Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 165

Search results for: polymer admixtures

165 Study of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Addition of Polymer Admixtures

Authors: Olesia Mikhailova, Pavel Rovnaník

Abstract:

In the present work, metakaolin-based geopolymer including different polymer admixtures was studied. Different types of commercial polymer admixtures VINNAPAS® and polyethylene glycol of different relative molecular weight were used as polymer admixtures. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of different types of admixtures on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars considering their different dosage. Mechanical properties, such as flexural and compressive strength were experimentally determined. Also, study of the microstructure of selected specimens by using a scanning electron microscope was performed. The results showed that the specimen with addition of 1.5% of VINNAPAS® 7016 F and 10% of polyethylene glycol 400 achieved maximum mechanical properties.

Keywords: Metakaolin, geopolymer, polymer admixtures, mechanical properties, microstructure.

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164 Development of Elasticity Modulus in Time for Concrete Containing Mineral Admixtures

Authors: K. Krizova, R. Hela, S. Keprdova

Abstract:

This paper introduces selected composition of conventional concretes and their resulting mechanical properties at different ages of concrete. With respect to utilization of mineral admixtures, fly ash and ground limestone agents were included in addition to pure Portland binder. The proposal of concrete composition remained constant in basic concrete components such as cement and representation of individual contents of aggregate fractions; weight dosing of admixtures and water dose were only modified. Water dose was chosen in order to achieve identical consistence by settlement for all proposals of concrete composition. Mechanical properties monitored include compression strength, static and dynamic modulus of concrete elasticity, at ages of 7, 28, 90, and 180 days.

Keywords: Cement, mineral admixtures, microstructure of concrete, mechanical properties.

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163 The Effect of Urmia-Lake Water on Tensional Strength Concrete with Various Admixtures

Authors: Hadi Barghlame, M. A. Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Mehdi Mohammad Rezaei

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of admixtures on the tensional strength of concrete in Urmia-lake water have been investigated. We made different types of concretes with the ratio of w/c and replaced different percentages of micro-silica, air-entraining, super plasticizer, corrosion-inhibiting, and caulk with two types of cement I and II as well as investigating in both ordinary water and Urmia-lake water. The tensional strength was investigated on these samples.

Keywords: Urmia-lake water, Tensional strength, Concrete, Admixtures.

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162 Polymer Mediated Interaction between Grafted Nanosheets

Authors: Supriya Gupta, Paresh Chokshi

Abstract:

Polymer-particle interactions can be effectively utilized to produce composites that possess physicochemical properties superior to that of neat polymer. The incorporation of fillers with dimensions comparable to polymer chain size produces composites with extra-ordinary properties owing to very high surface to volume ratio. The dispersion of nanoparticles is achieved by inducing steric repulsion realized by grafting particles with polymeric chains. A comprehensive understanding of the interparticle interaction between these functionalized nanoparticles plays an important role in the synthesis of a stable polymer nanocomposite. With the focus on incorporation of clay sheets in a polymer matrix, we theoretically construct the polymer mediated interparticle potential for two nanosheets grafted with polymeric chains. The self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is employed to obtain the inhomogeneous composition field under equilibrium. Unlike the continuum models, SCFT is built from the microscopic description taking in to account the molecular interactions contributed by both intra- and inter-chain potentials. We present the results of SCFT calculations of the interaction potential curve for two grafted nanosheets immersed in the matrix of polymeric chains of dissimilar chemistry to that of the grafted chains. The interaction potential is repulsive at short separation and shows depletion attraction for moderate separations induced by high grafting density. It is found that the strength of attraction well can be tuned by altering the compatibility between the grafted and the mobile chains. Further, we construct the interaction potential between two nanosheets grafted with diblock copolymers with one of the blocks being chemically identical to the free polymeric chains. The interplay between the enthalpic interaction between the dissimilar species and the entropy of the free chains gives rise to a rich behavior in interaction potential curve obtained for two separate cases of free chains being chemically similar to either the grafted block or the free block of the grafted diblock chains.

