Search results for: elastic
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 402

Search results for: elastic

402 Stress Distribution in Axisymmetric Indentation of an Elastic Layer-Substrate Body

Authors: Kotaro Miura, Makoto Sakamoto, Yuji Tanabe

Abstract:

We focus on internal stress and displacement of an elastic axisymmetric contact problem for indentation of a layer-substrate body. An elastic layer is assumed to be perfectly bonded to an elastic semi-infinite substrate. The elastic layer is smoothly indented with a flat-ended cylindrical indenter. The analytical and exact solutions were obtained by solving an infinite system of simultaneous equations using the method to express a normal contact stress at the upper surface of the elastic layer as an appropriate series. This paper presented the numerical results of internal stress and displacement distributions for hard-coating system with constant values of Poisson’s ratio and the thickness of elastic layer.

Keywords: Indentation, contact problem, stress distribution, coating materials, layer-substrate body.

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401 Elastic Strain-Concentration Factor of Cylindrical Bars with Circumferential Flat-Bottom Groove under Static Tension

Authors: Hitham M. Tlilan

Abstract:

Using finite element method (FEM), the elastic new strain-concentration factor (SNCF) of cylindrical bars with circumferential flat-bottom groove is studied. This new SNCF has been defined under triaxial stress state. The employed specimens have constant groove depth with net section and gross diameters of 10.0 and 16.7 mm, respectively. The length of flatness ao has been varied form 0.0 ~12.5 mm to study the elastic SNCF of this type of geometrical irregularities. The results that the elastic new SNCF rapidly drops from its elastic value of the groove with ao = 0.0, i.e. circumferential U-notch, and reaches minimum value at ao = 2 mm. After that the elastic new SNCF becomes nearly constant with increasing flatness length (ao). The value of tensile load at yielding at the groove root increases with increasing ao. The current results show that severity of the notch decreases with increasing flatness length ao.

Keywords: Bar, groove, strain, tension

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400 Study of Stress Wave Propagation with NHDMOC

Authors: G.Y. Zhang , M.L. Xu, R.Q. Zhang, W.H. Tang

Abstract:

MOC (method of cell) is a new method of investigating wave propagating in material with periodic microstructure, and can reflect the effect of microstructure. Wave propagation in periodically laminated medium consisting of linearly elastic layers can be treated as a special application of this method. In this paper, it was used to simulate the dynamic response of carbon-phenolic to impulsive loading under certain boundary conditions. From the comparison between the results obtained from this method and the exact results based on propagator matrix theory, excellent agreement is achieved. Conclusion can be made that the oscillation periodicity is decided by the thickness of sub-cells. In the end, the NHDMOC method, which permits studying stress wave propagation with one dimensional strain, was applied to study the one-dimensional stress wave propagation. In this paper, the ZWT nonlinear visco-elastic constitutive relationship with 7 parameters, NHDMOC, and corresponding equations were deduced. The equations were verified, comparing the elastic stress wave propagation in SHPB with, respectively, the elastic and the visco-elastic bar. Finally the dispersion and attenuation of stress wave in SHPB with visco-elastic bar was studied.

Keywords: MOC, NHDMOC, visco-elastic, wave propagation

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399 Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of ZnO Nanowires as a Function of Nano-Diameter

Authors: L. Achou, A. Doghmane

Abstract:

Elastic performances, as an essential property of nanowires (NWs), play a significant role in the design and fabrication of modern nanodevices. In this paper, our interest is focused on ZnO NWs to investigate wire diameter (Dwire ≤ 400 nm) effects on elastic properties. The plotted data reveal that a strong size dependence of the elastic constants exists when the wire diameter is smaller than ~ 100 nm. For larger diameters (Dwire > 100 nm), these ones approach their corresponding bulk values. To enrich this study, we make use of the scanning acoustic microscopy simulation technique. The calculation methodology consists of several steps: determination of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities, calculation of refection coefficients, calculation of acoustic signatures and Rayleigh velocity determination. Quantitatively, it was found that changes in ZnO diameters over the ranges 1 nm ≤ Dwire ≤ 100 nm lead to similar exponential variations, for all elastic parameters, of the from: A = a + b exp(-Dwire/c) where a, b, and c are characteristic constants of a given parameter. The developed relation can be used to predict elastic properties of such NW by just knowing its diameter and vice versa.

