Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: haptic

22 Understanding the Experience of the Visually Impaired towards a Multi-Sensorial Architectural Design

Authors: Sarah M. Oteifa, Lobna A. Sherif, Yasser M. Mostafa

Abstract:

Visually impaired people, in their daily lives, face struggles and spatial barriers because the built environment is often designed with an extreme focus on the visual element, causing what is called architectural visual bias or ocularcentrism. The aim of the study is to holistically understand the world of the visually impaired as an attempt to extract the qualities of space that accommodate their needs, and to show the importance of multi-sensory, holistic designs for the blind. Within the framework of existential phenomenology, common themes are reached through "intersubjectivity": experience descriptions by blind people and blind architects, observation of how blind children learn to perceive their surrounding environment, and a personal lived blind-folded experience are analyzed. The extracted themes show how visually impaired people filter out and prioritize tactile (active, passive and dynamic touch), acoustic and olfactory spatial qualities respectively, and how this happened during the personal lived blind folded experience. The themes clarify that haptic and aural inclusive designs are essential to create environments suitable for the visually impaired to empower them towards an independent, safe and efficient life.

Keywords: Architecture, visually impaired, architectural ocularcentrism, multi-sensory design

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21 MAGNI Dynamics: A Vision-Based Kinematic and Dynamic Upper-Limb Model for Intelligent Robotic Rehabilitation

Authors: Alexandros Lioulemes, Michail Theofanidis, Varun Kanal, Konstantinos Tsiakas, Maher Abujelala, Chris Collander, William B. Townsend, Angie Boisselle, Fillia Makedon

Abstract:

This paper presents a home-based robot-rehabilitation instrument, called ”MAGNI Dynamics”, that utilized a vision-based kinematic/dynamic module and an adaptive haptic feedback controller. The system is expected to provide personalized rehabilitation by adjusting its resistive and supportive behavior according to a fuzzy intelligence controller that acts as an inference system, which correlates the user’s performance to different stiffness factors. The vision module uses the Kinect’s skeletal tracking to monitor the user’s effort in an unobtrusive and safe way, by estimating the torque that affects the user’s arm. The system’s torque estimations are justified by capturing electromyographic data from primitive hand motions (Shoulder Abduction and Shoulder Forward Flexion). Moreover, we present and analyze how the Barrett WAM generates a force-field with a haptic controller to support or challenge the users. Experiments show that by shifting the proportional value, that corresponds to different stiffness factors of the haptic path, can potentially help the user to improve his/her motor skills. Finally, potential areas for future research are discussed, that address how a rehabilitation robotic framework may include multisensing data, to improve the user’s recovery process.

Keywords: Dynamics, Kinematics, rehabilitation robotics, Human-Robot Interaction, kinect, haptic control, artificial intelligence

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20 Authoring Tactile Gestures: Case Study for Emotion Stimulation

Authors: Rodrigo Lentini, Beatrice Ionascu, Friederike A. Eyssel, Scandar Copti, Mohamad Eid

Abstract:

The haptic modality has brought a new dimension to human computer interaction by engaging the human sense of touch. However, designing appropriate haptic stimuli, and in particular tactile stimuli, for various applications is still challenging. To tackle this issue, we present an intuitive system that facilitates the authoring of tactile gestures for various applications. The system transforms a hand gesture into a tactile gesture that can be rendering using a home-made haptic jacket. A case study is presented to demonstrate the ability of the system to develop tactile gestures that are recognizable by human subjects. Four tactile gestures are identified and tested to intensify the following four emotional responses: high valence – high arousal, high valence – low arousal, low valence – high arousal, and low valence – low arousal. A usability study with 20 participants demonstrated high correlation between the selected tactile gestures and the intended emotional reaction. Results from this study can be used in a wide spectrum of applications ranging from gaming to interpersonal communication and multimodal simulations.