Keywords: Clay nanosheets, polymer brush, polymer nanocomposites, self-consistent field theory.

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161 Carbon Nanofibers Reinforced P(VdF-HFP) Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium-Ion Battery Application

Authors: Anjan Sil, Rajni Sharma, Subrata Ray

Abstract:

The effect of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the electrical properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP)) based gel polymer electrolytes has been investigated in the present work. The length and diameter ranges of CNFs used in the present work are 5-50 μm and 200-600 nm respectively. The nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with varying CNFs content in terms of weight percentage. Electrochemical impedance analysis demonstrates that the reinforcement of carbon nanofibers significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte. The decrease of crystallinity of P(VdF-HFP) due the addition of CNFs has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interaction of CNFs with various constituents of nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes has been assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover CNFs added gel polymer electrolytes offer superior thermal stability as compared to that of CNFs free electrolytes as confirmed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: Polymer electrolytes, CNFs, Ionic conductivity, TGA.

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160 Conceptual Design of an Airfoil with Temperature-Responsive Polymer

Authors: Mohammed Niyasdeen Nejaamtheen

Abstract:

The accelerated growth in aircraft industries desire effectual schemes, programs, innovative designs of advanced systems and facilities to accomplish the augmenting need for home-free air transportation. In this paper, a contemporary conceptual design of a cambered airfoil has been proposed in order to providing augmented effective lift force relative to the airplane, and to eliminating drawbacks and limitations of an airfoil in a commercial airplane by using a kind of smart materials. This invention of an unsymmetrical airfoil structure utilizes the amplified air momentum around the airfoil and increased camber length to providing improved aircraft performance and assist to enhancing the reliability of the aircraft components. Moreover, this conjectured design helps to reducing airplane weight and total drag.

Keywords: Collector electrode, corona electrode, Temperatureresponsive polymer and ultra-faims microchip.

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159 Development and Characterization of a Polymer Composite Electrolyte to Be Used in Proton Exchange Membranes Fuel Cells

Authors: B. A. Berns, V. Romanovicz, M. M. de Camargo Forte, D. E. O. S. Carpenter

Abstract:

The Proton Exchange Membranes (PEM) are largely studied because they operate at low temperatures and they are suitable for mobile applications. However, there are some deficiencies in their operation, mainly those that use ethanol as a hydrogen source, that require a certain attention. Therefore, this research aimed to develop Nafion® composite membranes, mixing clay minerals, kaolin and halloysite to the polymer matrix in order to improve the ethanol molecule retentions and, at the same time, to keep the system’s protonic conductivity. The modified Nafion/Kaolin, Nafion/Halloysite composite membranes were prepared in weight proportion of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. The membranes obtained were characterized as to their ethanol permeability, protonic conductivity and water absorption. The composite morphology and structure are characterized by SEM and EDX and the thermal behavior is determined by TGA and DSC. The analysis of the results shows ethanol permeability reduction from 48% to 63%. However, the protonic conductivity results are lower in relation to pure Nafion®. As to the thermal behavior, the Nafion® composite membranes were stable up to a temperature of 325ºC.

Keywords: Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs), Thermal properties, Nanoclay, Differential scanning calorimetry.

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158 Environmental Limits of Using Newly Developed Progressive Polymer Protection and Repair Systems

Authors: J. Hodna, B. Dohnalkova, V. Petranek, R. Drochytka

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the identification of limiting environmental factors of individual industrial floors on which newly developed polymer protection and repair systems with the use of secondary raw materials will be used. These mainly include floors with extreme stresses and special requirements for materials used. In relation to the environment of a particular industrial floor, it is necessary to ensure, for example, chemical stability, resistance to higher temperatures, resistance to higher mechanical stress, etc. for developed materials, which is reflected in the demands for the developed material systems. The paper describes individual environments and, in relation to them, also requirements for individual components of the developed materials and for the developed materials as a whole.

Keywords: Limits, environment, polymer, industrial floors, recycling, secondary raw material, protective system.

