Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 567

Search results for: polymer instability

567 Instability of a Nonlinear Differential Equation of Fifth Order with Variable Delay

Authors: Cemil Tunc

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the instability of the zero solution to a nonlinear differential equation with variable delay. By using the Lyapunov functional approach, some sufficient conditions for instability of the zero solution are obtained.

Keywords: Instability, Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, delay differential equation, fifth order.

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566 Density Wave Instability of Supercritical Kerosene in Active Cooling Channels of Scramjets

Authors: N. Wang, Y. Pan, J. Zhou, J. Lei, X. Z. Yang

Abstract:

Experimental investigations were made on the instability of supercritical kerosene flowing in active cooling channels. Two approaches were used to control the pressure in the channel. One is the back-pressure valve while the other is the venturi. In both conditions, a kind of low-frequency oscillation of pressure and temperature is observed. And the oscillation periods are calculated. By comparison with the flow time, it is concluded that the instability occurred in active cooling channels is probably one kind of density wave instability. And its period has no relationship with the cooling channel geometry, nor the pressure, but only depends on the flow time of kerosene in active cooling channels. When the mass flow rate, density and pressure drop couple with each other, the density wave instability will appear.

Keywords: scramjets, active cooling, instability, density wave

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565 Weak Instability in Direct Integration Methods for Structural Dynamics

Authors: Shuenn-Yih Chang, Chiu-Li Huang

Abstract:

Three structure-dependent integration methods have been developed for solving equations of motion, which are second-order ordinary differential equations, for structural dynamics and earthquake engineering applications. Although they generally have the same numerical properties, such as explicit formulation, unconditional stability and second-order accuracy, a different performance is found in solving the free vibration response to either linear elastic or nonlinear systems with high frequency modes. The root cause of this different performance in the free vibration responses is analytically explored herein. As a result, it is verified that a weak instability is responsible for the different performance of the integration methods. In general, a weak instability will result in an inaccurate solution or even numerical instability in the free vibration responses of high frequency modes. As a result, a weak instability must be prohibited for time integration methods.

Keywords: Dynamic analysis, high frequency, integration method, overshoot, weak instability.

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564 Instability of Ties in Compression

Authors: T. Cornelius

Abstract:

Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie-connectors in cavity walls was developed. The method takes into account constraint conditions limiting the free length of the wall tie, and the instability in case of pure compression which gives an optimal load bearing capacity. The model is illustrated with examples from praxis.

Keywords: Masonry, tie connectors, cavity wall, instability, differential movements, combined bending and compression.

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563 Spectral Analysis of Radiation-Induced Natural Convection in Littoral Waters

Authors: Yadan Mao, Chengwang Lei, John C. Patterson

Abstract:

The mixing of pollutions and sediments in near shore regions of natural water bodies depends heavily on the characteristics such as the strength and frequency of flow instability. In the present paper, the instability of natural convection induced by absorption of solar radiation in littoral regions is considered. Spectral analysis is conducted on the quasi-steady state flow to reveal the power and frequency modes of the instability at various positions. Results indicate that the power of instability, the number of frequency modes, the prominence of higher frequency modes, and the highest frequency mode increase with the offshore distance and/or Rayleigh number. Harmonic modes are present at relatively low Rayleigh numbers. For a given offshore distance, the position with the strongest power of instability is located adjacent to the sloping bottom while the frequency modes are the same over the local depth. As the Rayleigh number increases, the unstable region extends toward the shore.

Keywords: Instability, Littoral waters, natural convection, Spectral analysis

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562 The Use of Voltage Stability Indices and Proposed Instability Prediction to Coordinate with Protection Systems

Authors: R. Leelaruji, V. Knazkins

Abstract:

This paper proposes a methodology for mitigating the occurrence of cascading failure in stressed power systems. The methodology is essentially based on predicting voltage instability in the power system using a voltage stability index and then devising a corrective action in order to increase the voltage stability margin. The paper starts with a brief description of the cascading failure mechanism which is probable root cause of severe blackouts. Then, the voltage instability indices are introduced in order to evaluate stability limit. The aim of the analysis is to assure that the coordination of protection, by adopting load shedding scheme, capable of enhancing performance of the system after the major location of instability is determined. Finally, the proposed method to generate instability prediction is introduced.

