Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: glycoproteins

17 Constitutive Flo1p Expression on Strains Bearing Deletions in Genes Involved in Cell Wall Biogenesis

Authors: Lethukuthula Ngobese, Abin Gupthar, Patrick Govender


The ability of yeast cell wall-derived mannoproteins (glycoproteins) to positively contribute to oenological properties has been a key factor that stimulates research initiatives into these industrially important glycoproteins. In addition, and from a fundamental research perspective, yeast cell wall glycoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological interactions. To date, and to the best of our knowledge, our understanding of the fine molecular structure of these mannoproteins is fairly limited. Generally, the amino acid sequences of their protein moieties have been established from structural and functional analysis of the genomic sequence of these yeasts whilst far less information is available on the glycosyl moieties of these mannoproteins. A novel strategy was devised in this study that entails the genetic engineering of yeast strains that over-express and release cell wall-associated glycoproteins into the liquid growth medium. To this end, the Flo1p mannoprotein was overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains bearing a specific deletion in KNR4 and GPI7 genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis that have been previously shown to extracellularly hyper-secrete cell wall-associated glycoproteins. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based cloning strategy was employed to generate transgenic yeast strains in which the native cell wall FLO1 glycoprotein-encoding gene is brought under transcriptional control of the constitutive PGK1 promoter. The modified Helm’s flocculation assay was employed to assess flocculation intensities of a Flo1p over-expressing wild type and deletion mutant as an indirect measure of their abilities to release the desired mannoprotein. The flocculation intensities of the transformed strains were assessed and all the strains showed similar intensities (>98% flocculation). To assess if mannoproteins were released into the growth medium, the supernatant of each strain was subjected to the BCA protein assay and the transformed Δknr4 strain showed a considerable increase in protein levels. This study has the potential to produce mannoproteins in sufficient quantities that may be employed in future investigations to understand their molecular structures and mechanisms of interaction to the benefit of both fundamental and industrial applications.

Keywords: glycoproteins, genetic engineering, flocculation, over-expression

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16 Inhibition of Variant Surface Glycoproteins Translation to Define the Essential Features of the Variant Surface Glycoprotein in Trypanosoma brucei

Authors: Isobel Hambleton, Mark Carrington


Trypanosoma brucei, the causal agent of a range of diseases in humans and livestock, evades the mammalian immune system through a population survival strategy based on the expression of a series of antigenically distinct variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs). RNAi mediated knockdown of the active VSG gene triggers a precytokinesis cell cycle arrest. To determine whether this phenotype is the result of reduced VSG transcript or depleted VSG protein, we used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides to block translation of VSG mRNA. The same precytokinesis cell cycle arrest was observed, suggesting that VSG protein abundance is monitored closely throughout the cell cycle. An inducible expression system has been developed to test various GPI-anchored proteins for their ability to rescue this cell cycle arrest. This system has been used to demonstrate that wild-type VSG expressed from a T7 promoter rescues this phenotype. This indicates that VSG expression from one of the specialised bloodstream expression sites (BES) is not essential for cell division. The same approach has been used to define the minimum essential features of a VSG necessary for function.

Keywords: bloodstream expression site, morpholino, precytokinesis cell cycle arrest, variant surface glycoprotein

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15 Magnetic Nanoparticles Coated with Modified Polysaccharides for the Immobilization of Glycoproteins