Keywords: Elastic properties, nanowires, semiconductors, ZnO.

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398 Further Investigation of Elastic Scattering of 16O on 12C at Different Energies

Authors: Sh. Hamada, N. Burtebayev, N. Amangeldi, A. Amar

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to study the elastic transfer phenomenon which takes place in the elastic scattering of 16O on 12C at energies near the Coulomb barrier. Where, the angular distribution decrease steadily with increasing the scattering angle, then the cross section will increase at backward angles due to the α-transfer process. This reaction was also studied at different energies for tracking the nuclear rainbow phenomenon. The experimental data of the angular distribution at these energies were compared to the calculation predictions. The optical potential codes such as SPIVAL and Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWUCK5) were used in analysis.

Keywords: Transfer reaction, DWBA, Elastic Scattering, Optical Potential Codes.

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397 Elastic Strain-Concentration Factor of Notched Bars under Combined Loading of Static Tension and Pure Bending

Authors: Hitham M. Tlilan

Abstract:

The effect of notch depth on the elastic new strainconcentration factor (SNCF) of rectangular bars with single edge Unotch under combined loading is studied here. The finite element method (FEM) and super position technique are used in the current study. This new SNCF under combined loading of static tension and pure bending has been defined under triaxial stress state. The employed specimens have constant gross thickness of 16.7 mm and net section thickness varied to give net-to-gross thickness ratio ho/Ho from 0.2 to 0.95. The results indicated that the elastic SNCF for combined loading increases with increasing notch depth up to ho/Ho = 0.7 and sharply decreases with increasing notch depth. It is also indicated that the elastic SNCF of combined loading is greater than that of pure bending and less than that of the static tension for 0.2 ≤ ho/Ho ≤ 0.7. However, the elastic SNCF of combined loading is the elastic SNCF for static tension and less than that of pure bending for shallow notches (i.e. 0.8 ≤ ho/Ho ≤ 0.95).

Keywords: Bar, notch, strain, tension, bending

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396 New Investigation of the Exchange Effects Role on the Elastic and Inelastic Scattering of α-Particles on 9Be

Authors: A. Amar, N. Burtebayev, Zh. K. Kerimkulov, M. K. Baktybayev, J. T. Burtebayeva, A. K. Morzabayev, S. K. Sakhiev, N. Saduyev, S. B. Sakuta

Abstract:

Elastic and inelastic scattering of α-particles by 9Be nuclei at different incident energies have been analyzed. Optical model parameters (OMPs) of α-particles elastic scattering by 9Be at different energies have been obtained. Coupled Reaction Channel (CRC) of elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and transfer reaction has been calculated using Fresco Code. The effect of involving CRC calculations on the analysis of differential cross section has been studied. The transfer reaction of (5He) in the reaction 9Be(α,9Be)α has been studied. The spectroscopic factor of 9Be≡α+5He has been extracted.

Keywords: Elastic scattering of α-particles, Optical model parameters, Coupled Reaction Channel, the transfer reaction of (5He), the spectroscopic factor of 9Be≡α+5He.

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395 Study of the Elastic Scattering of 16O, 14N and 12C on the Nucleus of 27Al at Different Energies near the Coulomb Barrier

Authors: N. Amangeldi, N. Burtebayev, Sh. Hamada, A. Amar

Abstract:

the measurement of the angular distribution for the elastic scattering of 16O, 14N and 12C on 27Al has been done at energy 1.75 MeV/nucleon. The optical potential code SPIVAL used in this work to analyze the experimental results. A good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results was obtained.

