Reyes Cruz, Donato Alexandre Gomes Aranda


To develop the massive cultivation of microalgae, it is necessary to isolate and characterize the species, improving genetic tools in search of specific characteristics. Therefore, the detection, identification and quantification of the compounds that compose the Scenedesmus sp. were prerequisites to verify the potential of these microalgae. The main objective of this work was to carry out the characterization of Scenedesmus sp. as to the content of ash, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids as well as the determination of the composition of their lipid classes and main fatty acids. The biomass of Scenedesmus sp, showed 15,29 ± 0,23 % of ash and CaO (36,17 %) was the main component of this fraction, The total protein and carbohydrate content of the biomass was 40,74 ± 1,01 % and 23,37 ± 0,95 %, respectively, proving to be a potential source of proteins as well as carbohydrates for the production of ethanol via fermentation, The lipid contents extracted via Bligh & Dyer and in situ saponification were 8,18 ± 0,13 % and 4,11 ± 0,11 %, respectively. In the lipid extracts obtained via Bligh & Dyer, approximately 50 % of the composition of this fraction consists of fatty compounds, while the other half is composed of an unsaponifiable fraction composed mainly of chlorophylls, phytosterols and carotenes. From the lowest yield, it was possible to obtain a selectivity of 92,14 % for fatty components (fatty acids and fatty esters) confirmed through the infrared spectroscopy technique. The presence of polyunsaturated acids (~45 %) in the lipid extracts indicated the potential of this fraction as a source of nutraceuticals. The results indicate that the biomass of Scenedesmus sp, can become a promising potential source for obtaining polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids and proteins as well as the simultaneous obtainment of different compounds of high commercial value.

Keywords: microalgae, Desmodesmus, lipid classes, fatty acid profile, proteins, carbohydrates

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947 Fast Prototyping of Precise, Flexible, Multiplexed, Printed Electrochemical Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay System for Point-of-Care Biomarker Quantification

Authors: Zahrasadat Hosseini, Jie Yuan


Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices based on lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology have the potential to revolutionize medical diagnostics. However, the development of an ideal microfluidic system based on LOC technology for diagnostics purposes requires overcoming several obstacles, such as improving sensitivity, selectivity, portability, cost-effectiveness, and prototyping methods. While numerous studies have introduced technologies and systems that advance these criteria, existing systems still have limitations. Electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (e-ELISA) in a LOC device offers numerous advantages, including enhanced sensitivity, decreased turnaround time, minimized sample and analyte consumption, reduced cost, disposability, and suitability for miniaturization, integration, and multiplexing. In this study, we present a novel design and fabrication method for a microfluidic diagnostic platform that integrates screen-printed electrochemical carbon/silver chloride electrodes on flexible printed circuit boards with flexible, multilayer, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks to accurately manipulate and pre-immobilize analytes for performing electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (e-ELISA) for multiplexed quantification of blood serum biomarkers. We further demonstrate fast, cost-effective prototyping, as well as accurate and reliable detection performance of this device for quantification of interleukin-6-spiked samples through electrochemical analytics methods. We anticipate that our invention represents a significant step towards the development of user-friendly, portable, medical-grade, POC diagnostic devices.

Keywords: lab-on-a-chip, point-of-care diagnostics, electrochemical ELISA, biomarker quantification, fast prototyping

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946 Anti-proliferative Activity and HER2 Receptor Expression Analysis of MCF-7 (Breast Cancer Cell) Cells by Plant Extract Coleus Barbatus (Andrew)