Authors: Kinga Mylkie, Pawel Nowak, Marta Z. Borowska


The most important proteins in human serum responsible for drug binding are human serum albumin (HSA) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). The AGP molecule is a glycoconjugate containing a single polypeptide chain composed of 183 amino acids (the core of the protein), and five glycan branched chains (sugar part) covalently linked by an N-glycosidic bond with aspartyl residues (Asp(N) -15, -38, -54, -75, - 85) of polypeptide chain. This protein plays an important role in binding alkaline drugs, a large group of drugs used in psychiatry, some acid drugs (e.g., coumarin anticoagulants), and neutral drugs (steroid hormones). The main goal of the research was to obtain magnetic nanoparticles coated with biopolymers in a chemically modified form, which will have highly reactive functional groups able to effectively immobilize the glycoprotein (acid α1-glycoprotein) without losing the ability to bind active substances. The first phase of the project involved the chemical modification of biopolymer starch. Modification of starch was carried out by methods of organic synthesis, leading to the preparation of a polymer enriched on its surface with aldehyde groups, which in the next step was coupled with 3-aminophenylboronic acid. Magnetite nanoparticles coated with starch were prepared by in situ co-precipitation and then oxidized with a 1 M sodium periodate solution to form a dialdehyde starch coating. Afterward, the reaction between the magnetite nanoparticles coated with dialdehyde starch and 3-aminophenylboronic acid was carried out. The obtained materials consist of a magnetite core surrounded by a layer of modified polymer, which contains on its surface dihydroxyboryl groups of boronic acids which are capable of binding glycoproteins. Magnetic nanoparticles obtained as carriers for plasma protein immobilization were fully characterized by ATR-FTIR, TEM, SEM, and DLS. The glycoprotein was immobilized on the obtained nanoparticles. The amount of mobilized protein was determined by the Bradford method.

Keywords: glycoproteins, immobilization, magnetic nanoparticles, polysaccharides

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14 ICAM-2, A Protein of Antitumor Immune Response in Mekong Giant Catfish (Pangasianodon gigas)

Authors: Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn


ICAM-2 (intercellular adhesion molecule 2) or CD102 (Cluster of Differentiation 102) is type I trans-membrane glycoproteins, composing 2-9 immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains. ICAM-2 plays the particular role in immune response and cell surveillance. It is concerned in innate and specific immunity, cell survival signal, apoptosis, and anticancer. EST clone of ICAM-2, from P. gigas blood cell EST libraries, showed high identity to human ICAM-2 (92%) with conserve region of ICAM N-terminal domain and part of Ig superfamily. Gene and protein of ICAM-2 has been founded in mammals. This is the first report of ICAM-2 in fish.

Keywords: ICAM-2, CD102, Pangasianodon gigas, antitumor

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13 Antimicrobial Agents Produced by Yeasts

Authors: T. Büyüksırıt, H. Kuleaşan


Natural antimicrobials are used to preserve foods that can be found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances are natural or artificial agents that produced by microorganisms or obtained semi/total chemical synthesis are used at low concentrations to inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms are inactivated by the use of antagonistic microorganisms and their metabolites. Yeasts can produce toxic proteins or glycoproteins (toxins) that cause inhibition of sensitive bacteria and yeast species. Antimicrobial substance producing phenotypes belonging different yeast genus were isolated from different sources. Toxins secreted by many yeast strains inhibiting the growth of other yeast strains. These strains show antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of mold and bacteria. The effect of antimicrobial agents produced by yeasts can be extremely fast, and therefore may be used in various treatment procedures. Rapid inhibition of microorganisms is possibly caused by microbial cell membrane lipopolysaccharide binding and in activation (neutralization) effect. Antimicrobial agents inhibit the target cells via different mechanisms of action.

Keywords: antimicrobial agents, yeast, toxic protein, glycoprotein

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12 An Insight into the Conformational Dynamics of Glycan through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: K. Veluraja


Glycan of glycolipids and glycoproteins is playing a significant role in living systems particularly in molecular recognition processes. Molecular recognition processes are attributed to their occurrence on the surface of the cell, sequential arrangement and type of sugar molecules present in the oligosaccharide structure and glyosidic linkage diversity (glycoinformatics) and conformational diversity (glycoconformatics). Molecular Dynamics Simulation study is a theoretical-cum-computational tool successfully utilized to establish glycoconformatics of glycan. The study on various oligosaccharides of glycan clearly indicates that oligosaccharides do exist in multiple conformational states and these conformational states arise due to the flexibility associated with a glycosidic torsional angle (φ,ψ) . As an example: a single disaccharide structure NeuNacα(2-3) Gal exists in three different conformational states due to the differences in the preferential value of glycosidic torsional angles (φ,ψ). Hence establishing three dimensional structural and conformational models for glycan (cartesian coordinates of every individual atoms of an oligosaccharide structure in a preferred conformation) is quite crucial to understand various molecular recognition processes such as glycan-toxin interaction and glycan-virus interaction. The gycoconformatics models obtained for various glycan through Molecular Dynamics Simulation stored in our 3DSDSCAR (3DSDSCAR.ORG) a public domain database and its utility value in understanding the molecular recognition processes and in drug design venture will be discussed.