Keywords: 27Al(16O, 16O)27Al, SPIVAL, 27Al(14N, 14N)27Al, 27Al(12C, 12C)27Al, Elastic Scattering, Optical Potential Codes.

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394 Comparison of Elastic and Viscoelastic Modeling for Asphalt Concrete Surface Layer

Authors: Fouzieh Rouzmehr, Mehdi Mousavi

Abstract:

Hot mix asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material, and its stress-strain relationship depends on the loading duration and the strain rate. To investigate the effect of elastic and viscoelastic modeling under traffic load, asphalt concrete pavement is modeled with both elastic and viscoelastic properties and the pavement performance is predicted. The differences of these two models are investigated on fatigue cracking and rutting problem which are the two main design parameters in flexible pavement design. Although the differences in rutting problem between two models were negligible, in fatigue cracking, the viscoelastic model results were more accurate. Results indicate that modeling the flexible pavement with elastic material is efficient enough and gives the acceptable results.

Keywords: Flexible pavement, asphalt, FEM modeling, viscoelastic, elastic, ANSYS.

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393 Free Vibration Analysis of Non-Uniform Euler Beams on Elastic Foundation via Homotopy Perturbation Method

Authors: U. Mutman, S. B. Coskun

Abstract:

In this study Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is employed to investigate free vibration of an Euler beam with variable stiffness resting on an elastic foundation. HPM is an easy-to-use and very efficient technique for the solution of linear or nonlinear problems. HPM produces analytical approximate expression which is continuous in the solution domain. This work shows that HPM is a promising method for free vibration analysis of nonuniform Euler beams on elastic foundation. Several case problems have been solved by using the technique and solutions have been compared with those available in the literature.

Keywords: Homotopy Perturbation Method, Elastic Foundation, Vibration, Beam

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392 Evaluation of Static Modulus of Elasticity Depending on Concrete Compressive Strength

Authors: K. Krizova, R. Hela

Abstract:

The paper is focused on monitoring of dependencies of different composition concretes on elastic modulus values. To obtain a summary of elastic modulus development in dependence of concrete composition design variability was the objective of the experiment. Essential part of this work was initiated as a reaction to building practice when questions of elastic moduli arose at the same time and which mostly did not obtain the required and expected values from concrete constructions.

Keywords: Concrete, Compressive strength, Modulus of elasticity, EuroCode 2.

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391 A Real Time Collision Avoidance Algorithm for Mobile Robot based on Elastic Force

Authors: Kyung Hyun, Choi, Minh Ngoc, Nong, M. Asif Ali, Rehmani

Abstract:

This present paper proposes the modified Elastic Strip method for mobile robot to avoid obstacles with a real time system in an uncertain environment. The method deals with the problem of robot in driving from an initial position to a target position based on elastic force and potential field force. To avoid the obstacles, the robot has to modify the trajectory based on signal received from the sensor system in the sampling times. It was evident that with the combination of Modification Elastic strip and Pseudomedian filter to process the nonlinear data from sensor uncertainties in the data received from the sensor system can be reduced. The simulations and experiments of these methods were carried out.

Keywords: Collision avoidance, Avoidance obstacle, Elastic Strip, Real time collision avoidance.

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390 Formulating the Stochastic Finite Elements for Free Vibration Analysis of Plates with Variable Elastic Modulus

Authors: Mojtaba Aghamiri Esfahani, Mohammad Karkon, Seyed Majid Hosseini Nezhad, Reza Hosseini-Ara

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of a plate on free vibration response is investigated. For this purpose, the elastic modulus of the plate is modeled as stochastic variable with normal distribution. Moreover, the distance autocorrelation function is used for stochastic field. Then, by applying the finite element method and Monte Carlo simulation, stochastic finite element relations are extracted. Finally, with a numerical test, the effect of uncertainty in the elastic modulus on free vibration response of a plate is studied. The results show that the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of the plate cannot play an important role on the free vibration response.

Keywords: Stochastic finite elements, plate bending, free vibration, Monte Carlo, Neumann expansion method.

