Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1191

Search results for: sample

1191 Sample-Weighted Fuzzy Clustering with Regularizations

Authors: Miin-Shen Yang, Yee-Shan Pan

Abstract:

Although there have been many researches in cluster analysis to consider on feature weights, little effort is made on sample weights. Recently, Yu et al. (2011) considered a probability distribution over a data set to represent its sample weights and then proposed sample-weighted clustering algorithms. In this paper, we give a sample-weighted version of generalized fuzzy clustering regularization (GFCR), called the sample-weighted GFCR (SW-GFCR). Some experiments are considered. These experimental results and comparisons demonstrate that the proposed SW-GFCR is more effective than the most clustering algorithms.

Keywords: Clustering; fuzzy c-means, fuzzy clustering, sample weights, regularization.

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1190 Microstructure Parameters of a Super-Ionic Sample (Csag2i3)

Authors: Samir Osman M., Mohammed Hassan S.

Abstract:

Sample of CsAg2I3 was prepared by solid state reaction. Then, microstructure parameters of this sample have been determined using wide angle X-ray scattering WAXS method. As well as, Cell parameters of crystal structure have been refined using CHEKCELL program. This analysis states that the lattice intrinsic strainof the sample is so small and the crystal size is on the order of 559Å.

Keywords: WAXS, Microstructure parameters, super-ionic conductor.

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1189 An Adequate Choice of Initial Sample Size for Selection Approach

Authors: Mohammad H. Almomani, Rosmanjawati Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the effect of the initial sample size on the performance of a sequential approach that used in selecting a good enough simulated system, when the number of alternatives is very large. We implement a sequential approach on M=M=1 queuing system under some parameter settings, with a different choice of the initial sample sizes to explore the impacts on the performance of this approach. The results show that the choice of the initial sample size does affect the performance of our selection approach.

Keywords: Ranking and Selection, Ordinal Optimization, Optimal Computing Budget Allocation, Subset Selection, Indifference-Zone, Initial Sample Size.

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1188 2D and 3D Unsteady Simulation of the Heat Transfer in the Sample during Heat Treatment by Moving Heat Source

Authors: Z. Veselý, M. Honner, J. Mach

Abstract:

The aim of the performed work is to establish the 2D and 3D model of direct unsteady task of sample heat treatment by moving source employing computer model on the basis of finite element method. Complex boundary condition on heat loaded sample surface is the essential feature of the task. Computer model describes heat treatment of the sample during heat source movement over the sample surface. It is started from 2D task of sample cross section as a basic model. Possibilities of extension from 2D to 3D task are discussed. The effect of the addition of third model dimension on temperature distribution in the sample is showed. Comparison of various model parameters on the sample temperatures is observed. Influence of heat source motion on the depth of material heat treatment is shown for several velocities of the movement. Presented computer model is prepared for the utilization in laser treatment of machine parts.

Keywords: Computer simulation, unsteady model, heat treatment, complex boundary condition, moving heat source.

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1187 The Effect of Nonnormality on CB-SEM and PLS-SEM Path Estimates

Authors: Z. Jannoo, B. W. Yap, N. Auchoybur, M. A. Lazim

Abstract:

The two common approaches to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) are the Covariance-Based SEM (CB-SEM) and Partial Least Squares SEM (PLS-SEM). There is much debate on the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for small sample size and when distributions are nonnormal. This study evaluates the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM under normality and nonnormality conditions via a simulation. Monte Carlo Simulation in R programming language was employed to generate data based on the theoretical model with one endogenous and four exogenous variables. Each latent variable has three indicators. For normal distributions, CB-SEM estimates were found to be inaccurate for small sample size while PLS-SEM could produce the path estimates. Meanwhile, for a larger sample size, CB-SEM estimates have lower variability compared to PLS-SEM. Under nonnormality, CB-SEM path estimates were inaccurate for small sample size. However, CB-SEM estimates are more accurate than those of PLS-SEM for sample size of 50 and above. The PLS-SEM estimates are not accurate unless sample size is very large.  

Keywords: CB-SEM, Monte Carlo simulation, Normality conditions, Nonnormality, PLS-SEM.