Keywords: glycan, glycoconformatics, molecular dynamics simulation, oligosaccharide

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11 Glycan Analyzer: Software to Annotate Glycan Structures from Exoglycosidase Experiments

Authors: Ian Walsh, Terry Nguyen-Khuong, Christopher H. Taron, Pauline M. Rudd


Glycoproteins and their covalently bonded glycans play critical roles in the immune system, cell communication, disease and disease prognosis. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry is conventionally used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterise glycan structures in a given sample. Exoglycosidases are enzymes that catalyze sequential removal of monosaccharides from the non-reducing end of glycans. They naturally have specificity for a particular type of sugar, its stereochemistry (α or β anomer) and its position of attachment to an adjacent sugar on the glycan. Thus, monitoring the peak movements (both in the UPLC and MS1) after application of exoglycosidases provides a unique and effective way to annotate sugars with high detail - i.e. differentiating positional and linkage isomers. Manual annotation of an exoglycosidase experiment is difficult and time consuming. As such, with increasing sample complexity and the number of exoglycosidases, the analysis could result in manually interpreting hundreds of peak movements. Recently, we have implemented pattern recognition software for automated interpretation of UPLC-MS1 exoglycosidase digestions. In this work, we explain the software, indicate how much time it will save and provide example usage showing the annotation of positional and linkage isomers in Immunoglobulin G, apolipoprotein J, and simple glycan standards.

Keywords: bioinformatics, automated glycan assignment, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry

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10 Entry Inhibitors Are Less Effective at Preventing Cell-Associated HIV-2 Infection than HIV-1

Authors: A. R. Diniz, P. Borrego, I. Bártolo, N. Taveira


Cell-to-cell transmission plays a critical role in the spread of HIV-1 infection in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of HIV-1 cell-associated infection by antiretroviral drugs and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is more difficult compared to cell-free infection. Limited data exists on cell-associated infection by HIV-2 and its inhibition. In this work, we determined the ability of entry inhibitors to inhibit HIV-1 and HIV-2 cell-to cell fusion as a proxy to cell-associated infection. We developed a method in which Hela-CD4-cells are first transfected with a Tat expressing plasmid (pcDNA3.1+/Tat101) and infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing either the HIV-1 (vPE16: from isolate HTLV-IIIB, clone BH8, X4 tropism) or HIV-2 (vSC50: from HIV-2SBL/ISY, R5 and X4 tropism) envelope glycoproteins (M.O.I.=1 PFU/cell).These cells are added to TZM-bl cells. When cell-to-cell fusion (syncytia) occurs the Tat protein diffuses to the TZM-bl cells activating the expression of a reporter gene (luciferase). We tested several entry inhibitors including the fusion inhibitors T1249, T20 and P3, the CCR5 antagonists MVC and TAK-779, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 and several HIV-2 neutralizing antibodies (Nabs). All compounds inhibited HIV-1 and HIV-2 cell fusion albeit to different levels. Maximum percentage of HIV-2 inhibition (MPI) was higher for fusion inhibitors (T1249- 99.8%; P3- 95%, T20-90%) followed by co-receptor antagonists (MVC- 63%; TAK-779- 55%; AMD3100- 45%). NAbs from HIV-2 infected patients did not prevent cell fusion up to the tested concentration of 4μg/ml. As for HIV-1, MPI reached 100% with TAK-779 and T1249. For the other antivirals, MPIs were: P3-79%; T20-75%; AMD3100-61%; MVC-65%.These results are consistent with published data. Maraviroc had the lowest IC50 both for HIV-2 and HIV-1 (IC50 HIV-2= 0.06 μM; HIV-1=0.0076μM). Highest IC50 were observed with T20 for HIV-2 (3.86μM) and with TAK-779 for HIV-1 (12.64μM). Overall, our results show that entry inhibitors in clinical use are less effective at preventing Env mediated cell-to-cell-fusion in HIV-2 than in HIV-1 which suggests that cell-associated HIV-2 infection will be more difficult to inhibit compared to HIV-1. The method described here will be useful to screen for new HIV entry inhibitors.