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157 Analysis of Failure Pressures of Composite Cylinders with a Polymer Liner of Type IV CNG Vessels

Authors: A. Hocine, A. Ghouaoula, F. Kara Achira, S.M. Medjdoub

Abstract:

The present study deals with the analysis of the cylindrical part of a CNG storage vessel, combining a plastic liner and an over wrapped filament wound composite. Three kind of polymer are used in the present analysis: High density Polyethylene HDPE, Light low density Polyethylene LLDPE and finally blend of LLDPE/HDPE. The effect of the mechanical properties on the behavior of type IV vessel may be then investigated. In the present paper, the effect of the order of the circumferential winding on the stacking sequence may be then investigated. Based on mechanical considerations, the present model provides an exact solution for stresses and deformations on the cylindrical section of the vessel under thermo-mechanical static loading. The result show a good behavior of HDPE liner compared to the other plastic materials. The presence of circumferential winding angle in the stacking improves the rigidity of vessel by improving the burst pressure.

Keywords: CNG, Cylindrical vessel, Filament winding, Liner, Polymer, LLDPE, HDPE, Burst pressure.

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156 A Review on Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: C. W. Nguong, S. N. B. Lee, D. Sujan

Abstract:

Renewable natural fibres such as oil palm, flax, and pineapple leaf can be utilized to obtain new high performance polymer materials. The reuse of waste natural fibres as reinforcement for polymer is a sustainable option to the environment. However, due to its high hydroxyl content of cellulose, natural fibres are susceptible to absorb water that affects the composite mechanical properties adversely. Research found that Nano materials such as Nano Silica Carbide (n-SiC) and Nano Clay can be added into the polymer composite to overcome this problem by enhancing its mechanical properties in wet condition. The addition of Nano material improves the tensile and wear properties, flexural stressstrain behaviour, fracture toughness, and fracture strength of polymer natural composites in wet and dry conditions.

Keywords: Natural fibres, Nano Silica Carbide, Nano Clay, Wet Condition, Polymer Composites.

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155 Acoustic Behavior of Polymer Foam Composite of Shorea leprosula after UV-Irradiation Exposure

Authors: Anika Zafiah M. Rus, S. Shafizah

Abstract:

This study was developed to compare the behavior and the ability of polymer foam composites towards sound absorption test of Shorea leprosula wood (SL) of acid hydrolysis treatment with particle size <355μm. Three different weight ratio of polyol to wood particle has been selected which are 10wt%, 15wt% and 20wt%. The acid hydrolysis treatment is to optimize the surface interaction of wood particle with polymer foam matrix. In addition, the acoustic characteristic of sound absorption coefficient (α) was determined. Further treatment is to expose the polymer composite in UV irradiation by using UV-Weatherometer. Polymer foam composite of untreated Shorea leprosula particle (SL-B) with respective percentage loading shows uniform pore structure as compared with treated wood particle (SL-A). As the filler percentage loading in polymer foam increases, the α value approaching 1 for both samples. Furthermore, SL-A shows better α value at 3500-4500 frequency absorption level (Hz), meanwhile α value for SL-B is maximum at 4000-5000 Hz. The frequencies absorption level for both SL-B and SL-A after UV exposure was increased with the increasing of exposure time from 0-1000 hours. It is therefore, concluded that the α for each sound absorbing material, with or without acid hydrolysis treatment of wood particles and it’s percentages loading in polymer matrix effect the sound absorption behavior.

Keywords: Polymer foam composite, sound absorption coefficient, UV-irradiation, wood.

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154 An Improved Phenomenological Model for Polymer Desorption

Authors: Joanna Sooknanan, Donna Comissiong

Abstract:

We propose a phenomenological model for the process of polymer desorption. In so doing, we omit the usual theoretical approach of incorporating a fictitious viscoelastic stress term into the flux equation. As a result, we obtain a model that captures the essence of the phenomenon of trapping skinning, while preserving the integrity of the experimentally verified Fickian law for diffusion. An appropriate asymptotic analysis is carried out, and a parameter is introduced to represent the speed of the desorption front. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the desorption dynamics of the model. Recommendations are made for future modifications of the model, and provisions are made for the inclusion of experimentally determined frontal speeds.