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389 First Principles Study of Structural and Elastic Properties of BaWO4 Scheelite Phase Structure under Pressure

Authors: A. Benmakhlouf, A. Bentabet

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigated the athermal pressure behavior of the structural and elastic properties of scheelite BaWO4 phase up to 7 GPa using the ab initio pseudo-potential method. The calculated lattice parameters pressure relation have been compared with the experimental values and found to be in good agreement with these results. Moreover, we present for the first time the investigation of the elastic properties of this compound using the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). It is shown that this phase is mechanically stable up to 7 GPa after analyzing the calculated elastic constants. Other relevant quantities such as bulk modulus, pressure derivative of bulk modulus, shear modulus; Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, anisotropy factors, Debye temperature and sound velocity have been calculated. The obtained results, which are reported for the first time to the best of the author’s knowledge, can facilitate assessment of possible applications of the title material.

Keywords: Pseudo-potential method, pressure, structural and elastic properties, scheelite BaWO4 phase.

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388 Reciprocating Equipment Piston Rod Dynamic Elastic-Plastic Deformation Analysis

Authors: Amin Almasi

Abstract:

Analysis of reciprocating equipment piston rod leads to nonlinear elastic-plastic deformation analysis of rod with initial imperfection under axial dynamic load. In this paper a new and effective model and analytical formulations are presented to evaluate dynamic deformation and elastic-plastic stresses of reciprocating machine piston rod. This new method has capability to account for geometric nonlinearity, elastic-plastic deformation and dynamic effects. Proposed method can be used for evaluation of piston rod performance for various reciprocating machines under different operation situations. Rod load curves and maximum allowable rod load are calculated with presented method for a refinery type reciprocating compressor. Useful recommendations and guidelines for rod load, rod load reversal and rod drop monitoring are also addressed.

Keywords: Deformation, Reciprocating Equipment, Rod.

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387 Sub-Impact Phenomenon of Elasto-Plastic Free-Free Beam during a Strike

Authors: H. Rong, X. C. Yin, J. Yang, Y. N. Shen

Abstract:

Based on Rayleigh beam theory, the sub-impacts of a free-free beam struck horizontally by a round-nosed rigid mass is simulated by the finite difference method and the impact-separation conditions. In order to obtain the sub-impact force, a uniaxial compression elastic-plastic contact model is employed to analyze the local deformation field on contact zone. It is found that the horizontal impact is a complicated process including the elastic plastic sub-impacts in sequence. There are two sub-zones of sub-impact. In addition, it found that the elastic energy of the free-free beam is more suitable for the Poisson collision hypothesis to explain compression and recovery processes.

Keywords: beam, sub-impact, elastic-plastic deformation, finite difference method.

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386 Surface Flattening based on Linear-Elastic Finite Element Method

Authors: Wen-liang Chen, Peng Wei, Yidong Bao

Abstract:

This paper presents a linear-elastic finite element method based flattening algorithm for three dimensional triangular surfaces. First, an intrinsic characteristic preserving method is used to obtain the initial developing graph, which preserves the angles and length ratios between two adjacent edges. Then, an iterative equation is established based on linear-elastic finite element method and the flattening result with an equilibrium state of internal force is obtained by solving this iterative equation. The results show that complex surfaces can be dealt with this proposed method, which is an efficient tool for the applications in computer aided design, such as mould design.

Keywords: Triangular mesh, surface flattening, finite elementmethod, linear-elastic deformation.

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385 Further Investigation of α+12C and α+16O Elastic Scattering

Authors: Sh. Hamada

Abstract:

The current work aims to study the rainbow like-structure observed in the elastic scattering of alpha particles on both 12C and 16O nuclei. We reanalyzed the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions data for α+12C and α+16O nuclear systems at different energies using both optical model and double folding potential of different interaction models such as: CDM3Y1, DDM3Y1, CDM3Y6 and BDM3Y1. Potential created by BDM3Y1 interaction model has the shallowest depth which reflects the necessity to use higher renormalization factor (Nr). Both optical model and double folding potential of different interaction models fairly reproduce the experimental data.