Keywords: cell-to-cell fusion, entry inhibitors, HIV, NAbs, vaccinia virus

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9 Evaluation of the Relation between Serum and Saliva Levels of Sodium and Glucose in Healthy Referred Patients to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry

Authors: Samaneh Nazemi, Ayla Bahramian, Marzieh Aghazadeh


Saliva is a clear liquid composed of water, electrolytes, glucose, amylase, glycoproteins, and antimicrobial enzymes. The presence of a wide range of molecules and proteins in saliva has made this fluid valuable in screening for some diseases as well as epidemiological studies. Saliva is easier than serum to collect in large populations. Due to the importance of sodium and glucose levels in many biological processes, this study investigates the relationship between sodium and glucose levels in salivary and serum samples of healthy individuals referring to Tabriz Dental School. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 40 healthy individuals referred to the Oral Diseases Department of Tabriz Dental School. Serum and saliva samples were taken from these patients according to standard protocols. Data were presented as mean (standard deviation) and frequency (percentage) for quantitative and qualitative variables. Pearson test, paired-samples T-test and SPSS 24 software were used to determine the correlation between serum and salivary levels of these biomarkers. In this study, P less than 0.05% is considered significant. Out of 40 participants in this study, 14 (35%) were male, and 26 (65%) were female. According to the results of this study, the mean salivary sodium (127.53 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum sodium (141.2725 ml/dl). In contrast, the mean salivary glucose (4.55 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum glucose (89.7575 ml/dl). The result of paired samples T-test (p-value<0.05) showed that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean of serum sodium and salivary sodium, as well as between the serum glucose and salivary glucose. Pearson correlation test results showed that there is no significant correlation between serum sodium and salivary sodium (p-value >0.05), but here is a positive correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose (p-value<0.001). Both serum sodium and glucose were higher than salivary sodium and glucose.In conclusion, this study found that there was not a statistical relationship between salivary glucose and serum glucose and also salivary sodium and serum sodium of healthy individuals. Perhaps salivary samples can’t be used to measure glucose and sodium in these individuals.

Keywords: glucose, saliva, serum, sodium

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8 Molecular Characterization of Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Strains Based on Selected Glycoprotein and Tegument Genes

Authors: Fulufhelo Amanda Doboro, Kgomotso Sebeko, Stephen Njiro, Moritz Van Vuuren


Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) genome obtained from the lymphopblastoid cell line of a BJ1035 cow was recently sequenced in the United States of America (USA). Information on the sequences of OvHV-2 genes obtained from South African strains from bovine or other African countries and molecular characterization of OvHV-2 is not documented. Present investigation provides information on the nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences and genetic diversity of Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2, ORF 27 and ORF 73 genes, of these genes from OvHV-2 strains circulating in South Africa. Gene-specific primers were designed and used for PCR of DNA extracted from 42 bovine blood samples that previously tested positive for OvHV-2. The expected PCR products of 495 bp, 253 bp, 890 bp and 1632 bp respectively for Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2, ORF 27 and ORF 73 genes were sequenced and multiple sequence analysis done on the selected regions of the sequenced PCR products. Two genotypes for ORF 27 and ORF 73 gene sequences, and three genotypes for Ov 7 and Ov 8 ex2 gene sequences were identified, and similar groupings for the derived amino acid sequences were obtained for each gene. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence variations that led to the identification of the different genotypes included SNPs, deletions and insertions. Sequence analysis of Ov 7 and ORF 27 genes revealed variations that distinguished between sequences from SA and reference OvHV-2 strains. The implication of geographic origin among SA sequences was difficult to evaluate because of random distribution of genotypes in the different provinces, for each gene. However, socio-economic factors such as migration of people with animals, or transportation of animals for agricultural or business use from one province to another are most likely to be responsible for this observation. The sequence variations observed in this study have no impact on the antibody binding activities of glycoproteins encoded by Ov 7, Ov 8 ex2 and ORF 27 genes, as determined by prediction of the presence of B cell epitopes using BepiPred 1.0. The findings of this study will be used for selection of gene candidates for the development of diagnostic assays and vaccine development as well.