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1186 On the Oil Repellency of Nanotextured Aluminum Surface

Authors: G. Momen, R. Jafari, M. Farzaneh

Abstract:

Two different superhydrophobic surfaces were elaborated and their oil repellency behavior was evaluated using several liquid with different surface tension. A silicone rubber/SiO2 nanocomposite coated (A) on aluminum substrate by “spin-coating" and the sample B was an anodized aluminum surface covered by Teflon-like coating. A high static contact angle about ∼162° was measured for two prepared surfaces on which the water droplet rolloff. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the presence of micro/nanostructures for both sample A and B similar to that of lotus leaf. However the sample A presented significantly different behaviour of wettability against the low surface tension liquid. Sample A has been wetted totally by oil (dodecan) droplet while sample B showed oleophobic behaviour. Oleophobic property of Teflon like coating can be contributed to the presence of CF2 and CF3 functional group which was shown by XPS analysis.

Keywords: Oleophobic, Superhydrophobic, Aluminum surface, Nano-texture.

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1185 Approximations to the Distribution of the Sample Correlation Coefficient

Authors: John N. Haddad, Serge B. Provost

Abstract:

Given a bivariate normal sample of correlated variables, (Xi, Yi), i = 1, . . . , n, an alternative estimator of Pearson’s correlation coefficient is obtained in terms of the ranges, |Xi − Yi|. An approximate confidence interval for ρX,Y is then derived, and a simulation study reveals that the resulting coverage probabilities are in close agreement with the set confidence levels. As well, a new approximant is provided for the density function of R, the sample correlation coefficient. A mixture involving the proposed approximate density of R, denoted by hR(r), and a density function determined from a known approximation due to R. A. Fisher is shown to accurately approximate the distribution of R. Finally, nearly exact density approximants are obtained on adjusting hR(r) by a 7th degree polynomial.

Keywords: Sample correlation coefficient, density approximation, confidence intervals.

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1184 Effect of Pectinase on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Juice from Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Fruits

Authors: Idoko J. O., Achusi N.

Abstract:

A procedure for the preparation of clarified Pawpaw Juice was developed. About 750ml Pawpaw pulp was measured into 2 measuring cylinders A & B of capacity 1 litre heated to 400C, cooled to 200C. 30mls pectinase was added into cylinder A, while 30mls distilled water was added into cylinder B. Enzyme treated sample (A) was allowed to digest for 5hours after which it was heated to 900C for 15 minutes to inactivate the enzyme. The heated sample was cooled and with the aid of a mucillin cloth the pulp was filtered to obtain the clarified pawpaw juice. The juice was filled into 100ml plastic bottles, pasteurized at 950C for 45 minutes, cooled and stored at room temperature. The sample treated with 30mls distilled water also underwent the same process. Freshly pasteurized sample was analyzed for specific gravity, titratable acidity, pH, sugars and ascorbic acid. The remaining sample was then stored for 2 weeks and the above analyses repeated. There were differences in the results of the freshly pasteurized samples and stored sample in pH and ascorbic acid levels, also sample treated with pectinase yielded higher volumes of juice than that treated with distilled water.

Keywords: Juice, pawpaw, pectinase.

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1183 Analysis of Gas Disturbance Characteristics in Lunar Sample Storage

Authors: Lv Shizeng, Han Xiao, Zhang Yi, Ding Wenjing

Abstract:

The lunar sample storage device is mainly used for the preparation of the lunar samples, observation, physical analysis and other work. The lunar samples and operating equipment are placed directly inside the storage device. The inside of the storage device is a high purity nitrogen environment to ensure that the sample is not contaminated by the Earth's environment. In order to ensure that the water and oxygen indicators in the storage device meet the sample requirements, a dynamic gas cycle is required between the storage device and the external purification equipment. However, the internal gas disturbance in the storage device can affect the operation of the sample. In this paper, the storage device model is established, and the tetrahedral mesh is established by Tetra/Mixed method. The influence of different inlet position and gas flow on the internal flow field disturbance is calculated, and the disturbed flow area should be avoided during the sampling operation.

Keywords: Lunar samples, gas disturbance, storage device, characteristic analysis.