Keywords: Phenomenological Model, Polymer, Desorption, Trapping Skinning

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153 Durability of Concrete with Different Mineral Admixtures: A Review

Authors: T. Ayub, N. Shafiq, S. U. Khan, M. F. Nuruddin

Abstract:

Several review papers exist in literature related to the concrete containing mineral admixtures; however this paper reviews the durability characteristics of the concrete containing fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK) and rice husk ash (RHA). Durability related properties reviewed include permeability, resistance to sulfate attack, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), carbonation, chloride ion penetration, freezing and thawing, abrasion, fire, acid and efflorescence. From review of existing literature, it is found that permeability of concrete depends upon the content of alumina in mineral admixtures, i.e. higher the alumina content, lesser the permeability which results higher resistance to sulfate and chloride ion penetration. Highly reactive mineral admixtures prevent more ASR and reduce efflorescence. The carbonation increases with the mineral admixtures because higher water binder ratio and lesser content of portlandite in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction. Mineral admixtures require air entrainment except MK and RHA for better resistance to freezing and thawing.

Keywords: Alkali silica reaction, carbonation, durability, mineral admixture, permeability.

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152 Study on the Application of Lime to Improve the Rheological Properties of Polymer Modified Bitumen

Authors: A. Chegenizadeh, M. Keramatikerman, H. Nikraz

Abstract:

Bitumen is one of the most applicable materials in pavement engineering. It is a binding material with unique viscoelastic properties, especially when it mixes with polymer. In this study, to figure out the viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer modified with bitumen (PMB), a series of dynamic shearing rheological (DSR) tests were conducted. Four percentages of lime (i.e. 1%, 2%, 4% and 5%) were mixed with PMB and tested under four different temperatures including 64ºC, 70ºC, 76ºC and 82ºC. The results indicated that complex shearing modulus (G*) increased by increasing the frequency due to raised resistance against deformation. The phase angle (δ) showed a decreasing trend by incrementing the frequency. The addition of lime percentages increased the complex modulus value and declined phase angle parameter. Increasing the temperature decreased the complex modulus and increased the phase angle until 70ºC. The decreasing trend of rutting factor with increasing temperature revealed that rutting factor improved by the addition of the lime to the PMB.

Keywords: Rheological properties, DSR test, polymer mixed with bitumen, complex modulus, lime.

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151 First Cracking Moments of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Saruhan Kartal, Ilker Kalkan

Abstract:

The present paper reports the cracking moment estimates of a set of steel-reinforced, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-reinforced and hybrid steel-FRP reinforced concrete beams, calculated from different analytical formulations in the codes, together with the experimental cracking load values. A total of three steel-reinforced, four FRP-reinforced, 12 hybrid FRP-steel over-reinforced and five hybrid FRP-steel under-reinforced concrete beam tests were analyzed within the scope of the study. Glass FRP (GFRP) and Basalt FRP (BFRP) bars were used in the beams as FRP bars. In under-reinforced hybrid beams, rupture of the FRP bars preceded crushing of concrete, while concrete crushing preceded FRP rupture in over-reinforced beams. In both types, steel yielding took place long before the FRP rupture and concrete crushing. The cracking moment mainly depends on two quantities, namely the moment of inertia of the section at the initiation of cracking and the flexural tensile strength of concrete, i.e. the modulus of rupture. In the present study, two different definitions of uncracked moment of inertia, i.e. the gross and the uncracked transformed moments of inertia, were adopted. Two analytical equations for the modulus of rupture (ACI 318M and Eurocode 2) were utilized in the calculations as well as the experimental tensile strength of concrete from prismatic specimen tests. The ACI 318M modulus of rupture expression produced cracking moment estimates closer to the experimental cracking moments of FRP-reinforced and hybrid FRP-steel reinforced concrete beams when used in combination with the uncracked transformed moment of inertia, yet the Eurocode 2 modulus of rupture expression gave more accurate cracking moment estimates in steel-reinforced concrete beams. All of the analytical definitions produced analytical values considerably different from the experimental cracking load values of the solely FRP-reinforced concrete beam specimens.