Keywords: Nuclear rainbow, elastic scattering, optical model, double folding, density distribution.

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384 A Study on Application of Elastic Theory for Computing Flexural Stresses in Preflex Beam

Authors: Nasiri Ahmadullah, Shimozato Tetsuhiro, Masayuki Tai

Abstract:

This paper presents the step-by-step procedure for using Elastic Theory to calculate the internal stresses in composite bridge girders prestressed by the Preflexing Technology, called Prebeam in Japan and Preflex beam worldwide. Elastic Theory approaches preflex beams the same way as it does the conventional composite girders. Since preflex beam undergoes different stages of construction, calculations are made using different sectional and material properties. Stresses are calculated in every stage using the properties of the specific section. Stress accumulation gives the available stress in a section of interest. Concrete presence in the section implies prestress loss due to creep and shrinkage, however; more work is required to be done in this field. In addition to the graphical presentation of this application, this paper further discusses important notes of graphical comparison between the results of an experimental-only research carried out on a preflex beam, with the results of simulation based on the elastic theory approach, for an identical beam using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) by the author.

Keywords: Composite girder, elastic theory, preflex beam, prestressing.

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383 Surface Activation of Carbon Nanotubes Generating a Chemical Interaction in Epoxy Nanocomposite

Authors: Mohamed Eldessouki, Ebraheem Shady, Yasser Gowayed

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for having high elastic properties with high surface area that promote them as good candidates for reinforcing polymeric matrices. In composite materials, CNTs lack chemical bonding with the surrounding matrix which decreases the possibility of better stress transfer between the components. In this work, a chemical treatment for activating the surface of the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was applied and the effect of this functionalization on the elastic properties of the epoxy nanocomposites was studied. Functional amino-groups were added to the surface of the CNTs and it was evaluated to be about 34% of the total weight of the CNTs. Elastic modulus was found to increase by about 40% of the neat epoxy resin at CNTs’ weight fraction of 0.5%. The elastic modulus was found to decrease after reaching a certain concentration of CNTs which was found to be 1% wt. The scanning electron microscopic pictures showed the effect of the CNTs on the crack propagation through the sample by forming stress concentrated spots at the nanocomposite samples.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes functionalization, crack propagation, elastic modulus, epoxy nanocomposites.

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382 Vibration of a Beam on an Elastic Foundation Using the Variational Iteration Method

Authors: Desmond Adair, Kairat Ismailov, Martin Jaeger

Abstract:

Modelling of Timoshenko beams on elastic foundations has been widely used in the analysis of buildings, geotechnical problems, and, railway and aerospace structures. For the elastic foundation, the most widely used models are one-parameter mechanical models or two-parameter models to include continuity and cohesion of typical foundations, with the two-parameter usually considered the better of the two. Knowledge of free vibration characteristics of beams on an elastic foundation is considered necessary for optimal design solutions in many engineering applications, and in this work, the efficient and accurate variational iteration method is developed and used to calculate natural frequencies of a Timoshenko beam on a two-parameter foundation. The variational iteration method is a technique capable of dealing with some linear and non-linear problems in an easy and efficient way. The calculations are compared with those using a finite-element method and other analytical solutions, and it is shown that the results are accurate and are obtained efficiently. It is found that the effect of the presence of the two-parameter foundation is to increase the beam’s natural frequencies and this is thought to be because of the shear-layer stiffness, which has an effect on the elastic stiffness. By setting the two-parameter model’s stiffness parameter to zero, it is possible to obtain a one-parameter foundation model, and so, comparison between the two foundation models is also made.

Keywords: Timoshenko beam, variational iteration method, two-parameter elastic foundation model.