Keywords: Blackouts, cascading failure, voltage stability indices, singular value decomposition, load shedding.

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561 Assessment of Collapse Potential of Degrading SDOF Systems

Authors: Muzaffer Borekci, Murat S. Kirçil

Abstract:

Predicting the collapse potential of a structure during earthquakes is an important issue in earthquake engineering. Many researchers proposed different methods to assess the collapse potential of structures under the effect of strong ground motions. However most of them did not consider degradation and softening effect in hysteretic behavior. In this study, collapse potential of SDOF systems caused by dynamic instability with stiffness and strength degradation has been investigated. An equation was proposed for the estimation of collapse period of SDOF system which is a limit value of period for dynamic instability. If period of the considered SDOF system is shorter than the collapse period then the relevant system exhibits dynamic instability and collapse occurs.

Keywords: Collapse, degradation, dynamic instability, seismic response.

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560 A Study on Bond Strength of Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: Geo polymer, Concrete, Bond Strength, Behaviour.

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559 Research of Amplitude-Frequency Characteristics of Nonlinear Oscillations of the Interface of Two-Layered Liquid

Authors: Win Ko Ko, A. N. Temnov

Abstract:

The problem of nonlinear oscillations of a two-layer liquid completely filling a limited volume is considered. Using two basic asymmetric harmonics excited in two mutually perpendicular planes, ordinary differential equations of nonlinear oscillations of the interface of a two-layer liquid are investigated. In this paper, hydrodynamic coefficients of linear and nonlinear problems in integral relations were determined. As a result, the instability regions of forced oscillations of a two-layered liquid in a cylindrical tank occurring in the plane of action of the disturbing force are constructed, as well as the dynamic instability regions of the parametric resonance for different ratios of densities of the upper and lower liquids depending on the amplitudes of liquids from the excitations frequencies. Steady-state regimes of fluid motion were found in the regions of dynamic instability of the initial oscillation form. The Bubnov-Galerkin method is used to construct instability regions for approximate solution of nonlinear differential equations.

Keywords: Hydrodynamic coefficients, instability region, nonlinear oscillations, resonance frequency, two-layered liquid.

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558 Prediction of Henry's Constant in Polymer Solutions using the Peng-Robinson Equation of State

Authors: Somayeh Tourani, Alireza Behvandi

Abstract:

The peng-Robinson (PR), a cubic equation of state (EoS), is extended to polymers by using a single set of energy (A1, A2, A3) and co-volume (b) parameters per polymer fitted to experimental volume data. Excellent results for the volumetric behavior of the 11 polymer up to 2000 bar pressure are obtained. The EoS is applied to the correlation and prediction of Henry constants in polymer solutions comprising three polymer and many nonpolar and polar solvents, including supercritical gases. The correlation achieved with two adjustable parameter is satisfactory compared with the experimental data. As a result, the present work provides a simple and useful model for the prediction of Henry's constant for polymer containing systems including those containing polar, nonpolar and supercritical fluids.

Keywords: Equation of state, Henry's constant, Peng-Robinson, polymer solution.

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557 Carbon Nanofibers Reinforced P(VdF-HFP) Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium-Ion Battery Application

Authors: Anjan Sil, Rajni Sharma, Subrata Ray

Abstract:

The effect of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the electrical properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP)) based gel polymer electrolytes has been investigated in the present work. The length and diameter ranges of CNFs used in the present work are 5-50 μm and 200-600 nm respectively. The nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with varying CNFs content in terms of weight percentage. Electrochemical impedance analysis demonstrates that the reinforcement of carbon nanofibers significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte. The decrease of crystallinity of P(VdF-HFP) due the addition of CNFs has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interaction of CNFs with various constituents of nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes has been assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover CNFs added gel polymer electrolytes offer superior thermal stability as compared to that of CNFs free electrolytes as confirmed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: Polymer electrolytes, CNFs, Ionic conductivity, TGA.