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1182 Bootstrap and MLS Methods-based Individual Bioequivalence Assessment

Authors: Kongsheng Zhang, Li Ge

Abstract:

It is a one-sided hypothesis testing process for assessing bioequivalence. Bootstrap and modified large-sample(MLS) methods are considered to study individual bioequivalence(IBE), type I error and power of hypothesis tests are simulated and compared with FDA(2001). The results show that modified large-sample method is equivalent to the method of FDA(2001) .

Keywords: Individual bioequivalence, bootstrap, Bayesian bootstrap, modified large-sample.

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1181 Entropic Measures of a Probability Sample Space and Exponential Type (α, β) Entropy

Authors: Rajkumar Verma, Bhu Dev Sharma

Abstract:

Entropy is a key measure in studies related to information theory and its many applications. Campbell for the first time recognized that the exponential of the Shannon’s entropy is just the size of the sample space, when distribution is uniform. Here is the idea to study exponentials of Shannon’s and those other entropy generalizations that involve logarithmic function for a probability distribution in general. In this paper, we introduce a measure of sample space, called ‘entropic measure of a sample space’, with respect to the underlying distribution. It is shown in both discrete and continuous cases that this new measure depends on the parameters of the distribution on the sample space - same sample space having different ‘entropic measures’ depending on the distributions defined on it. It was noted that Campbell’s idea applied for R`enyi’s parametric entropy of a given order also. Knowing that parameters play a role in providing suitable choices and extended applications, paper studies parametric entropic measures of sample spaces also. Exponential entropies related to Shannon’s and those generalizations that have logarithmic functions, i.e. are additive have been studies for wider understanding and applications. We propose and study exponential entropies corresponding to non additive entropies of type (α, β), which include Havard and Charvˆat entropy as a special case.

Keywords: Sample space, Probability distributions, Shannon’s entropy, R`enyi’s entropy, Non-additive entropies .

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1180 Cyanide and Heavy Metal Concentration of Fermented Cassava Flour (Lafun) Available in the Markets of Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo-Oyetoro A. O., Oyewole O. B., Obadina A. O, Omemu M. A.

Abstract:

Fermented cassava flours (lafun) sold in Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria were collected from 10 markets for a period of two months and analysed to determine their safety status. The presence of trace metals was due to high vehicular movement around the drying sites and markets. Cyanide and moisture contents of samples were also determined to assess the adequacy of fermentation and drying. The result showed that sample OWO was found to have the highest amount of 16.02±0.12mg/kg cyanide while the lowest was found in sample OJO with 10.51±0.10mg/kg. The results also indicated that sample TVE had the highest moisture content of 18.50±0.20% while sample OWO had the lowest amount of 12.46±0.47%. Copper and lead levels were found to be highest in TVE with values 28.10mg/kg and 1.1mg/kg respectively, while sample BTS had the lowest values of 20.6mg/kg and 0.05mg/kg respectively. High value of cyanide indicated inadequate fermentation.

Keywords: Cyanide, fermented, heavy metal, lafun.

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1179 Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in Orange Juices Product

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat

Abstract:

This research describes a voltammetric approach to determine amounts of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) in orange juice sample, using three screen printed electrode. The anodic currents of vitamin C were proportional to vitamin C concentration in the range of 0 – 10.0 mM with the limit of detection of 1.36 mM. The method was successfully employed with 2 µL of the working solution dropped on the electrode surface. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of vitamin C in packed orange juice without sample purification or complexion of sample preparation step.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Vitamin C, Juice, Voltammetry

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1178 Determination of Some Chemical Properties of Uncommon Flours

Authors: Sónia C. Andrade, Solange F. Oliveira, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Paula M. R. Correia

Abstract:

Flours of wheat, chestnut, acorn and lupin were evaluated in relation to phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and oxalate content. At the chemical level the results show some variability between samples by type of flour, and the sample of chestnut flour presented the higher value of oxalate (0.00348 mg/100g) when compared to the other samples in the study. Considering the content of phenolic compounds, the sample that stood out was the acorn flour, having a high value of 0.812 g AGE/100 g. All the samples presented intermediate content of antioxidant activity and the sample that showed a slightly higher value was the wheat flour with a value of 0.746 mM TRE/g sample.

Keywords: Wheat, Acorn, Lupine, Chestnut, Flour, Antioxidant properties, Oxalate.