Authors: Anupalli Roja Rani, Pavithra Dasari


Background: Among several, breast cancer has emerged as the most common female cancer in developing countries. It is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide among women. It is a molecularly and clinically heterogeneous disease. Moreover, it is a hormone–dependent tumor in which estrogens can regulate the growth of breast cells by binding with estrogen receptors (ERs). Moreover, the use of natural products in cancer therapeutics is due to their properties of biocompatibility and less toxicity. Plants are the vast reservoirs for various bioactive compounds. Coleus barbatus (Lamiaceae) contains anticancer properties against several cancer cell lines. Method: In the present study, an attempt is being made to enrich the knowledge of the anticancer activity of pure compounds extracted from Coleus barbatus (Andrew). On human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. Here in, we are assessing the antiproliferative activity of Coleus barbatus (Andrew) plant extracts against MCF 7 and also evaluating their toxicity in normal human mammary cell lines such as Human Mammary Epithelial Cells (HMEC). The active fraction of plant extract was further purified with the help of Flash chromatography, Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography (MPLC) and preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The structure of pure compounds will be elucidated by using modern spectroscopic methods like Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) methods. Later, the growth inhibition morphological assessment of cancer cells and cell cycle analysis of purified compounds were assessed using FACS. The growth and progression of signaling molecules HER2, GRP78 was studied by secretion assay using ELISA and expression analysis by flow cytometry. Result: Cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 with IC50 values were derived from dose response curves, using six concentrations of twofold serially diluted samples, by SOFTMax Pro software (Molecular device) and respectively Ellipticine and 0.5% DMSO were used as a positive and negative control. Conclusion: The present study shows the significance of various bioactive compounds extracted from Coleus barbatus (Andrew) root material. It acts as an anti-proliferative and shows cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cell lines MCF7. The plant extracts play an important role pharmacologically. The whole plant has been used in traditional medicine for decades and the studies done have authenticated the practice. Earlier, as described, the plant has been used in the ayurveda and homeopathy medicine. However, more clinical and pathological studies must be conducted to investigate the unexploited potential of the plant. These studies will be very useful for drug designing in the future.

Keywords: coleus barbatus, HPLC, MPLC, NMR, MCF7, flash chromatograph, ESI-MS, FACS, ELISA.

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945 Novel EGFR Ectodomain Mutations and Resistance to Anti-EGFR and Radiation Therapy in H&N Cancer

Authors: Markus Bredel, Sindhu Nair, Hoa Q. Trummell, Rajani Rajbhandari, Christopher D. Willey, Lewis Z. Shi, Zhuo Zhang, William J. Placzek, James A. Bonner


Purpose: EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) provide clinical benefit in some patients with H&N squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but others progress with minimal response. Missense mutations in the EGFR ectodomain (ECD) can be acquired under mAb therapy by mimicking the effect of large deletions on receptor untethering and activation. Little is known about the contribution of EGFR ECD mutations to EGFR activation and anti-EGFR response in HNSCC. Methods: We selected patient-derived HNSCC cells (UM-SCC-1) for resistance to mAb Cetuximab (CTX) by repeated, stepwise exposure to mimic what may occur clinically and identified two concurrent EGFR ECD mutations (UM-SCC-1R). We examined the competence of the mutants to bind EGF ligand or CTX. We assessed the potential impact of the mutations through visual analysis of space-filling models of the native sidechains in the original structures vs. their respective side-chain mutations. We performed CRISPR in combination with site-directed mutagenesis to test for the effect of the mutants on ligand-independent EGFR activation and sorting. We determined the effects on receptor internalization, endocytosis, downstream signaling, and radiation sensitivity. Results: UM-SCC-1R cells carried two non-synonymous missense mutations (G33S and N56K) mapping to domain I in or near the EGF binding pocket of the EGFR ECD. Structural modeling predicted that these mutants restrict the adoption of a tethered, inactive EGFR conformation while not permitting association of EGFR with the EGF ligand or CTX. Binding studies confirmed that the mutant, untethered receptor displayed a reduced affinity for both EGF and CTX but demonstrated sustained activation and presence at the cell surface with diminished internalization and sorting for endosomal degradation. Single and double-mutant models demonstrated that the G33S mutant is dominant over the N56K mutant in its effect on EGFR activation and EGF binding. CTX-resistant UM-SCC-1R cells demonstrated cross-resistance to mAb Panitumuab but, paradoxically, remained sensitive to the reversible receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor Erlotinib. Conclusions: HNSCC cells can select for EGFR ECD mutations under EGFR mAb exposure that converge to trap the receptor in an open, constitutively activated state. These mutants impede the receptor’s competence to bind mAbs and EGF ligand and alter its endosomal trafficking, possibly explaining certain cases of clinical mAb and radiation resistance.

Keywords: head and neck cancer, EGFR mutation, resistance, cetuximab

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944 Growth of Algal Biomass in Laboratory and in Pilot-Scale Algal Photobioreactors in the Temperate Climate of Southern Ireland

Authors: Linda A. O’Higgins, Astrid Wingler, Jorge Oliveira


The growth of Chlorella vulgaris was characterized as a function of irradiance in a laboratory turbidostat (1 L) and compared to batch growth in sunlit modules (5–25 L) of the commercial Phytobag photobioreactor. The effects of variable sunlight and culture density were deconvoluted by a mathematical model. The analysis showed that algal growth was light-limited due to shading by external construction elements and due to light attenuation within the algal bags. The model was also used to predict maximum biomass productivity. The manipulative experiments and the model predictions were confronted with data from a production season of a 10m2 pilot-scale photobioreactor, Phytobag (10,000 L). The analysis confirmed light limitation in all three photobioreactors. An additional limitation of biomass productivity was caused by the nitrogen starvation that was used to induce lipid accumulation. Reduction of shading and separation of biomass and lipid production are proposed for future optimization.