Keywords: arousal, tactile stimulation, tactile gesture, emotion reactions, valence

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19 Design and Fabrication of a Programmable Stiffness-Sensitive Gripper for Object Handling

Authors: Mehdi Modabberifar, Sanaz Jabary, Mojtaba Ghodsi

Abstract:

Stiffness sensing is an important issue in medical diagnostic, robotics surgery, safe handling, and safe grasping of objects in production lines. Detecting and obtaining the characteristics in dwelling lumps embedded in a soft tissue and safe removing and handling of detected lumps is needed in surgery. Also in industry, grasping and handling an object without damaging in a place where it is not possible to access a human operator is very important. In this paper, a method for object handling is presented. It is based on the use of an intelligent gripper to detect the object stiffness and then setting a programmable force for grasping the object to move it. The main components of this system includes sensors (sensors for measuring force and displacement), electrical (electrical and electronic circuits, tactile data processing and force control system), mechanical (gripper mechanism and driving system for the gripper) and the display unit. The system uses a rotary potentiometer for measuring gripper displacement. A microcontroller using the feedback received by the load cell, mounted on the finger of the gripper, calculates the amount of stiffness, and then commands the gripper motor to apply a certain force on the object. Results of Experiments on some samples with different stiffness show that the gripper works successfully. The gripper can be used in haptic interfaces or robotic systems used for object handling.

Keywords: Robotic, haptic, Stiffness, gripper

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18 Development of a Real-Time Simulink Based Robotic System to Study Force Feedback Mechanism during Instrument-Object Interaction

Authors: Jaydip M. Desai, Antonio Valdevit, Arthur Ritter

Abstract:

Robotic surgery is used to enhance minimally invasive surgical procedure. It provides greater degree of freedom for surgical tools but lacks of haptic feedback system to provide sense of touch to the surgeon. Surgical robots work on master-slave operation, where user is a master and robotic arms are the slaves. Current, surgical robots provide precise control of the surgical tools, but heavily rely on visual feedback, which sometimes cause damage to the inner organs. The goal of this research was to design and develop a realtime Simulink based robotic system to study force feedback mechanism during instrument-object interaction. Setup includes three VelmexXSlide assembly (XYZ Stage) for three dimensional movement, an end effector assembly for forceps, electronic circuit for four strain gages, two Novint Falcon 3D gaming controllers, microcontroller board with linear actuators, MATLAB and Simulink toolboxes. Strain gages were calibrated using Imada Digital Force Gauge device and tested with a hard-core wire to measure instrument-object interaction in the range of 0-35N. Designed Simulink model successfully acquires 3D coordinates from two Novint Falcon controllers and transfer coordinates to the XYZ stage and forceps. Simulink model also reads strain gages signal through 10-bit analog to digital converter resolution of a microcontroller assembly in real time, converts voltage into force and feedback the output signals to the Novint Falcon controller for force feedback mechanism. Experimental setup allows user to change forward kinematics algorithms to achieve the best-desired movement of the XYZ stage and forceps. This project combines haptic technology with surgical robot to provide sense of touch to the user controlling forceps through machine-computer interface.

Keywords: MATLAB, simulink, surgical robot, haptic feedback, strain gage

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17 A Study on User Authentication Method Using Haptic Actuator and Security Evaluation

Authors: YoHan Choi, HeeSuk Seo, SeungHwan Ju, SungHyu Han

Abstract:

As currently various portable devices were launched, smart business conducted using them became common. Since smart business can use company-internal resources in an exlternal remote place, user authentication that can identify authentic users is an important factor. Commonly used user authentication is a method of using user ID and Password. In the user authentication using ID and Password, the user should see and enter authentication information him or her. In this user authentication system depending on the user’s vision, there is the threat of password leaks through snooping in the process which the user enters his or her authentication information. This study designed and produced a user authentication module using an actuator to respond to the snooping threat.

Keywords: Security Evaluation, Actuator, user authentication

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16 Students’ Perception of Using Dental e-Models in an Inquiry-Based Curriculum

Authors: Yanqi Yang, Chongshan Liao, Cheuk Hin Ho, Susan Bridges

Abstract:

Aim: To investigate students’ perceptions of using e-models in an inquiry-based curriculum. Approach: 52 second-year dental students completed a pre- and post-test questionnaire relating to their perceptions of e-models and their use in inquiry-based learning. The pre-test occurred prior to any learning with e-models. The follow-up survey was conducted after one year's experience of using e-models. Results: There was no significant difference between the two sets of questionnaires regarding students’ perceptions of the usefulness of e-models and their willingness to use e-models in future inquiry-based learning. Most students preferred using both plaster models and e-models in tandem. Conclusion: Students did not change their attitude towards e-models and most of them agreed or were neutral that e-models are useful in inquiry-based learning. Whilst recognizing the utility of 3D models for learning, students' preference for combining these with solid models has implications for the development of haptic sensibility in an operative discipline.