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1177 Long-term Monitor of Seawater by using TiO2:Ru Sensing Electrode for Hard Clam Cultivation

Authors: Jung-Chuan Chou, Cheng-Wei Chen

Abstract:

The hard clam (meretrix lusoria) cultivated industry has been developed vigorously for recent years in Taiwan, and seawater quality determines the cultivated environment. The pH concentration variation affects survival rate of meretrix lusoria immediately. In order to monitor seawater quality, solid-state sensing electrode of ruthenium-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2:Ru) is developed to measure hydrogen ion concentration in different cultivated solutions. Because the TiO2:Ru sensing electrode has high chemical stability and superior sensing characteristics, thus it is applied as a pH sensor. Response voltages of TiO2:Ru sensing electrode are readout by instrument amplifier in different sample solutions. Mean sensitivity and linearity of TiO2:Ru sensing electrode are 55.20 mV/pH and 0.999 from pH1 to pH13, respectively. We expect that the TiO2:Ru sensing electrode can be applied to real environment measurement, therefore we collect two sample solutions by different meretrix lusoria cultivated ponds in the Yunlin, Taiwan. The two sample solutions are both measured for 200 seconds after calibration of standard pH buffer solutions (pH7, pH8 and pH 9). Mean response voltages of sample 1 and sample 2 are -178.758 mV (Standard deviation=0.427 mV) and -180.206 mV (Standard deviation =0.399 mV), respectively. Response voltages of the two sample solutions are between pH 8 and pH 9 which conform to weak alkali range and suitable meretrix lusoria growth. For long-term monitoring, drift of cultivated solutions (sample 1 and sample 2) are 1.16 mV/hour and 1.03 mV/hour, respectively.

Keywords: Co-sputtering system, Hard clam (meretrix lusoria), Ruthenium-doped titanium dioxide, Solid-state sensing electrode.

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1176 Small Sample Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Long-Memory Parameter

Authors: Josu Arteche, Jesus Orbe

Abstract:

The log periodogram regression is widely used in empirical applications because of its simplicity, since only a least squares regression is required to estimate the memory parameter, d, its good asymptotic properties and its robustness to misspecification of the short term behavior of the series. However, the asymptotic distribution is a poor approximation of the (unknown) finite sample distribution if the sample size is small. Here the finite sample performance of different nonparametric residual bootstrap procedures is analyzed when applied to construct confidence intervals. In particular, in addition to the basic residual bootstrap, the local and block bootstrap that might adequately replicate the structure that may arise in the errors of the regression are considered when the series shows weak dependence in addition to the long memory component. Bias correcting bootstrap to adjust the bias caused by that structure is also considered. Finally, the performance of the bootstrap in log periodogram regression based confidence intervals is assessed in different type of models and how its performance changes as sample size increases.

Keywords: bootstrap, confidence interval, log periodogram regression, long memory.

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1175 A Unity Gain Fully-Differential 10bit and 40MSps Sample-And-Hold Amplifier in 0.18um CMOS

Authors: Sanaz Haddadian, Rahele Hedayati

Abstract:

A 10bit, 40 MSps, sample and hold, implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS technology with 3.3V supply, is presented for application in the front-end stage of an analog-to-digital converter. Topology selection, biasing, compensation and common mode feedback are discussed. Cascode technique has been used to increase the dc gain. The proposed opamp provides 149MHz unity-gain bandwidth (wu), 80 degree phase margin and a differential peak to peak output swing more than 2.5v. The circuit has 55db Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), using the improved fully differential two stage operational amplifier of 91.7dB gain. The power dissipation of the designed sample and hold is 4.7mw. The designed system demonstrates relatively suitable response in different process, temperature and supply corners (PVT corners).

Keywords: Analog Integrated Circuit Design, Sample & Hold Amplifier and CMOS Technology.