Keywords: microalgae, batch cultivation, Chlorella vulgaris, Mathematical model, photobioreactor, scale-up

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943 A Radioprotective Effect of Nanoceria (CNPs), Magnetic Flower-Like Iron Oxide Microparticles (FIOMPs), and Vitamins C and E on Irradiated BSA Protein

Authors: Hajar Zarei, AliAkbar Zarenejadatashgah, Vuk Uskoković, Hiroshi Watabe


The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by radiation in nuclear diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy could damage the structure of the proteins in noncancerous cells surrounding the tumor. The critical factor in many age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, or Huntington diseases, is the oxidation of proteins by the ROS as molecular triggers of the given pathologies. Our studies by spectroscopic experiments showed doses close to therapeutic ones (1 to 5 Gy) could lead to changes of secondary and tertiary structures in BSA protein macromolecule as a protein model as well as the aggregation of polypeptide chain but without the fragmentation. For this reason, we investigated the radioprotective effects of natural (vitamin C and E) and synthetic materials (CNPs and FIOMPs) on the structural changes in BSA protein induced by gamma irradiation at a therapeutic dose (3Gy). In the presence of both vitamins and synthetic materials, the spectroscopic studies revealed that irradiated BSA was protected from the structural changes caused by ROS, according to in vitro research. The radioprotective property of CNPs and FIOMPs arises from enzyme mimetic activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase) and their antioxidant capability against hydroxyl radicals. In the case of FIOMPs, a porous structure also leads to increased ROS recombination with each other in the same radiolytic track and subsequently decreased encounters with BSA. The hydrophilicity of vitamin C resulted in the major scavenging of ROS in the solvent, whereas hydrophobic vitamin E localized on the nonpolar patches of the BSA surface, where it did not only neutralize them thanks to the moderate BSA binding constant but also formed a barrier for diffusing ROS. To the best of our knowledge, there has been a persistent lack of studies investigating the radioactive effect of mentioned materials on proteins. Therefore, the results of our studies can open a new widow for application of these common dietary ingredients and new synthetic NPs in improving the safety of radiotherapy.

Keywords: reactive oxygen species, spectroscopy, bovine serum albumin, gamma radiation, radioprotection

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942 Promoting the Cellular Uptake and Activating Type I Collagen Expression in Fibroblasts by Octanoyl-Degraded Sulfated Galactan

Authors: Tawut Rudtanatip, Waraporn Sakaew, Kanokpan Wongprasert, José Kovensky


The wound-healing activity in fibroblasts could be enhanced by degraded sulfated galactan (DSG) from Gracilaria fisheri supplemented with octanoyl ester. Synthesized galactose with octanoyl ester resulted in unambiguous improvement in its intracellular accumulation, consistent with enhanced bioactivity. In order to verify the hypothesis that the enhanced bioactivity of octanoyl-supplemented DSG (Oct-DSG) might depend on its superior ability to penetrate the plasma membrane, we conducted this study to investigate Oct-DSG’s capacity to permeate the plasma membrane and activate L929 fibroblasts. We investigated the cellular uptake of Oct-DSG into fibroblasts using indirect immunofluorescence and a confocal laser scanning microscope, as well as the degree of fibroblast activation associated with this uptake. Cells treated with DSG and Oct-DSG, followed by immunofluorescent FITC staining, displayed green fluorescence that bound to the cell membrane and was localized within the cytoplasm. Compared to DSG, Oct-DSG revealed that introducing octanoyl increased the uptake of DSG into fibroblasts, suggesting that octanoyl supplementation enhanced the cellular uptake of DSG. Data from transmission electron micrographs revealed that Oct-DSG resulted in ultrastructural changes in fibroblasts. In addition, Oct-DSG induced the expression of type I collagen mRNA and proteins and related signaling molecules, including Col1A1, Col1A2, p-Smad2/3, and p-Smad4. Taken together, these results suggest that Oct-DSG partially passed through the cell membrane and subsequently regulated the expression of type I collagen in fibroblasts via the phosphorylation of the Smad signaling pathway.

