Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: Rajkumar Verma

60 On Generalized Exponential Fuzzy Entropy

Authors: Rajkumar Verma, Bhu Dev Sharma

Abstract:

In the present communication, the existing measures of fuzzy entropy are reviewed. A generalized parametric exponential fuzzy entropy is defined.Our study of the four essential and some other properties of the proposed measure, clearly establishes the validity of the measure as an entropy.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, exponential entropy, exponential fuzzy entropy.

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59 Interrelationships between Physicochemical Water Pollution Indicators: A Case Study of River Pandu

Authors: Sunita Verma , Divya Tiwari, Ajay Verma

Abstract:

Water samples were collected from river Pandu at six stations where human and animal activities were high. Composite samples were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) , pH values during dry and wet seasons as well as the harmattan period. The total data points were used to establish relationships between the parameters and data were also subjected to statistical analysis and expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) at a level of significance of p<0.05. Regression analysis was carried out to establish relationships if any between studied parameters and relationships in form of scatter plots were obtained between DO/BOD, COD/DO, BOD/COD, COD/pH, BOD/pH and DO/pH. The high to moderate correlation coefficient observed, R2 ranged from 0.68 to 0.15 between these parameters.

Keywords: BOD, DO, COD, pH, Regression analysis.

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58 Entropic Measures of a Probability Sample Space and Exponential Type (α, β) Entropy

Authors: Rajkumar Verma, Bhu Dev Sharma

Abstract:

Entropy is a key measure in studies related to information theory and its many applications. Campbell for the first time recognized that the exponential of the Shannon’s entropy is just the size of the sample space, when distribution is uniform. Here is the idea to study exponentials of Shannon’s and those other entropy generalizations that involve logarithmic function for a probability distribution in general. In this paper, we introduce a measure of sample space, called ‘entropic measure of a sample space’, with respect to the underlying distribution. It is shown in both discrete and continuous cases that this new measure depends on the parameters of the distribution on the sample space - same sample space having different ‘entropic measures’ depending on the distributions defined on it. It was noted that Campbell’s idea applied for R`enyi’s parametric entropy of a given order also. Knowing that parameters play a role in providing suitable choices and extended applications, paper studies parametric entropic measures of sample spaces also. Exponential entropies related to Shannon’s and those generalizations that have logarithmic functions, i.e. are additive have been studies for wider understanding and applications. We propose and study exponential entropies corresponding to non additive entropies of type (α, β), which include Havard and Charvˆat entropy as a special case.

Keywords: Sample space, Probability distributions, Shannon’s entropy, R`enyi’s entropy, Non-additive entropies .

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57 Churn Prediction: Does Technology Matter?

Authors: John Hadden, Ashutosh Tiwari, Rajkumar Roy, Dymitr Ruta

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to identify the most suitable model for churn prediction based on three different techniques. The paper identifies the variables that affect churn in reverence of customer complaints data and provides a comparative analysis of neural networks, regression trees and regression in their capabilities of predicting customer churn.

Keywords: Churn, Decision Trees, Neural Networks, Regression.

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56 Computer Countenanced Diagnosis of Skin Nodule Detection and Histogram Augmentation: Extracting System for Skin Cancer

Authors: S. Zith Dey Babu, S. Kour, S. Verma, C. Verma, V. Pathania, A. Agrawal, V. Chaudhary, A. Manoj Puthur, R. Goyal, A. Pal, T. Danti Dey, A. Kumar, K. Wadhwa, O. Ved

Abstract:

Background: Skin cancer is now is the buzzing button in the field of medical science. The cyst's pandemic is drastically calibrating the body and well-being of the global village. Methods: The extracted image of the skin tumor cannot be used in one way for diagnosis. The stored image contains anarchies like the center. This approach will locate the forepart of an extracted appearance of skin. Partitioning image models has been presented to sort out the disturbance in the picture. Results: After completing partitioning, feature extraction has been formed by using genetic algorithm and finally, classification can be performed between the trained and test data to evaluate a large scale of an image that helps the doctors for the right prediction. To bring the improvisation of the existing system, we have set our objectives with an analysis. The efficiency of the natural selection process and the enriching histogram is essential in that respect. To reduce the false-positive rate or output, GA is performed with its accuracy. Conclusions: The objective of this task is to bring improvisation of effectiveness. GA is accomplishing its task with perfection to bring down the invalid-positive rate or outcome. The paper's mergeable portion conflicts with the composition of deep learning and medical image processing, which provides superior accuracy. Proportional types of handling create the reusability without any errors.