Keywords: Education, e-models, inquiry-based curriculum

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15 Issues in the User Interface Design of a Content Rich Vocational Training Application for Digitally Illiterate Users

Authors: Jamie Otelsberg, Nagarajan Akshay, Rao R. Bhavani

Abstract:

This paper discusses our preliminary experiences in the design of a user interface of a computerized content-rich vocational training courseware meant for users with little or no computer experience. In targeting a growing population with limited access to skills training of any sort, we faced numerous challenges, including language and cultural differences, resource limits, gender boundaries and, in many cases, the simple lack of trainee motivation. With the size of the unskilled population increasing much more rapidly than the numbers of sufficiently skilled teachers, there is little choice but to develop teaching techniques that will take advantage of emerging computer-based training technologies. However, in striving to serve populations with minimal computer literacy, one must carefully design the user interface to accommodate their cultural, social, educational, motivational and other differences. Our work, which uses computer based and haptic simulation technologies to deliver training to these populations, has provided some useful insights on potential user interface design approaches.

Keywords: Human Factors, user interface design, Vocational training, computer human interaction, digitally illiterate, navigation issues

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14 Magnetic Field Based Near Surface Haptic and Pointing Interface

Authors: Kasun Karunanayaka, Sanath Siriwardana, Chamari Edirisinghe, Ryohei Nakatsu, PonnampalamGopalakrishnakone

Abstract:

In this paper, we are presenting a new type of pointing interface for computers which provides mouse functionalities with near surface haptic feedback. Further, it can be configured as a haptic display where users may feel the basic geometrical shapes in the GUI by moving the finger on top of the device surface. These functionalities are achieved by tracking three dimensional positions of the neodymium magnet using Hall Effect sensors grid and generating like polarity haptic feedback using an electromagnet array. This interface brings the haptic sensations to the 3D space where previously it is felt only on top of the buttons of the haptic mouse implementations.

Keywords: tangible user interface, Pointing interface, near surface haptic feedback, tactile display

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13 Smart Cane Assisted Mobility for the Visually Impaired

Authors: Jayant Sakhardande, Pratik Pattanayak, Mita Bhowmick

Abstract:

An efficient reintegration of the disabled people in the family and society should be fulfilled; hence it is strongly needful to assist their diminished functions or to replace the totally lost functions. Assistive technology helps in neutralizing the impairment. Recent advancements in embedded systems have opened up a vast area of research and development for affordable and portable assistive devices for the visually impaired. Granted there are many assistive devices on the market that are able to detect obstacles, and numerous research and development currently in process to alleviate the cause, unfortunately the cost of devices, size of devices, intrusiveness and higher learning curve prevents the visually impaired from taking advantage of available devices. This project aims at the design and implementation of a detachable unit which is robust, low cost and user friendly, thus, trying to aggrandize the functionality of the existing white cane, to concede above-knee obstacle detection. The designed obstruction detector uses ultrasound sensors for detecting the obstructions before direct contact. It bestows haptic feedback to the user in accordance with the position of the obstacle.

Keywords: visually impaired, ultrasonic sensors, Obstruction detector, Mobility aid

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12 An Authoring Tool for Vibrotactile Images

Authors: Da-Hye Kim, Won-Hyung Park, In-Ho Yun, Jeong Cheol Kim, Sang-Youn Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents an authoring tool which makes a user easily and intuitively design vibrotactile sensation. A mobile hardware platform powered by ANDROID, a multi-purpose haptic driver and a linear resonance actuator are used to implement the system of the presented authoring tool. The tool allows users to easily and simply create a vibrotactile sensation by drawing vibrotactile images and to feel the sensation by rubbing drawn images on the touch screen of a mobile device. The tool supports a graphical interface for designing, editing and playing vibrotactile images as well as a pre-defined file format for save and open.