Keywords: amino acid, genetic diversity, genes, nucleotide

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7 Enhanced Near-Infrared Upconversion Emission Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Background-Free Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses

Authors: Jaeyoung Kim, Heeju Lee, Huijin Jung, Heesoo Pyo, Seungki Kim, Joonseok Lee


Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are the primary cause of highly contagious respiratory diseases caused by type A influenza viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AIV are categorized on the basis of types of surface glycoproteins such as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Certain H5 and H7 subtypes of AIV have evolved to the high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, which has caused considerable economic loss to the poultry industry and led to severe public health crisis. Several commercial kits have been developed for on-site detection of AIV. However, the sensitivity of these methods is too low to detect low virus concentrations in clinical samples and opaque stool samples. Here, we introduced a background-free near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR upconversion nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay (NNLFA) platform to yield a sensor that detects AIV within 20 minutes. Ca²⁺ ion in the shell was used to enhance the NIR-to-NIR upconversion photoluminescence (PL) emission as a heterogeneous dopant without inducing significant changes in the morphology and size of the UCNPs. In a mixture of opaque stool samples and gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which are components of commercial AIV LFA, the background signal of the stool samples mask the absorption peak of GNPs. However, UCNPs dispersed in the stool samples still show strong emission centered at 800 nm when excited at 980 nm, which enables the NNLFA platform to detect 10-times lower viral load than a commercial GNP-based AIV LFA. The detection limit of NNLFA for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 and HPAI H5N6 viruses was 10² EID₅₀/mL and 10³.⁵ EID₅₀/mL, respectively. Moreover, when opaque brown-colored samples were used as the target analytes, strong NIR emission signal from the test line in NNLFA confirmed the presence of AIV, whereas commercial AIV LFA detected AIV with difficulty. Therefore, we propose that this rapid and background-free NNLFA platform has the potential of detecting AIV in the field, which could effectively prevent the spread of these viruses at an early stage.

Keywords: avian influenza viruses, lateral flow immunoassay on-site detection, upconversion nanoparticles

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6 Glyco-Biosensing as a Novel Tool for Prostate Cancer Early-Stage Diagnosis

Authors: Pavel Damborsky, Martina Zamorova, Jaroslav Katrlik


Prostate cancer is annually the most common newly diagnosed cancer among men. An extensive number of evidence suggests that traditional serum Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay still suffers from a lack of sufficient specificity and sensitivity resulting in vast over-diagnosis and overtreatment. Thus, the early-stage detection of prostate cancer (PCa) plays undisputedly a critical role for successful treatment and improved quality of life. Over the last decade, particular altered glycans have been described that are associated with a range of chronic diseases, including cancer and inflammation. These glycans differences enable a distinction to be made between physiological and pathological state and suggest a valuable biosensing tool for diagnosis and follow-up purposes. Aberrant glycosylation is one of the major characteristics of disease progression. Consequently, the aim of this study was to develop a more reliable tool for early-stage PCa diagnosis employing lectins as glyco-recognition elements. Biosensor and biochip technology putting to use lectin-based glyco-profiling is one of the most promising strategies aimed at providing fast and efficient analysis of glycoproteins. The proof-of-concept experiments based on sandwich assay employing anti-PSA antibody and an aptamer as a capture molecules followed by lectin glycoprofiling were performed. We present a lectin-based biosensing assay for glycoprofiling of serum biomarker PSA using different biosensor and biochip platforms such as label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and microarray with fluorescent label. The results suggest significant differences in interaction of particular lectins with PSA. The antibody-based assay is frequently associated with the sensitivity, reproducibility, and cross-reactivity issues. Aptamers provide remarkable advantages over antibodies due to the nucleic acid origin, stability and no glycosylation. All these data are further step for construction of highly selective, sensitive and reliable sensors for early-stage diagnosis. The experimental set-up also holds promise for the development of comparable assays with other glycosylated disease biomarkers.