Keywords: Cracking moment, four-point bending, hybrid use of reinforcement, polymer reinforcement.

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150 Acid Attack on Cement Mortars Modified with Rubber Aggregates and EVA Polymer Binder

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Michael Tupý, Nikol Žižková, Vít Petránek

Abstract:

The acid attack on cement mortars modified with rubber aggregates and EVA polymer binder was studied. Mortar specimens were prepared using a type CEM I 42.5 Portland cement and siliceous sand, as well as by substituting 25% of sand with shredded used automobile tires, and by adding EVA polymer in two percentages (5% and 10% of cement mass). Some specimens were only air cured, at laboratory conditions, and their compressive strength and water absorption were determined. The rest specimens were stored in acid solutions (HCl, H2SO4, HNO3) after 28 days of initial curing, and stored at laboratory temperature. Compressive strength tests, mass measurements and visual inspection took place for 28 days. Compressive strength and water absorption of the air-cured specimens were significantly decreased when rubber aggregates are used. The addition of EVA polymer further reduced water absorption, while had no important impact on strength. Compressive strength values were affected in a greater extent by hydrochloric acid solution, followed by sulfate and nitric acid solutions. The addition of EVA polymer decreased compressive strength loss for the specimens with rubber aggregates stored in hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions. The specimens without polymer binder showed similar mass loss, which was higher in sulfate acid solution followed by hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions. The use of EVA polymer delayed mass loss, while its content did not affect it significantly.

Keywords: Acid attack, mortar, EVA polymer, rubber aggregates.

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149 Enhancing Power Conversion Efficiency of P3HT/PCBM Polymer Solar Cells

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Mahmoud Algazzar

Abstract:

In this research, n-dodecylthiol was added to P3HT/ PC70BM polymer solar cells to improve the crystallinity of P3HT and enhance the phase separation of P3HT/PC70BM. The improved crystallinity of P3HT:PC70BM doped with 0-5% by volume of n-dodecylthiol resulted in improving the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells by 33%. In addition, thermal annealing of the P3HT/PC70MB/n-dodecylthiolcompound showed further improvement in crystallinity with n-dodecylthiol concentration up to 2%. The highest power conversion efficiency of 3.21% was achieved with polymer crystallites size L of 11.2nm, after annealing at 150°C for 30 minutes under a vacuum atmosphere. The smaller crystallite size suggests a shorter path of the charge carriers between P3HT backbones, which could be beneficial to getting a higher short circuit current in the devices made with the additive. 

Keywords: n-dodecylthiol, Congugated PSC, P3HT/PCBM, Polymer Solar Cells.

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148 Comparison of Rheological Properties for Polymer Modified Asphalt Produced in Riyadh

Authors: Ali M. Babalghaith, Hamad A. Alsoliman, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani

Abstract:

Flexible pavement made with neat asphalt binder is not enough to resist heavy traffic loads as well as harsh environmental condition found in Riyadh region. Therefore, there is a need to modify asphalt binder with polymers to satisfy such conditions. There are several types of polymers that are used to modify asphalt binder. The objective of this paper is to compare the rheological properties of six polymer modified asphalt binders (Lucolast7010, Anglomak2144, Paveflex140, SBS KTR401, EE-2 and Crumb rubber) obtained from asphalt manufacturer plants. The rheological properties of polymer modified asphalt binders were tested using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP tests such as dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer. The results have indicated that the polymer modified asphalt binders have lower penetration and higher softening point than neat asphalt indicating an improvement in stiffness of asphalt binder, and as a result, more resistant to rutting. Moreover, the dynamic shear rheometer results have shown that all modifiers used in this study improved the binder properties and satisfied the Superpave specifications except SBS KTR401 which failed to satisfy the rutting parameter (G*/sinδ).

