Educational Values of Virtual Reality: The Case of Spatial Ability
The use of Virtual Reality (VR) in schools and higher education is proliferating. Due to its interactive and animated features, it is regarded as a promising technology to increase students- spatial ability. Spatial ability is assumed to have a prominent role in science and engineering domains. However, research concerning individual differences such as spatial ability in the context of VR is still at its infancy. Moreover, empirical studies that focus on the features of VR to improve spatial ability are to date rare. Thus, this paper explores the possible educational values of VR in relation to spatial ability to call for more research concerning spatial ability in the context of VR based on studies in computerbased learning. It is believed that the incorporation of state-of-the-art VR technology for educational purposes should be justified by the enhanced benefits for the target learners.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1329711Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1860
 N. Strangman and T. Hall, "Virtual reality/simulations. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum," 2003. (Online). Available: http//www.cast.org/publications/ncac/n cac_vr.html.
 Y. Inoue, "Concepts, applications, and research of virtual reality learning environments," International Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 1-7, 2007.
 E. A.-L. Lee and K. W. Wong, "A review of using virtual reality for learning," Transactions on Edutainment vol. 1, pp. 231-241, 2008.
 S. Jang, R. W. Jyung, and J. B. Black, "How direct interaction in a virtual reality program aids in developing an internal representation of a complex 3-D structure," in World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunication, Vancouver, Canada, 2007, pp. 4214-4218.
 J. L. Mohler, "Utilizing desktop virtual reality to enhance visualization: Applied projects from the Department of Computer Graphics," in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference of Information Visualization, 1999, pp. 363-369.
 C. J. Chen, "Are spatial visualization abilities relevant to virtual reality?," e-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology, vol. 9, pp. 1-16, 2006. (Online). Available: http://www.usq.edu.au/elec tpub/e-jist/docs/vol9_no2/papers/full_papers/chen.pdf.
 R. E. Mayer, "Introduction to multimedia learning," in The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, R. E. Mayer, Ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 1-16.
 Z. Pan, A. D. Cheok, H. Yang, J. Zhu, and J. Shi, "Virtual reality and mixed reality for virtual learning environments," Computers & Graphics, vol. 30, pp. 20-28, 2006.
 C. J. Chen, S. C. Toh, and M. F. Wan, "The theoretical framework for designing desktop virtual reality-based learning environment," Journal of Interactive Learning Research, vol. 15, pp. 147-167, 2004.
 B. Dalgarno, J. Hedberg, and B. Harper, "The contribution of 3D environments to conceptual understanding," in ASCILITE 2002, Auckland, New Zealand, 2002, pp. 149-158.
 K. Allen, T. Austin, R. Beach, A. Bergstrom, S. Exon, M. Fabri, C. Fencott, K. Fernie, M. Gerhard, C. Grout, and S. Jeffrey, "Creating and using virtual reality: A guide for the arts and humanities," 2002. (Online). Available: http://vads.ahds.ac.uk/guides/vr_guide/sert1 1.html.
 D. F├ñllman, "Virtual reality in education: On-line survey," 2000. (Online). Available: http://www.informatik.umu.se/~dfallman/pro jects/vrie.
 G. M. Bordner and R. B. Guay, "The purdue visualization of rotations test," The Chemical Educator, vol. 2, pp. 1-17, 1997.
 R. D. Hannafin, M. P. Truxaw, J. R. Vermillion, and Y. Liu, "Effects of spatial ability and instructional program on geometry achievement," The Journal of Educational Research, vol. 101, pp. 148-156, 2008.
 S. P. Lajorie, "Individual differences in spatial ability: Developing technologies to increase strategy awareness and skills," Educational Psychologist, vol. 38, pp. 115-125, 2008.
 A. Rafi, K. Anuar, A. Samad, M. Hayati, and M. Mahadzir, "Improving spatial ability using a web-based virtual environment," Automation in Construction, vol. 14, pp. 707-715, 2005.
 M. Linn and A. C. Petersen, "Emergence and characterization of sex differences in spatial ability: A meta-analysis," Child Development, vol. 56, pp. 1479-1498, 1985.
 H. Gardner, Multiple intelligence: The theory in practice: New York: Basic Books, 1993.
 N. Durlach, G. Allen, R. Darken, R. L. Garnett, J. Loomis, J. Templeman, and T. E. Von Wiegand, "Virtual environments and the enhancement of spatial behavior: Towards a comprehensive research agenda," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 9, pp. 593-615, 2000.
 A. A. Black, "Spatial ability and earth science conceptual understanding," Journal of Geoscience Education, vol. 53, pp. 402-414, 2005.
 W. B. Michael, J. P. Guildford, B. Fruchter, and W. S. Zimmerman, "The description of spatial-visualization abilities," Education and Psychological Measurement, vol. 17, pp. 185-199, 1957.