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1174 An Investigation of the Relationship between the Need for Cognitive Closure and Religious Fundamentalism

Authors: Hadi G. Altabatabaei, Nguyen L. L. Anh

Abstract:

There are positive significant relationships between the Need for Cognitive Closure (NFC) and Religious Fundamentalism (RF) among students. The preliminary assumption of the current study was: There would be a stronger pattern of association between these constructs, if the participants of the study are more exposed to the study's main concept which is religiosity. In other words, close-mindedness would be more related to homogeneous samples of practicing devotees of monotheistic religions compared to student samples. The main hypothesis was that concerning the Muslim sample, there will be a significant and positive correlation between the need for closure (and all facets of it, except decisiveness) and RF. Both the student sample (n=88), and the Muslim practicing mosque attending sample (n=40), were administrated three scales of Need for Closure (NFCS), Religious Fundamentalism (RFS), and Four Basic Dimensions of Religiousness (FBDRS). The results of the study moderately confirmed the hypothesis and showed a positive correlation between NFCS and RFS with the Muslim sample. Specifically, preference for order, preference for predictability and discomfort with ambiguity facets of the NFCS positively correlated with RFS. However, with regards to the student sample such relationships between the constructs were not found.

Keywords: Religiosity, close-mindedness, religious fundamentalism, need for closure, monotheistic religions.

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1173 A Study of Panel Logit Model and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System in the Prediction of Financial Distress Periods

Authors: Ε. Giovanis

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present two different approaches of financial distress pre-warning models appropriate for risk supervisors, investors and policy makers. We examine a sample of the financial institutions and electronic companies of Taiwan Security Exchange (TSE) market from 2002 through 2008. We present a binary logistic regression with paned data analysis. With the pooled binary logistic regression we build a model including more variables in the regression than with random effects, while the in-sample and out-sample forecasting performance is higher in random effects estimation than in pooled regression. On the other hand we estimate an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) with Gaussian and Generalized Bell (Gbell) functions and we find that ANFIS outperforms significant Logit regressions in both in-sample and out-of-sample periods, indicating that ANFIS is a more appropriate tool for financial risk managers and for the economic policy makers in central banks and national statistical services.

Keywords: ANFIS, Binary logistic regression, Financialdistress, Panel data

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1172 Numerical Investigation of Electrohydrodynamics: Enhanced Heat Transfer in a Solid Sample

Authors: Suwimon Saneewong Na Ayuttaya

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation of electrically driven flow for enhancing convective heat transfer in a channel flow. This study focuses on the electrode arrangements, number of electrode and electrical voltage on Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) and effect of airflow driven on solid sample surface. The inlet airflow and inlet temperature are 0.35 m/s and 60 oC, respectively. High electrical voltage is tested in the range of 0-30 kV and number of electrode is tested in the range of 1-5. The numerical results show that electric field intensity is depended on electrical voltage and number of electrode. Increasing number of electrodes is increased shear flow, so swirling flow is increased. The swirling flows from aligned and staggered arrangements are affecting within the solid sample. When electrical voltage is increased, temperature distribution and convective heat transfer on the solid sample are significantly increased due to the electric force much stronger.

Keywords: Electrohydrodynamics, swirling flow, convective heat transfer, solid sample.

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1171 Osmotic Dehydration of Beetroot in Salt Solution: Optimization of Parameters through Statistical Experimental Design

Authors: P. Manivannan, M. Rajasimman

Abstract:

Response surface methodology was used for quantitative investigation of water and solids transfer during osmotic dehydration of beetroot in aqueous solution of salt. Effects of temperature (25 – 45oC), processing time (30–150 min), salt concentration (5–25%, w/w) and solution to sample ratio (5:1 – 25:1) on osmotic dehydration of beetroot were estimated. Quadratic regression equations describing the effects of these factors on the water loss and solids gain were developed. It was found that effects of temperature and salt concentrations were more significant on the water loss than the effects of processing time and solution to sample ratio. As for solids gain processing time and salt concentration were the most significant factors. The osmotic dehydration process was optimized for water loss, solute gain, and weight reduction. The optimum conditions were found to be: temperature – 35oC, processing time – 90 min, salt concentration – 14.31% and solution to sample ratio 8.5:1. At these optimum values, water loss, solid gain and weight reduction were found to be 30.86 (g/100 g initial sample), 9.43 (g/100 g initial sample) and 21.43 (g/100 g initial sample) respectively.