Keywords: Polymer modified asphalt, rheological properties, SBS, crumb rubber, EE-2.

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147 The Effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) Polymer Modifier on Properties of Bitumen

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Alireza Kiasat, Ferdows Karimi Alkouhi

Abstract:

In order to use bitumen in hot mix asphalt, it must have specific characteristics. There are some methods to reach these properties. Using polymer modifiers are one of the methods to modify the bitumen properties. In this paper the effect of Styrene- Butadiene-Rubber that is one of the bitumen polymer modifiers on rheology properties of bitumen is studied. In this regard, the rheological properties of base bitumen and the modified bitumen with 3, 4, and 5 percent of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) were analysed. The results show that bitumen modified with 5 percent of SBR has the best performance than the other samples.

Keywords: Bitumen, polymer modifier, styrene-butadienerubber, rheological properties.

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146 Buckling Resistance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer Infill Panel Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Viriyavudh Sim, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

Performance of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panel system under diagonal compression was studied by means of numerical analysis. Furthermore, the variation of temperature was considered to affect the mechanical properties of BFRP, since their composition was based on polymeric material. Moreover, commercial finite element analysis platform ABAQUS was used to model and analyze this infill panel system. Consequently, results of the analyses show that the overall performance of BFRP panel had a 15% increase compared to that of GFRP infill panel system. However, the variation of buckling load in terms of temperature for the BFRP system showed a more sensitive nature compared to those of GFRP system.

Keywords: Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer, Buckling performance, numerical simulation, temperature dependent materials.

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145 A Comparative Studies on Methanesulfonic and p-Touluene Sulfonic Acid Incorporated Polyacrylamide Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Tin-Air Battery

Authors: S. Sumathi, V. Sethuprakhash, W. J. Basirun

Abstract:

This study was focused on polymer electrolytes containing methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and p-toluene sulfonic acid (pTSA) mixed with polyacrylamide (PAAm) respectively. Impedance Spectroscopy technique has been employed to compare the ionic conductivity of these polymer electrolytes. The ionic conductivity of the PAAm hydrogel electrolytes increase upon adding the sulfonic acids. Ionic conductivity of PAAm-pTSA is higher than PAAm-MSA. The electrochemical performance evaluations were done with the tin-air cells discharge at zero current for 30minutes and at constant current density of 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15mA/cm2. The tin-air cell of PAAm-MSA produce higher specific discharge capacity compared to PAAm-pTSA. Open-circuit voltage measurement revealed a higher voltage for tin-air cell of PAAm-MSA which is 1.27V.

Keywords: Methane sulfonic acid, polyacrylamide, polymer gel electrolytes, p-toluene sulfonic acid.

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144 The Flexural Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Cement Mortars Using UM Resin

Authors: Min Ho Kwon, Woo Young Jung, Hyun Su Seo

Abstract:

A polymer cement mortar (PCM) has been widely used  as the material of repair and restoration work for concrete structure;  however a PCM usually induces an environmental pollutant.  Therefore, there is a need to develop PCM which is less impact to  environments. Usually, UM resin is known to be harmless to the  environment. Accordingly, in this paper, the properties of the PCM  using UM resin were studied. The general cement mortar and UM  resin were mixed in the specified ratio. A certain percentage of PVA  fibers, steel fibers and mixed fibers (PVA fiber and steel fiber) were  added to enhance the flexural strength. The flexural tests were  performed in order to investigate the flexural strength of each PCM.  Experimental results showed that the strength of proposed PCM using  UM resin is improved when they are compared with general cement  mortar.

 

Keywords: Polymer cement mortar (PCM), UM resin, Compressive strength, PVA fiber, Steel fiber.