Keywords: Mobile Device, authoring tool, vibrotactile pattern, vibrotactile sensation

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11 Development of a Low Cost Haptic Knob

Authors: Tan Ping Hua, Yeong Che Fai, Ricky Yap, Eileen Su Lee Ming

Abstract:

Haptics has been used extensively in many applications especially in human machine interaction and virtual reality systems. Haptic technology allows user to perceive virtual reality as in real world. However, commercially available haptic devices are expensive and may not be suitable for educational purpose. This paper describes the design and development of a low cost haptic knob, with only one degree of freedom, for use in rehabilitation or training hand pronation and supination. End-effectors can be changed to suit different applications or variation in hand sizes and hand orientation.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Rehabilitation, haptic, microcontroller, real time

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10 Real-time Haptic Modeling and Simulation for Prosthetic Insertion

Authors: Catherine A. Todd, Fazel Naghdy

Abstract:

In this work a surgical simulator is produced which enables a training otologist to conduct a virtual, real-time prosthetic insertion. The simulator provides the Ear, Nose and Throat surgeon with real-time visual and haptic responses during virtual cochlear implantation into a 3D model of the human Scala Tympani (ST). The parametric model is derived from measured data as published in the literature and accounts for human morphological variance, such as differences in cochlear shape, enabling patient-specific pre- operative assessment. Haptic modeling techniques use real physical data and insertion force measurements, to develop a force model which mimics the physical behavior of an implant as it collides with the ST walls during an insertion. Output force profiles are acquired from the insertion studies conducted in the work, to validate the haptic model. The simulator provides the user with real-time, quantitative insertion force information and associated electrode position as user inserts the virtual implant into the ST model. The information provided by this study may also be of use to implant manufacturers for design enhancements as well as for training specialists in optimal force administration, using the simulator. The paper reports on the methods for anatomical modeling and haptic algorithm development, with focus on simulator design, development, optimization and validation. The techniques may be transferrable to other medical applications that involve prosthetic device insertions where user vision is obstructed.

Keywords: surgical simulation, Haptic modeling, medical device insertion, real-time visualization of prosthetic implantation

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9 Haptics Enabled of ine AFM Image Analysis

Authors: Bhatti A., Nahavandi S., Hossny M.

Abstract:

Current advancements in nanotechnology are dependent on the capabilities that can enable nano-scientists to extend their eyes and hands into the nano-world. For this purpose, a haptics (devices capable of recreating tactile or force sensations) based system for AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) is proposed. The system enables the nano-scientists to touch and feel the sample surfaces, viewed through AFM, in order to provide them with better understanding of the physical properties of the surface, such as roughness, stiffness and shape of molecular architecture. At this stage, the proposed work uses of ine images produced using AFM and perform image analysis to create virtual surfaces suitable for haptics force analysis. The research work is in the process of extension from of ine to online process where interaction will be done directly on the material surface for realistic analysis.

Keywords: Image Analysis, Haptics, AFM, Force Feedback

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8 Simulating Dynamics of Thoracolumbar Spine Derived from Life MOD under Haptic Forces

Authors: K. T. Huynh, I. Gibson, W. F. Lu, B. N. Jagdish

Abstract:

In this paper, the construction of a detailed spine model is presented using the LifeMOD Biomechanics Modeler. The detailed spine model is obtained by refining spine segments in cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions into individual vertebra segments, using bushing elements representing the intervertebral discs, and building various ligamentous soft tissues between vertebrae. In the sagittal plane of the spine, constant force will be applied from the posterior to anterior during simulation to determine dynamic characteristics of the spine. The force magnitude is gradually increased in subsequent simulations. Based on these recorded dynamic properties, graphs of displacement-force relationships will be established in terms of polynomial functions by using the least-squares method and imported into a haptic integrated graphic environment. A thoracolumbar spine model with complex geometry of vertebrae, which is digitized from a resin spine prototype, will be utilized in this environment. By using the haptic technique, surgeons can touch as well as apply forces to the spine model through haptic devices to observe the locomotion of the spine which is computed from the displacement-force relationship graphs. This current study provides a preliminary picture of our ongoing work towards building and simulating bio-fidelity scoliotic spine models in a haptic integrated graphic environment whose dynamic properties are obtained from LifeMOD. These models can be helpful for surgeons to examine kinematic behaviors of scoliotic spines and to propose possible surgical plans before spine correction operations.