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556 Modulational Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh

Abstract:

Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for quantum plasma at finite temperature the modulational instability of electron plasma waves is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves in quantum plasma.

Keywords: Amplitude Modulation, Electron Plasma Waves, Finite Temperature Model, Modulational Instability, Quantum Plasma.

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555 An Adversarial Construction of Instability Bounds in LIS Networks

Authors: Dimitrios Koukopoulos

Abstract:

In this work, we study the impact of dynamically changing link slowdowns on the stability properties of packetswitched networks under the Adversarial Queueing Theory framework. Especially, we consider the Adversarial, Quasi-Static Slowdown Queueing Theory model, where each link slowdown may take on values in the two-valued set of integers {1, D} with D > 1 which remain fixed for a long time, under a (w, ¤ü)-adversary. In this framework, we present an innovative systematic construction for the estimation of adversarial injection rate lower bounds, which, if exceeded, cause instability in networks that use the LIS (Longest-in- System) protocol for contention-resolution. In addition, we show that a network that uses the LIS protocol for contention-resolution may result in dropping its instability bound at injection rates ¤ü > 0 when the network size and the high slowdown D take large values. This is the best ever known instability lower bound for LIS networks.

Keywords: Network stability, quality of service, adversarial queueing theory, greedy scheduling protocols.

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554 Resistive RAM Based on Hfox and its Temperature Instability Study

Authors: Z. Fang, H.Y. Yu, W.J. Liu, N. Singh, G.Q. Lo

Abstract:

High performance Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) based on HfOx has been prepared and its temperature instability has been investigated in this work. With increasing temperature, it is found that: leakage current at high resistance state increases, which can be explained by the higher density of traps inside dielectrics (related to trap-assistant tunneling), leading to a smaller On/Off ratio; set and reset voltages decrease, which may be attributed to the higher oxygen ion mobility, in addition to the reduced potential barrier to create / recover oxygen ions (or oxygen vacancies); temperature impact on the RRAM retention degradation is more serious than electrical bias.

Keywords: RRAM, resistive switching, temperature instability.

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553 A Systematic Construction of Instability Bounds in LIS Networks

Authors: Dimitrios Koukopoulos

Abstract:

In this work, we study the impact of dynamically changing link slowdowns on the stability properties of packetswitched networks under the Adversarial Queueing Theory framework. Especially, we consider the Adversarial, Quasi-Static Slowdown Queueing Theory model, where each link slowdown may take on values in the two-valued set of integers {1, D} with D > 1 which remain fixed for a long time, under a (w, p)-adversary. In this framework, we present an innovative systematic construction for the estimation of adversarial injection rate lower bounds, which, if exceeded, cause instability in networks that use the LIS (Longest-in- System) protocol for contention-resolution. In addition, we show that a network that uses the LIS protocol for contention-resolution may result in dropping its instability bound at injection rates p > 0 when the network size and the high slowdown D take large values. This is the best ever known instability lower bound for LIS networks.

Keywords: Parallel computing, network stability, adversarial queuing theory, greedy scheduling protocols.

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552 A Review on Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: C. W. Nguong, S. N. B. Lee, D. Sujan

Abstract:

Renewable natural fibres such as oil palm, flax, and pineapple leaf can be utilized to obtain new high performance polymer materials. The reuse of waste natural fibres as reinforcement for polymer is a sustainable option to the environment. However, due to its high hydroxyl content of cellulose, natural fibres are susceptible to absorb water that affects the composite mechanical properties adversely. Research found that Nano materials such as Nano Silica Carbide (n-SiC) and Nano Clay can be added into the polymer composite to overcome this problem by enhancing its mechanical properties in wet condition. The addition of Nano material improves the tensile and wear properties, flexural stressstrain behaviour, fracture toughness, and fracture strength of polymer natural composites in wet and dry conditions.