Keywords: Computer-aided system, detection, image segmentation, morphology.

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55 Fault Tolerance in Wireless Sensor Networks – A Survey

Authors: B. R. Tapas Bapu, K. Thanigaivelu, A. Rajkumar

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have wide variety of applications and provide limitless future potentials. Nodes in WSNs are prone to failure due to energy depletion, hardware failure, communication link errors, malicious attacks, and so on. Therefore, fault tolerance is one of the critical issues in WSNs. We study how fault tolerance is addressed in different applications of WSNs. Fault tolerant routing is a critical task for sensor networks operating in dynamic environments. Many routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issue. The focus, however, has been given to the routing protocols which might differ depending on the application and network architecture.

Keywords: Resiliency, Self-diagnosis, Smart Grid, TinyOS, WSANs.

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54 An Approach for the Integration of the Existing Wireless Networks

Authors: Rajkumar Samanta, Abhishek Pal

Abstract:

The demand of high quality services has fueled dimensional research and development in wireless communications and networking. As a result, different wireless technologies like Wireless LAN, CDMA, GSM, UMTS, MANET, Bluetooth and satellite networks etc. have emerged in the last two decades. Future networks capable of carrying multimedia traffic need IP convergence, portability, seamless roaming and scalability among the existing networking technologies without changing the core part of the existing communications networks. To fulfill these goals, the present networking systems are required to work in cooperation to ensure technological independence, seamless roaming, high security and authentication, guaranteed Quality of Services (QoS). In this paper, a conceptual framework for a cooperative network (CN) is proposed for integration of heterogeneous existing networks to meet out the requirements of the next generation wireless networks.

Keywords: Cooperative Network, Wireless Network, Integration.

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53 Rate of Convergence for Generalized Baskakov-Durrmeyer Operators

Authors: Durvesh Kumar Verma, P. N. Agrawal

Abstract:

In the present paper, we consider the generalized form of Baskakov Durrmeyer operators to study the rate of convergence, in simultaneous approximation for functions having derivatives of bounded variation.

Keywords: Bounded variation, Baskakov-Durrmeyer operators, simultaneous approximation, rate of convergence.

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52 Noise Estimation for Speech Enhancement in Non-Stationary Environments-A New Method

Authors: Ch.V.Rama Rao, Gowthami., Harsha., Rajkumar., M.B.Rama Murthy, K.Srinivasa Rao, K.AnithaSheela

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for estimating the nonstationary noise power spectral density given a noisy signal. The method is based on averaging the noisy speech power spectrum using time and frequency dependent smoothing factors. These factors are adjusted based on signal-presence probability in individual frequency bins. Signal presence is determined by computing the ratio of the noisy speech power spectrum to its local minimum, which is updated continuously by averaging past values of the noisy speech power spectra with a look-ahead factor. This method adapts very quickly to highly non-stationary noise environments. The proposed method achieves significant improvements over a system that uses voice activity detector (VAD) in noise estimation.

Keywords: Noise estimation, Non-stationary noise, Speechenhancement.

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51 Algorithm Design and Performance Evaluation of Equivalent CMOS Model

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Iqbaldeep Kaur, Amit Verma, Inderpreet Kaur, Birinderjit S. Kalyan

Abstract:

This work is a proposed model of CMOS for which the algorithm has been created and then the performance evaluation of this proposition has been done. In this context, another commonly used model called ZSTT (Zero Switching Time Transient) model is chosen to compare all the vital features and the results for the Proposed Equivalent CMOS are promising. In the end, the excerpts of the created algorithm are also included

Keywords: Dual Capacitor Model, ZSTT, CMOS, SPICEMacro-Model.