Keywords: biomarker, glycosylation, lectin, prostate cancer

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5 Determination of the Vaccine Induced Immunodominant Regions of Nucleoprotein Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

Authors: Engin Berber, Nurettin Canakoglu, Ibrahim Sozdutmaz, Merve Caliskan, Shaikh Terkis Islam Pavel, Hazel Yetiskin, Aykut Ozdarendeli


Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. The CCHFV genome consists of three molecules of negative-sense single-stranded RNA, each encapsulated separately. The virion particle contains viral RNA polymerase (L segment), surface glycoproteins Gn and Gc (Msegment), and a nucleocapsid protein NP (S segment). CCHF is characterized by high case mortality, occurring in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Clinical CCHF was first recognized in Turkey in 2002. The numbers of CCHF cases have gradually increased in Turkey making the virus a public health concern. Between 2002 and 2014, more than 8000 the CCHF cases have been reported in Turkey and mortality rate is around 5%. So, Turkey is one of the countries where the epidemy has become spread to the wider geography and the biggest outbreaks of CCHF have occurred in the world. We have recently developed an inactivated cell-culture based vaccine against CCHF. We have showed that the Balb/c mice immunized with the CCHF vaccine induced the high level of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we aimed to determine the immunodominant regions of nucleoprotein (NP) CCHFV Kelkit06 strain which stimulate T cells. For this purpose, pools of overlapping NP were used for an IFN- γ ELISPOT assay. Balb/c mice were divided into two groups for the experiment. Two groups (n = 10 each) were immunized via the intraperitoneal route with 5, or 10μg of the cell culture-based vaccine. The control group (n = 6) was mock immunized with PBS. Booster injections with the same formulation were given on days 21 and 42 after the first immunization. The higher reactivity against the CCHFV NP pools 31-40 and 80-90 was determined in the two dose groups. In order to analyze the vaccine-induced T cell responses in Balb/c mice immunized with varying doses of the vaccine, we have been also currently working on CD4+, CD8+ and CD3 + T cells by flow cytometry.

Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, immunodominant regions of NP, T cell response, vaccine

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4 Characterization of Minerals, Elicitors in Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract and Effects on Growth, Yield and the Management of Massava Mosaic Diseases

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga


Introduction: This paper evaluated the mineral compositions, disease resistance elicitors in Pleurotus ostratus (POWESMS), and Pleurotus tuber-regium water extract spent mushroom substrate (PTWESMS) on the growth, yield, and management of cassava mosaic disease. Materials and Methods: The cassava plantlet (tms 98/0505) were generated through meristem tip culture at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike before they were transferred to the screen house, University of Port Harcourt Research Farm. The minerals and elicitors contained in the two spent mushroom substrates were evaluated using standard procedures. The treatments for this investigation comprised cassava plants treated with POWESMS, PTWESMS, and untreated cassava as control, which were inoculated with viral inoculum seven days after treatment application. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with 3 replicates. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Means were separated using Fishers Least Significant Difference at p=0.05. Results: The results obtained revealed that POWESMS contained 19.3, 0.52, and 0.1g/200g substrate of carbohydrate polymers, glycoproteins, and lipid molecules elicitors respectively while it also contained 3.17, 212.1, 17.9,21.8, 58.8 and 111.0 mg/100g substrate for N, P, K, Na, Mg and Ca respectively. Further, PTWESMS contain 1.6, 0.04, and 0.2g/200g of the substrate as carbohydrate polymers, glycoprotein, and lipid respectively; the minerals contained in this substrate were 3.4, 204.8, 8.9, 24.2, 32.2 and 105.5 mg respectively for N, P, K, Na, and Ca. There were also significant differences in the mean values of the number of storage roots, root length, fresh root weight, fresh weight plant biomass, root girth, and whole plant dry biomass, but no significant difference was recorded for harvest index. The result also revealed significant differences in mean values of disease severity index evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 weeks after inoculation (WAI). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of these spent mushrooms substrate have shown outstanding prospect in managing cassava mosaic disease and also improvement in growth and yield of cassava due to the high level of the minerals and elicitors they contain when compared with the control. However, more work is recommended, especially in understanding the mechanism of this induced resistance.