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381 Hall Effect on MHD Mixed Convection Flow of Viscous-Elastic Incompressible Fluid Past of an Infinite Porous Medium

Authors: T. K. Das, N. Senapatil, R. K. Dhal

Abstract:

An unsteady mixed free convection MHD flow of elastic-viscous incompressible fluid past an infinite vertical porous flat plate is investigated when the presence of heat Source/sink, temperature and concentration are assumed to be oscillating with time and hall effect. The governing equations are solved by complex variable technique. The expressions for the velocity field, temperature field and species concentration are demonstrated in graphs. The effects of the Prandtl number, the Grashof number, modified Grashof number, the Schimidt number, the Hall parameter, Elastic parameter & Magnetic parameter are discussed.

Keywords: MHD, Mixed convective, Elastic-viscous incompressible, rotational, heat transfer, mass transfer, suction and injection.

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380 Detailed Phenomenological Study of 14N Elastically Scattered on 12C in a wide Energy Range

Authors: Sh. Hamada, N. Burtebayev, N. Amangeldi, A. Amar

Abstract:

An experiment was performed with a 24.5 MeV 14N beam on a 12C target in the cyclotron DC-60 located in Astana, Kazakhstan, to study the elastic scattering of 14N on 12C; the scattering was also analyzed at different energies for tracking the phenomenon of remarkable structure at large angles. Its aims were to extend the measurements to very large angles, and attempt to uniquely identify the elastic scattering potential. Good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data has been obtained with suitable optical potential parameters. Optical model calculations with l -dependent imaginary potentials were also applied to the data and relatively good agreement was found.

Keywords: Optical Potential Codes, Elastic Scattering, SPIVALCode.

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379 Active Control of Multiferroic Composite Shells Using 1-3 Piezoelectric Composites

Authors: S. C. Kattimani

Abstract:

This article deals with the analysis of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of smart multiferroic or magneto-electro-elastic doubly curved shells. The kinematics of deformations of the multiferroic doubly curved shell is described by a layer-wise shear deformation theory. A three-dimensional finite element model of multiferroic shells has been developed taking into account the electro-elastic and magneto-elastic couplings. A simple velocity feedback control law is employed to incorporate the active damping. Influence of layer stacking sequence and boundary conditions on the response of the multiferroic doubly curved shell has been studied. In addition, for the different orientation of the fibers of the constraining layer, the performance of the ACLD treatment has been studied.

Keywords: Active constrained layer damping, doubly curved shells, magneto-electro-elastic, multiferroic composite, smart structures.

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378 Analysis of the Elastic Scattering of 12C on 11B at Energy near Coulomb Barrier Using Different Optical Potential Codes

Authors: Sh. Hamada, N. Burtebayev, A. Amar, N. Amangieldy

Abstract:

the aim of that work is to study the proton transfer phenomenon which takes place in the elastic scattering of 12C on 11B at energies near the coulomb barrier. This reaction was studied at four different energies 16, 18, 22, 24 MeV. The experimental data of the angular distribution at these energies were compared to the calculation prediction using the optical potential codes such as ECIS88 and SPIVAL. For the raising in the cross section at backward angles due to the transfer process we could use Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWUCK5). Our analysis showed that SPIVAL code with l-dependent imaginary potential could be used effectively.

Keywords: Transfer reaction, DWBA, Elastic Scattering, Optical Potential Codes.

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377 Systematic Study of the p, d and 3He Elastic Scattering on 6Li

Authors: A. Amar, N. Burtebayev, Kerimkulov Zhambul, Sh. Hamada, N. Amangeldi

Abstract:

the elastic scattering of protons, deuterons and 3He on 6Li at different incident energies have been analyzed in the framework of the optical model using ECIS88 as well as SPI GENOA codes. The potential parameters were extracted in the phenomenological treatment of measured by us angular distributions and literature data. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental differential cross sections was obtained in whole angular range. Parameters for real part of potential have been also calculated microscopically with singleand double-folding model for the p and d, 3He scattering, respectively, using DFPOT code. For best agreement with experiment the normalization factor N for the potential depth is obtained in the range of 0.7-0.9.

Keywords: Elastic scattering, Esis88 Code single and doublefolding model, phenomenological, DWBA.