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143 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of High Barrier Polymer Packaging for Selecting Resource Efficient and Environmentally Low-Impact Materials

Authors: D. Kliaugaitė, J. K, Staniškis

Abstract:

In this study tree types of multilayer gas barrier plastic packaging films were compared using life cycle assessment as a tool for resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials selection. The first type of multilayer packaging film (PET-AlOx/LDPE) consists of polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer AlOx (PET-AlOx) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). The second type of polymer film (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) is made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and co-extrusion film PE-EVOH-PE as barrier layer. And the third one type of multilayer packaging film (PET-PVOH/LDPE) is formed from polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer PVOH (PET-PVOH) and low density polyethylene (LDPE).

All of analyzed packaging has significant impact to resource depletion, because of raw materials extraction and energy use and production of different kind of plastics. Nevertheless the impact generated during life cycle of functional unit of II type of packaging (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) was about 25% lower than impact generated by I type (PET-AlOx/LDPE) and III type (PET-PVOH/LDPE) of packaging.

Result revealed that the contribution of different gas barrier type to the overall environmental problem of packaging is not significant. The impact are mostly generated by using energy and materials during raw material extraction and production of different plastic materials as plastic polymers material as PE, LDPE and PET, but not gas barrier materials as AlOx, PVOH and EVOH.

The LCA results could be useful in different decision-making processes, for selecting resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials.

Keywords: Polymer packaging, life cycle assessment, resource efficiency.

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142 Dynamics Characterizations of Dielectric Electro-Active Polymer Pull Actuator for Vibration Control

Authors: A. M. Wahab, E. Rustighi

Abstract:

Elastomeric dielectric material has recently become a new alternative for actuator technology. The characteristics of dielectric elastomers placed between two electrodes to withstand large strain when electrodes are charged has attracted the attention of many researcher to study this material for actuator technology. Thus, in the past few years Danfoss Ventures A/S has established their own dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP), which was called PolyPower. The main objective of this work was to investigate the dynamic characteristics for vibration control of a PolyPower actuator folded in ‘pull’ configuration. A range of experiments was carried out on the folded actuator including passive (without electrical load) and active (with electrical load) testing. For both categories static and dynamic testing have been done to determine the behavior of folded DEAP actuator. Voltage-Strain experiments show that the DEAP folded actuator is a non-linear system. It is also shown that the voltage supplied has no effect on the natural frequency. Finally, varying AC voltage with different amplitude and frequency shows the parameters that influence the performance of DEAP folded actuator. As a result, the actuator performance dominated by the frequency dependence of the elastic response and was less influenced by dielectric properties.

Keywords: Dielectric Electro-active Polymer, Pull Actuator, Static, Dynamic, Electromechanical.

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141 Novel Intrinsic Conducting Polymer Current Limiting Device (CLD) for Surge Protection

Authors: Noor H Jabarullah

Abstract:

In the past many uneconomic solutions for limitation and interruption of short-circuit currents in low power applications have been introduced, especially polymer switch based on the positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PCTR) concept. However there are many limitations in the active material, which consists of conductive fillers. This paper presents a significantly improved and simplified approach that replaces the existing current limiters with faster switching elements. Its elegance lies in the remarkable simplicity and low-cost processes of producing the device using polyaniline (PANI) doped with methane-sulfonic acid (MSA). Samples characterized as lying in the metallic and critical regimes of metal insulator transition have been studied by means of electrical performance in the voltage range from 1V to 5 V under different environmental conditions. Moisture presence is shown to increase the resistivity and also improved its current limiting performance. Additionally, the device has also been studied for electrical resistivity in the temperature range 77 K-300 K. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity gives evidence for a transport mechanism based on variable range hopping in three dimensions.

Keywords: Conducting polymer, current limiter, intrinsic, moisture dependence, polyaniline, resettable, surge protection.