 R. B. Ekstrom, J. W. French, H. H. Harman, and D. Dermen, Manual for kit of factor-referenced cognitive tests: Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N. J., 1976.
 M. G. McGee, Human spatial abilities, sources of sex differences: Praeger, N. Y. , 1979.
 M. Peters, P. Chisholm, and B. Laeng, "Spatial ability, student gender and academic performance," Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 84, pp. 69-73, 1995.
 G. K. Bennett, H. G. Seashore, and A. G. Wesman, DAT differential aptitude tests for personnel and career assessment technical manual: The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX, 1991.
 H. A. Witkin, P. K. Oltman, E. Raskin, and S. A. Karp, Group embedded figures test manual: Mind Garden, Inc., Redwood City, CA, 2002.
 H. K. Wu and P. Shah, "Exploring visuospatial thinking in chemistry learning," Science Education, vol. 88, pp. 465-492, 2004.
 C. Potter and E. Merwe, "Spatial ability, visual imagery and academic performance in engineering graphics," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Education, Oslo/Bergen, Norway, 2001.
 B. B. Gimmerstad and S. A. Sorby, "Making connections: Spatial skills and engineering drawing," Mathematics Teachers vol. 89, pp. 348-353, 1996.
 R. Eyal and F. Tendick, "Spatial ability and learning the use of an angled laparoscope in a virtual environment," in Proceedings of the Annual Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference, 2001, pp. 146-151.
 T. Huk, "Who benefits from learning with 3D models? The case of spatial ability," Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 22, pp. 392- 404, 2006.
 T. R. Lord and J. L. Rupert, "Visual-spatial aptitude in elementary education majors in science and math tracks," Journal of Elementary Science Education, vol. 7, pp. 45-58, 1995.
 T. R. Lord, "Enhancing learning in the life sciences through spatial perception," Innovative Higher Education, vol. 15, pp. 5-16, 1990.
 T. Huk, M. Steinke, and C. Floto, "The influence of visual spatial ability on the attitude of users towards high-quality 3D-animations in hypermedia learning environments," in Proceeding of E-Learn, 2003, pp. 1038-1041.
 H. McLellan, "Cognitives issues in virtual reality," Journal of Visual Literacy, vol. 18, pp. 5-12, 1998.
 A. X. Garg, G. Norman, and L. Speratoble "How medical students learn spatial anatomy," The Lancet, vol. 357, pp. 363-364, 2001.
 M. Keehner and P. Khooshabeh, "Computerized representations of 3D structure: How spatial comprehension and patterns of interactivity differ among learners," 2002. (Online). Available: http://media.igert.ucsb.edu/pubdls/Keehn&Khoosh.pgd.
 K. L. Norman, "Spatial visualization - A gateway to computer-based technology," Journal of Special Education Technology, vol. 7, pp. 195- 206, 1994.
 M. Keehner, D. R. Montello, M. Hegarty, and C. Cohen, "Effects of interactivity and spatial ability on the comprehension of spatial relations in a 3D computer visualization," in Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society 2004.
 T. A. Hays, "Spatial abilities and the effects of computer animation on short-term and long-term comprehension," Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 14, pp. 139-155, 1996.
 R. E. Mayer and V. K. Sims, "From whom is a picture worth a thousand words? Extensions of a dual-coding theory of multimedia learning," Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 86, pp. 389-401, 1994.
 A. X. Garg, R. N. Geoffery, K. W. Eva, L. Spero, and S. Sharan, "Is there any real virtue of virtual reality?: The minor role of multiple orientations in learning anatomy from computers," Academic Medicine, vol. 77, pp. 97-99, 2002.
 R. Moreno and R. E. Mayer, "Multimedia-supported metaphors for meaning making in mathematics," Cognitive and Instruction, vol. 17, pp. 215-248, 1999.
 P. Chandler and J. Sweller, "Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction," Cognitive and Instruction, vol. 8, pp. 293-332, 1991.
 H.-C. Wang, C.-Y. Chang, and T.-Y. Li, "The comparative efficacy of 2D-versus 3D-based media design for influencing spatial visualization skills," Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 23, pp. 1943-1957, 2007.
 L. J. Cronbach and R. E. Snow, "Individual differences in learning ability as a function of instruction variables. (Final report, Contract No. OEC-4-6-061269-1217), Stanford, CA: Stanford University, School of Education. (U.S. Office of Education, ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 029 001)." 1969.
 D. H. Jonassen and B. L. Grabowki, Handbook of individual differences, learning, and instruction: Lawrence-Erlbaum Associates, NJ, 1993.
 S. Tobias, "Adapting instruction to individual differences among students," in The Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, 1980.