Keywords: Natural fibres, Nano Silica Carbide, Nano Clay, Wet Condition, Polymer Composites.

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551 Experimental Investigations of a Modified Taylor-Couette Flow

Authors: A. Esmael, A. El Shrif

Abstract:

In this study the instability problem of a modified Taylor-Couette flow between two vertical coaxial cylinders of radius R1, R2 is considered. The modification is based on the wavy shape of the inner cylinder surface, where inner cylinders with different surface amplitude and wavelength are used. The study aims to discover the effect of the inner surface geometry on the instability phenomenon that undergoes Taylor-Couette flow. The study reveals that the transition processes depends strongly on the amplitude and wavelength of the inner cylinder surface and resulting in flow instabilities that are strongly different from that encountered in the case of the classical Taylor-Couette flow.

Keywords: Hydrodynamic Instability, Modified Taylor-Couette Flow, Turbulence, Taylor vortices.

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550 Comparative Study of Eva and Waste Polymer Modified Bitumen

Authors: Mohammed Sadeque, K. A. Patil

Abstract:

Polymer-modified bitumen is used to combat different pavement distresses and to increase the life span of pavement. Unmodified bitumen cannot perform better with the range extreme minimum and maximum pavement temperatures. The polymers commonly used to modify the bitumen are ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) styrene butadiene styrene (SBS). The aim this study to compare the performance of EVA modified bitumen with the bitumen modified by waste low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) obtained from waste carry bags and waste tyre rubber (CR) to encourage the use of waste polymer whose disposal is big problem today, in place of costly virgin polymer. From the experimental study, it was found that waste polymers are also effective in improving the properties bitumen as that of virgin polymer.

Keywords: Waste plastic, LDPE, PP, Modified bitumen, EVA.

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549 Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement Using SVC and TCSC

Authors: Mohammed Amroune, Hadi Sebaa, Tarek Bouktir

Abstract:

Reactive power limit of power system is one of the major causes of voltage instability. The only way to save the system from voltage instability is to reduce the reactive power load or add additional reactive power to reaching the point of voltage collapse. In recent times, the application of FACTS devices is a very effective solution to prevent voltage instability due to their fast and very flexible control. In this paper, voltage stability assessment with SVC and TCSC devices is investigated and compared in the modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The fast voltage stability indicator (FVSI) is used to identify weakest bus and to assess the voltage stability of power system.

Keywords: SVC, TCSC, Voltage stability, Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI), Reactive power.

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548 Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness

Authors: S. W. Lo, C.-H. Yu

Abstract:

A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the stiffness soars from 15.85 N/μm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/μm at bearing elevation 9.5 μm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.

Keywords: Aerostatic, bearing, polymer, static stiffness.

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547 Pull-In Instability Determination of Microcapacitive Sensor for Measuring Special Range of Pressure

Authors: Yashar Haghighatfar, Shahrzad Mirhosseini

Abstract:

Pull-in instability is a nonlinear and crucial effect that is important for the design of microelectromechanical system devices. In this paper, the appropriate electrostatic voltage range is determined by measuring fluid flow pressure via micro pressure sensor based microbeam. The microbeam deflection contains two parts, the static and perturbation deflection of static. The second order equation regarding the equivalent stiffness, mass and damping matrices based on Galerkin method is introduced to predict pull-in instability due to the external voltage. Also the reduced order method is used for solving the second order nonlinear equation of motion. Furthermore, in the present study, the micro capacitive pressure sensor is designed for measuring special fluid flow pressure range. The results show that the measurable pressure range can be optimized, regarding damping field and external voltage.

Keywords: MEMS, pull-in instability, electrostatically actuated microbeam, reduced order method.