Keywords: haptic interface, LifeMOD, spine modeling

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7 Usability and Affordances: Examinations of Object-Naming and Object-Task Performance in Haptic Interfaces

Authors: Mia Sorensen

Abstract:

The introduction of haptic elements in a graphic user interfaces are becoming more widespread. Since haptics are being introduced rapidly into computational tools, investigating how these models affect Human-Computer Interaction would help define how to integrate and model new modes of interaction. The interest of this paper is to discuss and investigate the issues surrounding Haptic and Graphic User Interface designs (GUI) as separate systems, as well as understand how these work in tandem. The development of these systems is explored from a psychological perspective, based on how usability is addressed through learning and affordances, defined by J.J. Gibson. Haptic design can be a powerful tool, aiding in intuitive learning. The problems discussed within the text is how can haptic interfaces be integrated within a GUI without the sense of frivolity. Juxtaposing haptics and Graphic user interfaces has issues of motivation; GUI tends to have a performatory process, while Haptic Interfaces use affordances to learn tool use. In a deeper view, it is noted that two modes of perception, foveal and ambient, dictate perception. These two modes were once thought to work in tandem, however it has been discovered that these processes work independently from each other. Foveal modes interpret orientation is space which provide for posture, locomotion, and motor skills with variations of the sensory information, which instructs perceptions of object-task performance. It is contended, here, that object-task performance is a key element in the use of Haptic Interfaces because exploratory learning uses affordances in order to use an object, without meditating an experience cognitively. It is a direct experience that, through iteration, can lead to skill-sets. It is also indicated that object-task performance will not work as efficiently without the use of exploratory or kinesthetic learning practices. Therefore, object-task performance is not as congruently explored in GUI than it is practiced in Haptic interfaces.

Keywords: Affordances, Graphic User Interface, HapticInterfaces, Tool-Use, Object-Naming, Object-Task Performance

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6 Cable Tension Control and Analysis of Reel Transparency for 6-DOF Haptic Foot Platform on a Cable-Driven Locomotion Interface

Authors: Martin J.-D. Otis, Thien-Ly Nguyen-Dang, Thierry Laliberte, Denis Ouellet, Denis Laurendeau, Clement Gosselin

Abstract:

A Cable-Driven Locomotion Interface provides a low inertia haptic interface and is used as a way of enabling the user to walk and interact with virtual surfaces. These surfaces generate Cartesian wrenches which must be optimized for each motorized reel in order to reproduce a haptic sensation in both feet. However, the use of wrench control requires a measure of the cable tensions applied to the moving platform. The latter measure may be inaccurate if it is based on sensors located near the reel. Moreover, friction hysteresis from the reel moving parts needs to be compensated for with an evaluation of low angular velocity of the motor shaft. Also, the pose of the platform is not known precisely due to cable sagging and mechanical deformation. This paper presents a non-ideal motorized reel design with its corresponding control strategy that aims at overcoming the aforementioned issues. A transfert function of the reel based on frequency responses in function of cable tension and cable length is presented with an optimal adaptative PIDF controller. Finally, an hybrid position/tension control is discussed with an analysis of the stability for achieving a complete functionnality of the haptic platform.

Keywords: Control, Transparency, haptic, tension, cable, reel

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5 Haptics Enabled Offline AFM Image Analysis

Authors: Bhatti A., Nahavandi S., Hossny M.

Abstract:

Current advancements in nanotechnology are dependent on the capabilities that can enable nano-scientists to extend their eyes and hands into the nano-world. For this purpose, a haptics (devices capable of recreating tactile or force sensations) based system for AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) is proposed. The system enables the nano-scientists to touch and feel the sample surfaces, viewed through AFM, in order to provide them with better understanding of the physical properties of the surface, such as roughness, stiffness and shape of molecular architecture. At this stage, the proposed work uses of ine images produced using AFM and perform image analysis to create virtual surfaces suitable for haptics force analysis. The research work is in the process of extension from of ine to online process where interaction will be done directly on the material surface for realistic analysis.