Keywords: Optimization, Osmotic dehydration, Beetroot, saltsolution, response surface methodology

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1170 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ceramic Tile Materials Used in Jordan on Indoor Radon Level

Authors: Mefleh S. Hamideen

Abstract:

In this investigation, activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, of some ceramic tile materials used in the local market of Jordan for interior decoration were determined by making use of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Twenty samples of different country of origin and sizes used in Jordan were analyzed. The concentration values of the last-mentioned radionuclides ranged from 30 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Jordan) to 98 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from China) for 226Ra, 31 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Italy) to 98 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from China) for 232Th, and 129 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Spain) to 679 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Italy) for 40K. Based on the calculated activity concentrations, some radiological parameters have been calculated to test the radiation hazards in the ceramic tiles. In this work, the following parameters: Total absorbed dose rate (DR), Annual effective dose rate (HR), Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Radon emanation coefficient F (%) and Radon mass exhalation rate (Em) were calculated for all ceramic tiles and listed in the body of the work. Fortunately, the average calculated values of all parameters are less than the recommended values for each parameter. Consequently, almost all the examined ceramic materials appear to have low radon emanation coefficients. As a result of that investigation, no problems on people can appear by using those ceramic tiles in Jordan.

Keywords: radon emanation coefficient, radon mass exhalation rate, total annual effective dose, radon level

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1169 Towards the Integration of a Micro Pump in μTAS

Authors: Y. Haik

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to present a micro mechanical pump that was fabricated using SwIFT™ microfabrication surface micromachining process and to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating such micro pump into a micro analysis system. The micropump circulates the bio-sample and magnetic nanoparticles through different compartments to separate and purify the targeted bio-sample. This article reports the flow characteristics in the microchannels and in a crescent micro pump.

Keywords: Crescent micropumps, microanalysis, nanoparticles.

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1168 Estimation of Uncertainty of Thermal Conductivity Measurement with Single Laboratory Validation Approach

Authors: Saowaluck Ukrisdawithid

Abstract:

The thermal conductivity of thermal insulation materials are measured by Heat Flow Meter (HFM) apparatus. The components of uncertainty are complex and difficult on routine measurement by modelling approach. In this study, uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement was estimated by single laboratory validation approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.1%. The standard uncertainty of method and laboratory bias by using SRM1453 expanded polystyrene board was dominant at 1.4%. However, it was assessed that there was no significant bias. For sample measurement, the sources of uncertainty were repeatability, density of sample and thermal conductivity resolution of HFM. From this approach to sample measurements, the combined uncertainty was calculated. In summary, the thermal conductivity of sample, polystyrene foam, was reported as 0.03367 W/m·K ± 3.5% (k = 2) at mean temperature 23.5 °C. The single laboratory validation approach is simple key of routine testing laboratory for estimation uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement by using HFM, according to ISO/IEC 17025-2017 requirements. These are meaningful for laboratory competent improvement, quality control on products, and conformity assessment.

Keywords: Single laboratory validation approach, within-laboratory reproducibility, method and laboratory bias, certified reference material.

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1167 Effect of adding Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extracts of Cinnamomum tamala (Bay Leaf) on Nutraceutical Property of Tofu

Authors: Sudip Ghosh, Probir Kumar Ghosh, Paramita Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of Cinnamomum tamala (bay) leaves obtained at 55°C, 512 bar was found to have appreciable nutraceutical properties and was successfully employed as value-added ingredients in preparation of tofu. The bay leaf formulated tofu sample was evaluated for physicochemical properties (pH, texture analysis and lipid peroxidation), proximate analysis, phytochemical properties (total phenol content, antioxidant properties and total reducing sugar), microbial load and sensory profile analysis for a storage period of ten days, vis-à-vis an experimental control sample. These assays established the superiority of the tofu sample formulated with supercritical carbon dioxide extract of bay leaf over the control sample. Bay leaf extract formulated tofu is a new green functional food with promising nutraceutical benefits. 

Keywords: Cinnamomum tamala, Physicochemical properties Phytochemical properties, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, Tofu.