Keywords: characterization, elicitors, mosaic, mushroom

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3 N-Glycosylation in the Green Microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Authors: Pierre-Louis Lucas, Corinne Loutelier-Bourhis, Narimane Mati-Baouche, Philippe Chan Tchi-Song, Patrice Lerouge, Elodie Mathieu-Rivet, Muriel Bardor


N-glycosylation is a post-translational modification taking place in the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi apparatus where defined glycan features are added on protein in a very specific sequence Asn-X-Thr/Ser/Cys were X can be any amino acid except proline. Because it is well-established that those N-glycans play a critical role in protein biological activity, protein half-life and that a different N-glycan structure may induce an immune response, they are very important in Biopharmaceuticals which are mainly glycoproteins bearing N-glycans. From now, most of the biopharmaceuticals are produced by mammalian cells like Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO) for their N-glycosylation similar to the human, but due to the high production costs, several other species are investigated as the possible alternative system. In this purpose, the green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was investigated as the potential production system for Biopharmaceuticals. This choice was influenced by the facts that C. reinhardtii is a well-study microalgae which is growing fast with a lot of molecular biology tools available. This organism is also producing N-glycan on its endogenous proteins. However, the analysis of the N-glycan structure of this microalgae has revealed some differences as compared to the human. Rather than in Human where the glycans are processed by key enzymes called N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I and II (GnTI and GnTII) adding GlcNAc residue to form a GlcNAc₂Man₃GlcNAc₂ core N-glycan, C. reinhardtii lacks those two enzymes and possess a GnTI independent glycosylation pathway. Moreover, some enzymes like xylosyltransferases and methyltransferases not present in human are supposed to act on the glycans of C. reinhardtii. Furthermore, the recent structural study by mass spectrometry shows that the N-glycosylation precursor supposed to be conserved in almost all eukaryotic cells results in a linear Man₅GlcNAc₂ rather than a branched one in C. reinhardtii. In this work, we will discuss the new released MS information upon C. reinhardtii N-glycan structure and their impact on our attempt to modify the glycan in a Human manner. Two strategies will be discussed. The first one consisted in the study of Xylosyltransferase insertional mutants from the CLIP library in order to remove xyloses from the N-glycans. The second will go further in the humanization by transforming the microalgae with the exogenous gene from Toxoplasma gondii having an activity similar to GnTI and GnTII with the aim to synthesize GlcNAc₂Man₃GlcNAc₂ in C. reinhardtii.

Keywords: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, N-glycosylation, glycosyltransferase, mass spectrometry, humanization

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2 Determination of Activation Energy for Thermal Decomposition of Selected Soft Tissues Components