Keywords: Image Analysis, Haptics, AFM, Force Feedback

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4 Some Issues on Integrating Telepresence Technology into Industrial Robotic Assembly

Authors: Gunther Reinhart, Marwan Radi

Abstract:

Since the 1940s, many promising telepresence research results have been obtained. However, telepresence technology still has not reached industrial usage. As human intelligence is necessary for successful execution of most manual assembly tasks, the ability of the human is hindered in some cases, such as the assembly of heavy parts of small/medium lots or prototypes. In such a case of manual assembly, the help of industrial robots is mandatory. The telepresence technology can be considered as a solution for performing assembly tasks, where the human intelligence and haptic sense are needed to identify and minimize the errors during an assembly process and a robot is needed to carry heavy parts. In this paper, preliminary steps to integrate the telepresence technology into industrial robot systems are introduced. The system described here combines both, the human haptic sense and the industrial robot capability to perform a manual assembly task remotely using a force feedback joystick. Mapping between the joystick-s Degrees of Freedom (DOF) and the robot-s ones are introduced. Simulation and experimental results are shown and future work is discussed.

Keywords: assembly, Telepresence, Force Feedback, Industrial Robot, Teleassembly

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3 A Support System Applicable to Multiple APIs for Haptic VR Application Designers

Authors: Masaharu Isshiki, Kenji Murakami, Shun Ido

Abstract:

This paper describes a proposed support system which enables applications designers to effectively create VR applications using multiple haptic APIs. When the VR designers create applications, it is often difficult to handle and understand many parameters and functions that have to be set in the application program using documentation manuals only. This complication may disrupt creative imagination and result in inefficient coding. So, we proposed the support application which improved the efficiency of VR applications development and provided the interactive components of confirmation of operations with haptic sense previously. In this paper, we describe improvements of our former proposed support application, which was applicable to multiple APIs and haptic devices, and evaluate the new application by having participants complete VR program. Results from a preliminary experiment suggest that our application facilitates creation of VR applications.

Keywords: Haptic devices, support system, VR application, Haptic APIs

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2 An Angioplasty Intervention Simulator with a Specific Virtual Environment

Authors: G. Aloisio, L. T. De Paolis, A. De Mauro, A. Mongelli

Abstract:

One of the essential requirements of a realistic surgical simulator is to reproduce haptic sensations due to the interactions in the virtual environment. However, the interaction need to be performed in real-time, since a delay between the user action and the system reaction reduces the immersion sensation. In this paper, a prototype of a coronary stent implant simulator is present; this system allows real-time interactions with an artery by means of a specific haptic device. To improve the realism of the simulation, the building of the virtual environment is based on real patients- images and a Web Portal is used to search in the geographically remote medical centres a virtual environment with specific features in terms of pathology or anatomy. The functional architecture of the system defines several Medical Centres in which virtual environments built from the real patients- images and related metadata with specific features in terms of pathology or anatomy are stored. The searched data are downloaded from the Medical Centre to the Training Centre provided with a specific haptic device and with the software necessary both to manage the interaction in the virtual environment. After the integration of the virtual environment in the simulation system it is possible to perform training on the specific surgical procedure.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Medical Simulation, web portal

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1 HERMES System: a Virtual Reality Simulator for the Angioplasty Intervention Training

Authors: Giovanni Aloisio, Lucio T. De Paolis, Luciana Provenzano, Lucio Colizzi, Gianluca Pantile

Abstract:

One of the essential requirements in order to have a realistic surgical simulator is real-time interaction by means of a haptic interface is. In fact, reproducing haptic sensations increases the realism of the simulation. However, the interaction need to be performed in real-time, since a delay between the user action and the system reaction reduces the user immersion. In this paper, we present a prototype of the coronary stent implant simulator developed in the HERMES Project; this system allows real-time interactions with a artery by means of a specific haptic device; thus the user can interactively navigate in a reconstructed artery and force feedback is produced when contact occurs between the artery walls and the medical instruments

Keywords: haptic interface, collision detection, Real-Time Interaction, Surgical Simulator

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