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1166 Comparative Analysis of Diversity and Similarity Indices with Special Relevance to Vegetations around Sewage Drains

Authors: Ekta Singh

Abstract:

Indices summarizing community structure are used to evaluate fundamental community ecology, species interaction, biogeographical factors, and environmental stress. Some of these indices are insensitive to gross community changes induced by contaminants of pollution. Diversity indices and similarity indices are reviewed considering their ecological application, both theoretical and practical. For some useful indices, empirical equations are given to calculate the expected maximum value of the indices to which the observed values can be related at any combination of sample sizes at the experimental sites. This paper examines the effects of sample size and diversity on the expected values of diversity indices and similarity indices, using various formulae. It has been shown that all indices are strongly affected by sample size and diversity. In some indices, this influence is greater than the others and an attempt has been made to deal with these influences.

Keywords: Biogeographical factors, Diversity Indices, Ecology and Similarity Indices

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1165 Experimental Investigation on Effect of Different Heat Treatments on Phase Transformation and Superelasticity of NiTi Alloy

Authors: Erfan Asghari Fesaghandis, Reza Ghaffari Adli, Abbas Kianvash, Hossein Aghajani, Homa Homaie

Abstract:

NiTi alloys possess magnificent superelastic, shape memory, high strength and biocompatible properties. For improving mechanical properties, foremost, superelasticity behavior, heat treatment process is carried out. In this paper, two different heat treatment methods were undertaken: (1) solid solution, and (2) aging. The effect of each treatment in a constant time is investigated. Five samples were prepared to study the structure and optimize mechanical properties under different time and temperature. For measuring the upper plateau stress, lower plateau stress and residual strain, tensile test is carried out. The samples were aged at two different temperatures to see difference between aging temperatures. The sample aged at 500 °C has a bigger crystallite size and lower amount of Ni which causes the mentioned sample to possess poor pseudo elasticity behaviour than the other aged sample. The sample aged at 460 °C has shown remarkable superelastic properties. The mentioned sample’s higher plateau is 580 MPa with the lowest residual strain (0.17%) while other samples have possessed higher residual strains. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the produced phases.

Keywords: Heat treatment, phase transformation, superelasticity, NiTi alloy.

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1164 Secondary Effects on Water Vapor Transport Properties Measured by Cup Method

Authors: Z. Pavlík, J. Fořt, J. Žumár, M. Pavlíková, R. Černý

Abstract:

The cup method is applied for the measurement of water vapor transport properties of porous materials worldwide. However, in practical applications the experimental results are often used without taking into account some secondary effects which can play an important role under specific conditions. In this paper, the effect of temperature on water vapor transport properties of cellular concrete is studied, together with the influence of sample thickness. At first, the bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity and sorption and desorption isotherms are measured for material characterization purposes. Then, the steady state cup method is used for determination of water vapor transport properties, whereas the measurements are performed at several temperatures and for three different sample thicknesses.

Keywords: Water vapor transport, cellular concrete, cup method, temperature, sample thickness.

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1163 Application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System in the Prediction of Economic Crisis Periods in USA

Authors: Eleftherios Giovanis

Abstract:

In this paper discrete choice models, Logit and Probit are examined in order to predict the economic recession or expansion periods in USA. Additionally we propose an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system with triangular membership function. We examine the in-sample period 1947-2005 and we test the models in the out-of sample period 2006-2009. The forecasting results indicate that the Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model outperforms significant the Logit and Probit models in the out-of sample period. This indicates that neuro-fuzzy model provides a better and more reliable signal on whether or not a financial crisis will take place.

Keywords: ANFIS, discrete choice models, financial crisis, USeconomy

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1162 Graphene Oxide Fiber with Different Exfoliation Time and Activated Carbon Particle

Authors: Nuray Uçar, Mervin Ölmez, Özge Alptoğa, Nilgün K. Yavuz, Ayşen Önen

Abstract:

In recent years, research on continuous graphene oxide fibers has been intensified. Therefore, many factors of production stages are being studied. In this study, the effect of exfoliation time and presence of activated carbon particle (ACP) on graphene oxide fiber’s properties has been analyzed. It has been seen that cross-sectional appearance of sample with ACP is harsh and porous because of ACP. The addition of ACP did not change the electrical conductivity. However, ACP results in an enormous decrease of mechanical properties. Longer exfoliation time results to higher crystallinity degree, C/O ratio and less d space between layers. The breaking strength and electrical conductivity of sample with less exfoliation time is some higher than sample with high exfoliation time.

Keywords: Activated carbon, coagulation by wet spinning, exfoliation, graphene oxide fiber.

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