Keywords: degraded sulfated galactan, octanoyl ester, cellular uptake, collagen-I, smad proteins

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941 Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Chrysin as an Important Perspective in the Treatment of Infectious and Cancer Diseases

Authors: Sajjad Jafari, Reza Akbari


Background and Aim: Chrysin, a flavonoid compound found in medicinal plants, honey, and propolis, has potential biological activities that make it an important perspective in the treatment of infectious and cancer diseases. The aim of this review study is to evaluate the biological activities of chrysin in the treatment of infectious and cancer diseases. Material and Methods: The present study is a review study that searched reputable scientific databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science from 2000 to 2023 using keywords such as antimicrobial, antifungal, chrysin, anticancer, antioxidants, and infectious diseases. The researchers examined 25 articles to determine the biological activities of chrysin. Results: Chrysin has high inhibitory or lethal activities on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus faeces. It also has anti-biofilm effects and antifungal effects on strains such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Chrysin also has anticancer effects on various cancers, including colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and MCF-7 cancer, which have been confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Chrysin has the potential as an important therapeutic option in the treatment of infectious and cancer diseases. Its high antimicrobial and anticancer activities, combined with its low toxicity in nanoparticle form, make it a promising candidate for further clinical trials. The production of anti-microbial and anti-cancer drugs from natural substances, such as chrysin, is a valuable contribution to the field of medicine.

Keywords: chrysin, antimicrobial, anticancer, infectious diseases

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940 Sexual Risk Behaviours among Patients Living with HIV/AIDS in Douala in 2012

Authors: Etienne Sugewe


Purpose: The establishment of a positive HIV serologic status of an individual could have been an inhibitory factor to prevent risk behaviours in people living with HIV/AIDS. We conducted a cross-sectional study in order to assess the prevalence and predictors of risk behaviors among HIV-positive people in Douala-Cameroon. Methods: We used pre-checked questionnaires to systematically collect data from four HIV treatment centers in Douala. This was done to some of them during the distribution of drugs and to others during their classical rendezvous between the months of May and July 2012. The Chi-Square and Student t-test were used for cross tabulation of variables; multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of risky sexual behaviours. Results: Of the 330 persons interviewed, sixty percent were reported to have had sexual intercourse after the diagnosis of HIV. We obtained 37% HIV-positive partners, and 63% had HIV- negative partners or partners with unknown status. Among our patients, 45% of the subjects with regular partners reported to have had anal or vaginal sex. Those whose score on the knowledge about HIV/AIDS was < 50% and where 90% of them were less susceptible to the condom during intercourse (p: 0.01). About 74% of patients on ARV were less susceptible to the use of condoms during sexual intercourse (p: 0.03). Conclusion: Risk sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS are common and potentially expose their partners. For HIV-positive partners, these habits pose a real risk of suprainfection by other strains of HIV. The need to increase awareness and education among people living with HIV is therefore highly recommended.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, behaviours, HIV positive, Douala, 2012

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939 Exploring the 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction between Nitrilimine and 6-Methyl-4,5-dihydropyridazin-3(2h)-one through MEDT and Molecular Docking Analysis

Authors: Zineb Ouahdi


Spirocyclic compound derivatives, with their unique heterocyclic motifs, serve as a continual source of inspiration in the pursuit of developing potential therapeutic agents. These compounds are diverse in their chemical structures; some have fully saturated skeletons, while others are partially unsaturated. Nevertheless, these compounds share a characteristic feature with natural products - the presence of at least one heteroatom in one of their rings. The inclusion of a C = O dipolarophile in pyridazinones imparts an exciting aspect for 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, the focal point of our study. Our research has involved a detailed theoretical investigation of the reaction between ethyl (Z)-2-bromo-2-(2-(p-tolyl)hydrazono)acetate and 6-methyl-4,5-dihydropyridazine-3(2H)-one. This has been accomplished using the DFT/B3LYP/6-31g(d,p) method, intending to illuminate the chemical pathway of this reaction. The chemical reactivity theories we used for this purpose included FMO, TS, and local and global indices derived from conceptual DFT. The theoretical framework outlined in this study allowed us to propose a reaction mechanism for cycloaddition reactions. It also enabled the identification of the potential activities of the analyzed compounds (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, and P6) against the major protease of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This was achieved using various computational tools, including AutoDock Tools, Autodock Vina, Autodock 4, and PYRX.

Keywords: MEDT, pyridazin, cycloaddition, FMO, DFT, docking

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