Authors: M. Ekiert, T. Uhl, A. Mlyniec


Tendons are the biological soft tissue structures composed of collagen, proteoglycan, glycoproteins, water and cells of extracellular matrix (ECM). Tendons, which primary function is to transfer force generated by the muscles to the bones causing joints movement, are exposed to many micro and macro damages. In fact, tendons and ligaments trauma are one of the most numerous injuries of human musculoskeletal system, causing for many people (particularly for athletes and physically active people), recurring disorders, chronic pain or even inability of movement. The number of tendons reconstruction and transplantation procedures is increasing every year. Therefore, studies on soft tissues storage conditions (influencing i.e. tissue aging) seem to be an extremely important issue. In this study, an atomic-scale investigation on the kinetics of decomposition of two selected tendon components – collagen type I (which forms a 60-85% of a tendon dry mass) and elastin protein (which combine with ECM creates elastic fibers of connective tissues) is presented. A molecular model of collagen and elastin was developed based on crystal structure of triple-helical collagen-like 1QSU peptide and P15502 human elastin protein, respectively. Each model employed 4 linear strands collagen/elastin strands per unit cell, distributed in 2x2 matrix arrangement, placed in simulation box filled with water molecules. A decomposition phenomena was simulated with molecular dynamics (MD) method using ReaxFF force field and periodic boundary conditions. A set of NVT-MD runs was performed for 1000K temperature range in order to obtained temperature-depended rate of production of decomposition by-products. Based on calculated reaction rates activation energies and pre-exponential factors, required to formulate Arrhenius equations describing kinetics of decomposition of tested soft tissue components, were calculated. Moreover, by adjusting a model developed for collagen, system scalability and correct implementation of the periodic boundary conditions were evaluated. An obtained results provide a deeper insight into decomposition of selected tendon components. A developed methodology may also be easily transferred to other connective tissue elements and therefore might be used for further studies on soft tissues aging.

Keywords: decomposition, molecular dynamics, soft tissue, tendons

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1 Thermosensitive Hydrogel Development for Its Possible Application in Cardiac Cell Therapy

Authors: Lina Paola Orozco Marin, Yuliet Montoya Osorio, John Bustamante Osorno


Ischemic events can culminate in acute myocardial infarction by irreversible cardiac lesions that cannot be restored due to the limited regenerative capacity of the heart. Cell therapy seeks to replace these injured or necrotic cells by transplanting healthy and functional cells. The therapeutic alternatives proposed by tissue engineering and cardiovascular regenerative medicine are the use of biomaterials to mimic the native extracellular medium, which is full of proteins, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. The selected biomaterials must provide structural support to the encapsulated cells to avoid their migration and death in the host tissue. In this context, the present research work focused on developing a natural thermosensitive hydrogel, its physical and chemical characterization, and the determination of its biocompatibility in vitro. The hydrogel was developed by mixing hydrolyzed bovine and porcine collagen at 2% w/v, chitosan at 2.5% w/v, and beta-glycerolphosphate at 8.5% w/w and 10.5% w/w in magnetic stirring at 4°C. Once obtained, the thermosensitivity and gelation time were determined, incubating the samples at 37°C and evaluating them through the inverted tube method. The morphological characterization of the hydrogels was carried out through scanning electron microscopy. Chemical characterization was carried out employing infrared spectroscopy. The biocompatibility was determined using the MTT cytotoxicity test according to the ISO 10993-5 standard for the hydrogel’s precursors using the fetal human ventricular cardiomyocytes cell line RL-14. The RL-14 cells were also seeded on the top of the hydrogels, and the supernatants were subculture at different periods to their observation under a bright field microscope. Four types of thermosensitive hydrogels were obtained, which differ in their composition and concentration, called A1 (chitosan/bovine collagen/beta-glycerolphosphate 8.5%w/w), A2 (chitosan/porcine collagen/beta-glycerolphosphate 8.5%), B1 (chitosan/bovine collagen/beta-glycerolphosphate 10.5%) and B2 (chitosan/porcine collagen/beta-glycerolphosphate 10.5%). A1 and A2 had a gelation time of 40 minutes, and B1 and B2 had a gelation time of 30 minutes at 37°C. Electron micrographs revealed a three-dimensional internal structure with interconnected pores for the four types of hydrogels. This facilitates the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and the exit of metabolites, allowing to preserve a microenvironment suitable for cell proliferation. In the infrared spectra, it was possible to observe the interaction that occurs between the amides of polymeric compounds with the phosphate groups of beta-glycerolphosphate. Finally, the biocompatibility tests indicated that cells in contact with the hydrogel or with each of its precursors are not affected in their proliferation capacity for a period of 16 days. These results show the potential of the hydrogel to increase the cell survival rate in the cardiac cell therapies under investigation. Moreover, the results lay the foundations for its characterization and biological evaluation in both in vitro and in vivo models.

Keywords: cardiac cell therapy, cardiac ischemia, natural polymers, thermosensitive hydrogel

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