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546 Instability of Soliton Solutions to the Schamel-nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Sarun Phibanchon, Michael A. Allen

Abstract:

A variational method is used to obtain the growth rate of a transverse long-wavelength perturbation applied to the soliton solution of a nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation with a three-half order potential. We demonstrate numerically that this unstable perturbed soliton will eventually transform into a cylindrical soliton.

Keywords: Soliton, instability, variational method, spectral method.

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545 Study of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Addition of Polymer Admixtures

Authors: Olesia Mikhailova, Pavel Rovnaník

Abstract:

In the present work, metakaolin-based geopolymer including different polymer admixtures was studied. Different types of commercial polymer admixtures VINNAPAS® and polyethylene glycol of different relative molecular weight were used as polymer admixtures. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of different types of admixtures on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars considering their different dosage. Mechanical properties, such as flexural and compressive strength were experimentally determined. Also, study of the microstructure of selected specimens by using a scanning electron microscope was performed. The results showed that the specimen with addition of 1.5% of VINNAPAS® 7016 F and 10% of polyethylene glycol 400 achieved maximum mechanical properties.

Keywords: Metakaolin, geopolymer, polymer admixtures, mechanical properties, microstructure.

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544 Rheological Properties of Polyethylene and Polypropylene Modified Bitumen

Authors: Noor Zainab Habib, Ibrahim Kamaruddin, Madzalan Napiah, Isa Mohd Tan

Abstract:

This paper presents a part of research on the rheological properties of bitumen modified by thermoplastic namely linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP) and its interaction with 80 pen base bitumen. As it is known that the modification of bitumen by the use of polymers enhances its performance characteristics but at the same time significantly alters its rheological properties. The rheological study of polymer modified bitumen (PMB) was made through penetration, ring & ball softening point and viscosity test. The results were then related to the changes in the rheological properties of polymer modified bitumen. It was observed that thermoplastic copolymer shows profound effect on penetration rather than softening point. The viscoelastic behavior of polymer modified bitumen depend on the concentration of polymer, mixing temperature, mixing technique, solvating power of base bitumen and molecular structure of polymer used. PP offer better blend in comparison to HDPE and LLDPE. The viscosity of base bitumen was also enhanced with the addition of polymer. The pseudoplastic behavior was more prominent for HDPE and LLDPE than PP. Best results were obtained when polymer concentration was kept below 3%

Keywords: Polymer modified bitumen, Linear low densitypolyethylene, High density polyethylene, Polypropylene.

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543 Online Monitoring Rheological Property of Polymer Melt during Injection Molding

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Chien-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The detection of the polymer melt state during manufacture process is regarded as an efficient way to control the molded part quality in advance. Online monitoring rheological property of polymer melt during processing procedure provides an approach to understand the melt state immediately. Rheological property reflects the polymer melt state at different processing parameters and is very important in injection molding process especially. An approach that demonstrates how to calculate rheological property of polymer melt through in-process measurement, using injection molding as an example, is proposed in this study. The system consists of two sensors and a data acquisition module can process the measured data, which are used for the calculation of rheological properties of polymer melt. The rheological properties of polymer melt discussed in this study include shear rate and viscosity which are investigated with respect to injection speed and melt temperature. The results show that the effect of injection speed on the rheological properties is apparent, especially for high melt temperature and should be considered for precision molding process.

Keywords: Injection molding, melt viscosity, shear rate, monitoring.

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542 Mechanical Behaviour Analysis of Polyester Polymer Mortars Modified with Recycled GFRP Waste Materials

Authors: M.C.S. Ribeiro, J.P. Meixedo, A. Fiúza, M.L. Dinis, Ana C. Meira Castro, F.J.G. Silva, C. Costa, F. Ferreira, M.R. Alvim

Abstract:

In this study the effect of incorporation of recycled glass-fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) waste materials, obtained by means of milling processes, on mechanical behaviour of polyester polymer mortars was assessed. For this purpose, different contents of recycled GFRP waste powder and fibres, with distinct size gradings, were incorporated into polyester based mortars as sand aggregates and filler replacements. Flexural and compressive loading capacities were evaluated and found better than unmodified polymer mortars. GFRP modified polyester based mortars also show a less brittle behaviour, with retention of some loading capacity after peak load. Obtained results highlight the high potential of recycled GFRP waste materials as efficient and sustainable reinforcement and admixture for polymer concrete and mortars composites, constituting an emergent waste management solution.