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140 Mechanical Behaviour Analysis of Polyester Polymer Mortars Modified with Recycled GFRP Waste Materials

Authors: M.C.S. Ribeiro, J.P. Meixedo, A. Fiúza, M.L. Dinis, Ana C. Meira Castro, F.J.G. Silva, C. Costa, F. Ferreira, M.R. Alvim

Abstract:

In this study the effect of incorporation of recycled glass-fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) waste materials, obtained by means of milling processes, on mechanical behaviour of polyester polymer mortars was assessed. For this purpose, different contents of recycled GFRP waste powder and fibres, with distinct size gradings, were incorporated into polyester based mortars as sand aggregates and filler replacements. Flexural and compressive loading capacities were evaluated and found better than unmodified polymer mortars. GFRP modified polyester based mortars also show a less brittle behaviour, with retention of some loading capacity after peak load. Obtained results highlight the high potential of recycled GFRP waste materials as efficient and sustainable reinforcement and admixture for polymer concrete and mortars composites, constituting an emergent waste management solution.

Keywords: GFRP waste, Mechanical behaviour, Polymer mortars, Recyclability.

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139 Recycled Waste Glass Powder as a Partial Cement Replacement in Polymer-Modified Mortars

Authors: Nikol Žižková

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to observe the behavior of polymer-modified cement mortars with regard to the use of a pozzolanic admixture. Polymer-modified mortars (PMMs) containing various types of waste glass (waste packing glass and fluorescent tube glass) were produced always with 20% of cement substituted with a pozzolanic-active material. Ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) was used for polymeric modification. The findings confirm the possibility of using the waste glass examined herein as a partial substitute for cement in the production of PMM, which contributes to the preservation of non-renewable raw material resources and to the efficiency of waste glass material reuse.

Keywords: Recycled waste glass, polymer-modified mortars, pozzolanic admixture.

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138 Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness

Authors: S. W. Lo, C.-H. Yu

Abstract:

A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the stiffness soars from 15.85 N/μm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/μm at bearing elevation 9.5 μm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.

Keywords: Aerostatic, bearing, polymer, static stiffness.

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137 Stabilization of Fly Ash Slope Using Plastic Recycled Polymer and Finite Element Analysis Using Plaxis 3D

Authors: Tushar Vasant Salunkhe, Sariput M. Nawghare, Maheboobsab B. Nadaf, Sushovan Dutta, J. N. Mandal

Abstract:

The model tests were conducted in the laboratory without and with Plastic recycled polymer in fly ash steep slopes overlaying soft foundation soils like fly ash and powai soil in order to check the stability of steep slope. In this experiment, fly ash is used as a filling material and Plastic Recycled Polymers of diameter = 3mm and length = 4mm were made from waste plastic product (lower grade plastic product). The properties of fly ash and Plastic recycled polymers are determined. From the experiments, load and settlement have measured. From these data, load –settlement curves have reported. It has been observed from test results that load carrying capacity of mixture fly ash with Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is more than that of fly ash slope. The deformation of Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is slightly more than that of fly ash slope. A Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) was also evaluated using PLAXIS 3D version. The failure pattern, deformations and factor of safety are reported based on analytical programme. The results from experimental data and analytical programme are compared and reported.

Keywords: Fly ash, Plastic recycled polymer, Factor of safety, Finite element method (FEM), Bishop’s simplified method.

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136 Structural Behavior of Lightweight Concrete Made With Scoria Aggregates and Mineral Admixtures

Authors: M. Shannag, A. Charif, S. Naser, F. Faisal, A. Karim

Abstract:

Structural lightweight concrete is used primarily to reduce the dead-load weight in concrete members such as floors in high-rise buildings and bridge decks. With given materials, it is generally desired to have the highest possible strength/unit weight ratio with the lowest cost of concrete. The work presented herein is part of an ongoing research project that investigates the properties of concrete mixes containing locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and mineral admixtures. Properties considered included: workability, unit weight, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength. Test results indicated that developing structural lightweight concretes (SLWC) using locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and specific blends of silica fume and fly ash seems to be feasible. The stress-strain diagrams plotted for the structural LWC mixes developed in this investigation were comparable to a typical stress-strain diagram for normal weight concrete with relatively larger strain capacity at failure in case of LWC.

Keywords: Lightweight Concrete, Scoria, Stress, Strain, Silica fume, Fly Ash.

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