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50 Face Recognition Using Eigen face Coefficients and Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Iqbaldeep Kaur, Amit Verma, Samriti Jindal, Inderpreet Kaur, Shilpi Kumari

Abstract:

Face Recognition is a field of multidimensional applications. A lot of work has been done, extensively on the most of details related to face recognition. This idea of face recognition using PCA is one of them. In this paper the PCA features for Feature extraction are used and matching is done for the face under consideration with the test image using Eigen face coefficients. The crux of the work lies in optimizing Euclidean distance and paving the way to test the same algorithm using Matlab which is an efficient tool having powerful user interface along with simplicity in representing complex images.

Keywords: Eigen Face, Multidimensional, Matching, PCA.

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49 Experimental Investigation and Hardness Analysis of Chromoly Steel Multipass Welds Using GMAW

Authors: Ramesh S., Sasiraaju A. S., Sidhaarth K., Sudhan Rajkumar N., Manivel Muralidaran V.

Abstract:

This work presents the result of investigations aimed at determining the hardness of the welded Chromoly (A 4130) steel plate of 2” thickness. Multi pass welding for the thick sections was carried out and analyzed for the Chromoly alloy steel plates. The study of hardness at the weld metal reveals that there is the presence of different micro structure products which yields diverse properties. The welding carried out using GMAW with ER70s-2 electrode. Single V groove design was selected for the butt joint configuration. The presence of hydrogen has been suppressed by selecting low hydrogen electrode. Preheating of the plate prior to welding reduces the cooling rate which also affects the weld metal microstructure. The shielding gas composition used in this analysis is 80% Ar-20% CO2. The experimental analysis gives the detailed study of the hardness of the material.

Keywords: Chromoly, Gas Metal Arc Weld (GMAW), Hardness, Multi pass weld, Shielding gas composition.

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48 An Additive Watermarking Technique in Gray Scale Images Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation and Its Analysis on Watermark Strength

Authors: Kamaldeep Joshi, Rajkumar Yadav, Ashok Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

Digital Watermarking is a procedure to prevent the unauthorized access and modification of personal data. It assures that the communication between two parties remains secure and their communication should be undetected. This paper investigates the consequence of the watermark strength of the grayscale image using a Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) additive technique. In this method, the gray scale host image is divided into four sub bands: LL (Low-Low), HL (High-Low), LH (Low-High), HH (High-High) and the watermark is inserted in an LL sub band using DWT technique. As the image is divided into four sub bands, a watermark of equal size of the LL sub band has been inserted and the results are discussed. LL represents the average component of the host image which contains the maximum information of the image. Two kinds of experiments are performed. In the first, the same watermark is embedded in different images and in the later on the strength of the watermark varies by a factor of s i.e. (s=10, 20, 30, 40, 50) and it is inserted in the same image.

Keywords: Watermarking, discrete wavelet transform, scaling factor, steganography.

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47 Modified Montgomery for RSA Cryptosystem

Authors: Rupali Verma, Maitreyee Dutta, Renu Vig

Abstract:

Encryption and decryption in RSA are done by modular exponentiation which is achieved by repeated modular multiplication. Hence efficiency of modular multiplication directly determines the efficiency of RSA cryptosystem. This paper designs a Modified Montgomery Modular Multiplication in which addition of operands is computed by 4:2 compressor. The basic logic operations in addition are partitioned over two iterations such that parallel computations are performed. This reduces the critical path delay of proposed Montgomery design. The proposed design and RSA are implemented on Virtex 2 and Virtex 5 FPGAs. The two factors partitioning and parallelism have improved the frequency and throughput of proposed design.

Keywords: RSA, Montgomery modular multiplication, 4:2 compressor, FPGA.

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46 Direct Power Control Strategies for Multilevel Inverter Based Custom Power Devices

Authors: S. Venkateshwarlu, B. P. Muni, A. D. Rajkumar, J. Praveen

Abstract:

Custom power is a technology driven product and service solution which embraces a family devices such as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Distributed Shunt Compensator (DSTATCOM), Solid State Breaker (SSB) etc which will provide power quality functions at distribution voltages. The rapid response of these devices enables them to operate in real time, providing continuous and dynamic control of the supply including voltage and reactive power regulation, harmonic reduction and elimination of voltage dips. This paper presents the benefits of multilevel inverters when they are used for DPC based custom power devices. Power flow control mechanism, salient features, advantages and disadvantages of direct power control (DPC) using lookup table, SVM, predictive voltage vector and hybrid DPC strategies are discussed in this paper. Simulation results of three level inverter based STATCOM, harmonic analysis of multi level inverters are presented at the end.