Keywords: GFRP waste, Mechanical behaviour, Polymer mortars, Recyclability.

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541 High Efficiency Electrolyte Lithium Battery and RF Characterization

Authors: Wei Quan, Liu Chao, Mohammed N. Afsar

Abstract:

The dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolytes for high capacity lithium battery are characterized by Radio frequency and Microwave methods in two broad frequency ranges from 50 Hz to 20 KHz and 4 GHz to 40 GHz. This innovative solid polymer electrolyte which is highly ionic conductive (10-3 S/cm at room temperature) from -40oC to +150oC can be used in any battery application. Such polymer exhibits properties more like a ceramic rather than polymer. The various applied measurement methods produced accurate dielectric results for comprehensive analysis of electrochemical properties and ion transportation mechanism of this newly invented polymer electrolyte. Two techniques and instruments employing air gap measurement by Capacitance Bridge and in-waveguide measurement by vector network analyzer are applied to measure the complex dielectric spectra. The complex dielectric spectra are used to determine the complex alternating current electrical conductivity and thus the ionic conductivity.

Keywords: Polymer electrolyte, dielectric permittivity, lithium battery, ionic relaxation, microwave measurement.

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540 Sensorless Control of Induction Motor: Design and Stability Analysis

Authors: Nadia Bensiali, Erik Etien, Amar Omeiri, Gerard Champenois

Abstract:

Adaptive observers used in sensorless control of induction motors suffer from instability especally in regenerating mode. In this paper, an optimal feed back gain design is proposed, it can reduce the instability region in the torque speed plane .

Keywords: Induction motor drive, adaptive observer, regenerating mode, stabilizing design.

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539 Marangoni Instability in a Fluid Layer with Insoluble Surfactant

Authors: Ainon Syazana Ab. Hamid, Seripah Awang Kechil, Ahmad Sukri Abd. Aziz

Abstract:

The Marangoni convective instability in a horizontal fluid layer with the insoluble surfactant and nondeformable free surface is investigated. The surface tension at the free surface is linearly dependent on the temperature and concentration gradients. At the bottom surface, the temperature conditions of uniform temperature and uniform heat flux are considered. By linear stability theory, the exact analytical solutions for the steady Marangoni convection are derived and the marginal curves are plotted. The effects of surfactant or elasticity number, Lewis number and Biot number on the marginal Marangoni instability are assessed. The surfactant concentration gradients and the heat transfer mechanism at the free surface have stabilizing effects while the Lewis number destabilizes fluid system. The fluid system with uniform temperature condition at the bottom boundary is more stable than the fluid layer that is subjected to uniform heat flux at the bottom boundary.

Keywords: Analytical solutions, Marangoni Instability, Nondeformable free surface, Surfactant.

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538 The Effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) Polymer Modifier on Properties of Bitumen

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Alireza Kiasat, Ferdows Karimi Alkouhi

Abstract:

In order to use bitumen in hot mix asphalt, it must have specific characteristics. There are some methods to reach these properties. Using polymer modifiers are one of the methods to modify the bitumen properties. In this paper the effect of Styrene- Butadiene-Rubber that is one of the bitumen polymer modifiers on rheology properties of bitumen is studied. In this regard, the rheological properties of base bitumen and the modified bitumen with 3, 4, and 5 percent of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) were analysed. The results show that bitumen modified with 5 percent of SBR has the best performance than the other samples.

Keywords: Bitumen, polymer modifier, styrene-butadienerubber, rheological properties.

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