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376 Elastic-Plastic Transition in a Thin Rotating Disc with Inclusion

Authors: Pankaj, Sonia R. Bansal

Abstract:

Stresses for the elastic-plastic transition and fully plastic state have been derived for a thin rotating disc with inclusion and results have been discussed numerically and depicted graphically. It has been observed that the rotating disc with inclusion and made of compressible material requires lesser angular speed to yield at the internal surface whereas it requires higher percentage increase in angular speed to become fully plastic as compare to disc made of incompressible material.

Keywords: Angular speed, Elastic-Plastic, Inclusion, Rotatingdisc, Stress, Transition.

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375 Influence of Pressure from Compression Textile Bands: Their Using in the Treatment of Venous Human Leg Ulcers

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Rachid Halfaoui

Abstract:

The aim of study was to evaluate pressure distribution characteristics of the elastic textile bandages using two instrumental techniques: a prototype Instrument and a load Transference. The prototype instrument which simulates shape of real leg has pressure sensors which measure bandage pressure. Using this instrument, the results show that elastic textile bandages presents different pressure distribution characteristics and none produces a uniform distribution around lower limb.

The load transference test procedure is used to determine whether a relationship exists between elastic textile bandage structure and pressure distribution characteristics. The test procedure assesses degree of load, directly transferred through a textile when loads series are applied to bandaging surface. A range of weave fabrics was produced using needle weaving machine and a sewing technique. A textile bandage was developed with optimal characteristics far superior pressure distribution than other bandages. From results, we find that theoretical pressure is not consistent exactly with practical pressure. It is important in this study to make a practical application for specialized nurses in order to verify the results and draw useful conclusions for predicting the use of this type of elastic band.

Keywords: Textile, cotton, pressure, venous ulcers, elastic.

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374 Optimization of New 25A-size Metal Gasket Design Based on Contact Width Considering Forming and Contact Stress Effect

Authors: Didik Nurhadiyanto , Moch Agus Choiron , Ken Kaminishi , Shigeyuki Haruyama

Abstract:

At the previous study of new metal gasket, contact width and contact stress were important design parameter for optimizing metal gasket performance. However, the range of contact stress had not been investigated thoroughly. In this study, we conducted a gasket design optimization based on an elastic and plastic contact stress analysis considering forming effect using FEM. The gasket model was simulated by using two simulation stages which is forming and tightening simulation. The optimum design based on an elastic and plastic contact stress was founded. Final evaluation was determined by helium leak quantity to check leakage performance of both type of gaskets. The helium leak test shows that a gasket based on the plastic contact stress design better than based on elastic stress design.

Keywords: Contact stress, metal gasket, plastic, elastic

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373 Torsional Rigidities of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling

Authors: Ilker Kalkan, Saruhan Kartal

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) beams rarely undergo lateral-torsional buckling (LTB), since these beams possess large lateral bending and torsional rigidities owing to their stocky cross-sections, unlike steel beams. However, the problem of LTB is becoming more and more pronounced in the last decades as the span lengths of concrete beams increase and the cross-sections become more slender with the use of pre-stressed concrete. The buckling moment of a beam mainly depends on its lateral bending rigidity and torsional rigidity. The nonhomogeneous and elastic-inelastic nature of RC complicates estimation of the buckling moments of concrete beams. Furthermore, the lateral bending and torsional rigidities of RC beams and the buckling moments are affected from different forms of concrete cracking, including flexural, torsional and restrained shrinkage cracking. The present study pertains to the effects of concrete cracking on the torsional rigidities of RC beams prone to elastic LTB. A series of tests on rather slender RC beams indicated that torsional cracking does not initiate until buckling in elastic LTB, while flexural cracking associated with lateral bending takes place even at the initial stages of loading. Hence, the present study clearly indicated that the un-cracked torsional rigidity needs to be used for estimating the buckling moments of RC beams liable to elastic LTB.

Keywords: Lateral stability, post-cracking torsional rigidity, uncracked torsional rigidity, critical moment.

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