Keywords: DPC, DPC-SVM, Dynamic voltage restorer, DSTATCOM, Multilevel inverter, PWM Converter, PDPC, VF-DPC.

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45 Effect of a Multiple Stenosis on Blood Flow through a Tube

Authors: Vipin Kumar Verma, Praveen Saraswat

Abstract:

The development of double stenosis in an artery can have serious consequences and can disrupt the normal functioning of the circulatory system. It has been realized that various hydrodynamics effects (i.e. wall shear, pressure distribution etc.) play important role in the development of this disease. Generally in the literature, the cross-section of the artery is assumed to be uniform with a single stenosis. However, in real situation the multiple stenosis develops in series along the length of artery whose cross-section varies slowly. Therefore, the flow of blood is laminar through a small diameter artery with axisymmetric identical double stenosis in series.

Keywords: Wall shear, multiple stenosis, artery.

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44 GA based Optimal Sizing and Placement of Distributed Generation for Loss Minimization

Authors: Deependra Singh, Devender Singh, K. S. Verma

Abstract:

This paper addresses a novel technique for placement of distributed generation (DG) in electric power systems. A GA based approach for sizing and placement of DG keeping in view of system power loss minimization in different loading conditions is explained. Minimal system power loss is obtained under voltage and line loading constraints. Proposed strategy is applied to power distribution systems and its effectiveness is verified through simulation results on 16, 37-bus and 75-bus test systems.

Keywords: Distributed generation (DG), Genetic algorithms (GA), optimal sizing and placement, Power loss.

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43 Segmentation of Noisy Digital Images with Stochastic Gradient Kernel

Authors: Abhishek Neogi, Jayesh Verma, Pinaki Pratim Acharjya

Abstract:

Image segmentation and edge detection is a fundamental section in image processing. In case of noisy images Edge Detection is very less effective if we use conventional Spatial Filters like Sobel, Prewitt, LOG, Laplacian etc. To overcome this problem we have proposed the use of Stochastic Gradient Mask instead of Spatial Filters for generating gradient images. The present study has shown that the resultant images obtained by applying Stochastic Gradient Masks appear to be much clearer and sharper as per Edge detection is considered.

Keywords: Image segmentation, edge Detection, noisy images, spatialfilters, stochastic gradient kernel.

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42 A Technique for Execution of Written Values on Shared Variables

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Vijay K. Banga, Prateek Gupta, Amit Verma

Abstract:

The current paper conceptualizes the technique of release consistency indispensable with the concept of synchronization that is user-defined. Programming model concreted with object and class is illustrated and demonstrated. The essence of the paper is phases, events and parallel computing execution .The technique by which the values are visible on shared variables is implemented. The second part of the paper consist of user defined high level synchronization primitives implementation and system architecture with memory protocols. There is a proposition of techniques which are core in deciding the validating and invalidating a stall page .

Keywords: synchronization objects, barrier, phases and events, shared memory

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41 Robust Face Recognition Using Eigen Faces and Karhunen-Loeve Algorithm

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Iqbaldeep Kaur, Amit Verma, Prateek Gupta

Abstract:

The current research paper is an implementation of Eigen Faces and Karhunen-Loeve Algorithm for face recognition. The designed program works in a manner where a unique identification number is given to each face under trial. These faces are kept in a database from where any particular face can be matched and found out of the available test faces. The Karhunen –Loeve Algorithm has been implemented to find out the appropriate right face (with same features) with respect to given input image as test data image having unique identification number. The procedure involves usage of Eigen faces for the recognition of faces.

Keywords: Eigen Faces, Karhunen-Loeve Algorithm, FaceRecognition.

