Environmental Impact Assessment of Ceramic Tile Materials Used in Jordan on Indoor Radon Level
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32799
Environmental Impact Assessment of Ceramic Tile Materials Used in Jordan on Indoor Radon Level

Authors: Mefleh S. Hamideen


In this investigation, activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, of some ceramic tile materials used in the local market of Jordan for interior decoration were determined by making use of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Twenty samples of different country of origin and sizes used in Jordan were analyzed. The concentration values of the last-mentioned radionuclides ranged from 30 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Jordan) to 98 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from China) for 226Ra, 31 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Italy) to 98 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from China) for 232Th, and 129 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Spain) to 679 Bq.kg-1 (Sample from Italy) for 40K. Based on the calculated activity concentrations, some radiological parameters have been calculated to test the radiation hazards in the ceramic tiles. In this work, the following parameters: Total absorbed dose rate (DR), Annual effective dose rate (HR), Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Radon emanation coefficient F (%) and Radon mass exhalation rate (Em) were calculated for all ceramic tiles and listed in the body of the work. Fortunately, the average calculated values of all parameters are less than the recommended values for each parameter. Consequently, almost all the examined ceramic materials appear to have low radon emanation coefficients. As a result of that investigation, no problems on people can appear by using those ceramic tiles in Jordan.

Keywords: radon emanation coefficient, radon mass exhalation rate, total annual effective dose, radon level

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 464


[1] Tzortzis, M., Tsertos, H., Christofides, S., Christodoulides, G. 2003. Gamma radiation measurements and dose rates in commercially used natural tiling rocks (granites), J. Env. Rad., 70, 223.
[2] Lee, E. M., Menezes, G., Finch, E. C. 2004. Natural radioactivity in building materials in the Republic of Ireland. Health Phys. 86, 378
[3] Pavlidou, S., Koroneos, A., Papastefanou, C., Christofides, G., Stoulos, S. Vavelides, M., 2006. Natural Radioactivity of Granites Used as Building Materials. J. Env.Rad. 89, 48-60.
[4] White, G. J. and Rood, A. S. 2001. Radon emanation from NORM contaminated pipe scale and soil at petroleum industry sites, J. Env. Rad., 54, 401.
[5] Al-Jarallah, M. I., Fazal-ur-Rehman, Musazay, M. S., Aksoy A. 2005. Correlation between radon exhalation and radium content in granite samples used as construction material in Saudi Arabia, Rad. Meas., 40, 625.
[6] Bruzzi, L., Baroni, M., Mazzotti, G., Mele, R., Righi, S. 2000. Radioactivity in raw materials and end products in the Italian ceramics industry, J. Env. Rad., 47, 171.
[7] Righi, S., Bruzzi, L. 2006.Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation in building materials used in Italian dwellings. J. Env. Rad., 88, 158 – 170.
[8] Ballesteros L, Zarza I, Ortiz J, Serradell V. 2008. Occupational exposure to natural radioactivity in a zircon sand milling plant. J. Env. Rad., 99(10), 1525-1529.
[9] Righi, S., Guerra, R., Jeyapandian, M., Verità,S. Albertazzi, A. 2009. Natural radioactivity in Italian ceramic tiles. Radio. prot., 4, 413.
[10] UNSCEAR, 2008. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.
[11] Pakou, A. A., Assimakopoulos, P. A., Prapidis, M., 1994. Natural radioactivity and radon emanation factors in building material used in Epirus (northwestern Greece). Sci. Total Environ. 144, 255– 260.
[12] Projin, A., Bourgoignie, R., Marjins, R., Uyttenhove, Janssens, A., Jacobs, R., 1984. Laboratory measurement of radon exhalation and diffusion. Radiat. Protect. Dosim. 7, 77.
[13] Stranden, E., Berteiz, L., 1980. Radon in dwellings and influencing factors. Health Phys. 39, 275.
[14] UNSCEAR, 1988. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. Report to General Assembly with Scientific Annexes, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, United Nations, New York.
[15] Beretaka, J. and Mathew, P.J. 1985. Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes, and by-products. Health Phys. 48, 87.
[16] UNSCEAR, 2000. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.
[17] Sciocchetti, G., Scacco, F., Baldassini, P.G., Sarao, 1984. Indoor measurement of airborne natural radioactivity in Italy. Radiat. Protect. Dosim. 7, 347
[18] Sakoda, A., Nishiyama, Y., Hanamoto, K., Ishimori, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Kataoka, T., Kawabe, A. and Yamaoka, K. 2010. Differences of natural radioactivity and radon emanation fraction among constituent minerals of rock or soil. App. Rad. Isot. 68, 1180–1184.
[19] Veiga, R., Sanches, N., Anjos, R.M., Macario, K., Bastos, J., Iguatemy, M., Aguiar, J. G., Santos, A. M. A., Mosquera, B., Carvalho, C., Baptist Filho, M. and Umisedo, N.K. 2006. Measurement of natural radioactivity in Brazilian beach sands. Radiat. Meas., 41, 189.
[20] Paredes, C. H., Kessler, W. V., Landolt, R. R., Ziemer, P. L., Panstenbach, D. J., 1987. Radionuclide content of and 222Rn emanation from building materials made from phosphate industry waste products. Health Phys. 53, 23–29.