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40 Study of Effect of Gear Tooth Accuracy on Transmission Mount Vibration

Authors: Kalyan Deepak Kolla, Ketan Paua, Rajkumar Bhagate

Abstract:

Transmission dynamics occupy major role in customer perception of the product in both senses of touch and quality of sound. The quantity and quality of sound perceived is more concerned with the whine noise of the gears engaged. Whine noise is tonal in nature and tonal noises cause fatigue and irritation to customers, which in turn affect the quality of the product. Transmission error is the usual suspect for whine noise, which can be caused due to misalignments, tolerances, manufacturing variabilities. In-cabin noise is also more sensitive to the gear design. As the details of the gear tooth design and manufacturing are in microns, anything out of the tolerance zone, either in design or manufacturing, will cause a whine noise. This will also cause high variation in stress and deformation due to change in the load and leads to the fatigue failure of the gears. Hence gear design and development take priority in the transmission development process. This paper aims to study such variability by considering five pairs of helical spur gears and their effect on the transmission error, contact pattern and vibration level on the transmission.

Keywords: Gears, whine noise, manufacturing variability, mount vibration variability.

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39 Exploration of Least Significant Bit Based Watermarking and Its Robustness against Salt and Pepper Noise

Authors: Kamaldeep Joshi, Rajkumar Yadav, Sachin Allwadhi

Abstract:

Image steganography is the best aspect of information hiding. In this, the information is hidden within an image and the image travels openly on the Internet. The Least Significant Bit (LSB) is one of the most popular methods of image steganography. In this method, the information bit is hidden at the LSB of the image pixel. In one bit LSB steganography method, the total numbers of the pixels and the total number of message bits are equal to each other. In this paper, the LSB method of image steganography is used for watermarking. The watermarking is an application of the steganography. The watermark contains 80*88 pixels and each pixel requirs 8 bits for its binary equivalent form so, the total number of bits required to hide the watermark are 80*88*8(56320). The experiment was performed on standard 256*256 and 512*512 size images. After the watermark insertion, histogram analysis was performed. A noise factor (salt and pepper) of 0.02 was added to the stego image in order to evaluate the robustness of the method. The watermark was successfully retrieved after insertion of noise. An experiment was performed in order to know the imperceptibility of stego and the retrieved watermark. It is clear that the LSB watermarking scheme is robust to the salt and pepper noise.

Keywords: LSB, watermarking, salt and pepper, PSNR.

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38 Traveling Wave Solutions for Shallow Water Wave Equation by (G'/G)-Expansion Method

Authors: Anjali Verma, Ram Jiwari, Jitender Kumar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new function expansion method for finding traveling wave solution of a non-linear equation and calls it the (G'/G)-expansion method. The shallow water wave equation is reduced to a non linear ordinary differential equation by using a simple transformation. As a result the traveling wave solutions of shallow water wave equation are expressed in three forms: hyperbolic solutions, trigonometric solutions and rational solutions.

Keywords: Shallow water wave equation, Exact solutions, (G'/G) expansion method.

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37 Software Reengineering Tool for Traffic Accident Data

Authors: Jagdeep Kaur, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Birinderjit Singh, Amit Verma, Sanyam Anand

Abstract:

In today-s hip hop world where everyone is running short of time and works hap hazardly,the similar scene is common on the roads while in traffic.To do away with the fatal consequences of such speedy traffics on rushy lanes, a software to analyse and keep account of the traffic and subsequent conjestion is being used in the developed countries. This software has being implemented and used with the help of a suppprt tool called Critical Analysis Reporting Environment.There has been two existing versions of this tool.The current research paper involves examining the issues and probles while using these two practically. Further a hybrid architecture is proposed for the same that retains the quality and performance of both and is better in terms of coupling of components , maintainence and many other features.

Keywords: Critical Analysis Reporting Environment, coupling, hybrid architecture etc.

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36 Performance Evaluation of Qos Parameters in Cognitive Radio Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Maninder Jeet Kaur, Moin Uddin, Harsh K. Verma

Abstract:

The efficient use of available licensed spectrum is becoming more and more critical with increasing demand and usage of the radio spectrum. This paper shows how the use of spectrum as well as dynamic spectrum management can be effectively managed and spectrum allocation schemes in the wireless communication systems be implemented and used, in future. This paper would be an attempt towards better utilization of the spectrum. This research will focus on the decision-making process mainly, with an assumption that the radio environment has already been sensed and the QoS requirements for the application have been specified either by the sensed radio environment or by the secondary user itself. We identify and study the characteristic parameters of Cognitive Radio and use Genetic Algorithm for spectrum allocation. Performance evaluation is done using MATLAB toolboxes.

Keywords: Cognitive Radio, Fitness Functions, Fuzzy Logic, Quality of Service (QoS)

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35 Metabolic Analysis of Fibroblast Conditioned Media and Comparison with Theoretical Modeling

Authors: Priyanka Gupta, Paul Verma, Kerry Hourigan, Jayesh Bellare, Sameer Jadhav

Abstract:

Understanding the consumption and production of various metabolites of fibroblast conditioned media is needed for its proper and optimized use in expansion of pluripotent stem cells. For this purpose, we have used the HPLC method to analyse the consumption of glucose and the production of lactate over time by mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The experimental data have also been compared with mathematical model fits. 0.025 moles of lactate was produced after 72 hrs while the glucose concentration decreased from 0.017 moles to 0.011 moles. The mathematical model was able to predict the trends of glucose consumption and lactate production.

Keywords: Conditioned media, HPLC, metabolite analysis, mouse embryonic fibroblast.

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34 Biometric Methods and Implementation of Algorithms

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Iqbaldeep Kaur, Amit Verma, Samriti Jindal, Shailendra Singh

Abstract:

Biometric measures of one kind or another have been used to identify people since ancient times, with handwritten signatures, facial features, and fingerprints being the traditional methods. Of late, Systems have been built that automate the task of recognition, using these methods and newer ones, such as hand geometry, voiceprints and iris patterns. These systems have different strengths and weaknesses. This work is a two-section composition. In the starting section, we present an analytical and comparative study of common biometric techniques. The performance of each of them has been viewed and then tabularized as a result. The latter section involves the actual implementation of the techniques under consideration that has been done using a state of the art tool called, MATLAB. This tool aids to effectively portray the corresponding results and effects.

Keywords: Matlab, Recognition, Facial Vectors, Functions.

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33 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and It’s Routing Protocols

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Piush Verma, Yaduvir Singh

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configuring network, without any centralized control. The topology of this network is not always defined. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of MANETs to the researchers and practitioners, who are involved in the work in the area of modeling and simulation of MANETs. This paper begins with an overview of mobile ad hoc networks. Then it proceeds with the overview of routing protocols used in the MANETS, their properties and simulation methods. A brief tabular comparison between the routing protocols is also given in this paper considering different routing protocol parameters. This paper introduces a new routing scheme developed by the use of evolutionary algorithms (EA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which will be used for getting the optimized output of MANET. In this paper cryptographic technique, ceaser cipher is also employed for making the optimized route secure.

Keywords: AHP, AODV, Cryptography, EA, MANET, Optimized output.

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32 Unsteady Transient Free Convective Flow of an Incompressible Viscous Fluid under Influence of Uniform Transverse Magnetic Field

Authors: Praveen Saraswat, Vipin Kumar Verma, Rudraman Singh

Abstract:

The unsteady transient free convection flow of an incompressible dissipative viscous fluid between parallel plates at different distances have been investigated under porous medium. Due to presence of heat flux under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field the velocity distribution and the temperature distribution, is shown graphically. Since exact solution is not possible so we find parametrical solution by perturbation technique. The result is shown in graph for different parameters. We notice that heat generation effects fluid velocity keeping in which of free convection which cools.

Keywords: Transient, Convection, MHD, Viscous, Porous.

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31 Key Strategies for a Competitive Supply Chain

Authors: Ajay Verma, Nitin Seth

Abstract:

In this era of competitiveness, there is a growing need for supply chains also to become competitive enough to handle pressures like varying customer’s expectations, low cost high quality products to be delivered at the minimum time and the most important is throat cutting competition at world wide scale. In the recent years, supply chain competitiveness has been, therefore, accepted as one of the most important philosophies in the supply chain literature and researchers have tried to identify variables of supply chain competitiveness. This paper highlights some of the concepts of supply chain competitiveness and tries to identify select variables on the basis of literature review. Further, the paper tries to highlight the importance of the identified variables in the achievement of supply chain competitiveness. The aim is to explore the concept and to motivate researchers to further investigate the unexplored areas of this important subject domain.

Keywords: Supply Chain Competitiveness, Demand Management, Integration, Inventory Management, Flexibility, Information Technology.

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