Search results for: pocket.
21 Linear Pocket Profile based Threshold Voltage Model for sub-100 nm n-MOSFET
Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Quazi Deen Mohd Khosru
This paper presents a threshold voltage model of pocket implanted sub-100 nm n-MOSFETs incorporating the drain and substrate bias effects using two linear pocket profiles. Two linear equations are used to simulate the pocket profiles along the channel at the surface from the source and drain edges towards the center of the n-MOSFET. Then the effective doping concentration is derived and is used in the threshold voltage equation that is obtained by solving the Poisson-s equation in the depletion region at the surface. Simulated threshold voltages for various gate lengths fit well with the experimental data already published in the literature. The simulated result is compared with the two other pocket profiles used to derive the threshold voltage models of n-MOSFETs. The comparison shows that the linear model has a simple compact form that can be utilized to study and characterize the pocket implanted advanced ULSI devices.
Keywords: Linear pocket profile, pocket implantation, nMOSFET, threshold voltage, short channel effect (SCE), reverse short channeleffect (RSCE).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1633
20 Analytical Subthreshold Drain Current Model Incorporating Inversion Layer Effective Mobility Model for Pocket Implanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET
Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Quazi D. M. Khosru
Carrier scatterings in the inversion channel of MOSFET dominates the carrier mobility and hence drain current. This paper presents an analytical model of the subthreshold drain current incorporating the effective electron mobility model of the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The model is developed by assuming two linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges at the surface and by using the conventional drift-diffusion equation. Effective electron mobility model includes three scattering mechanisms, such as, Coulomb, phonon and surface roughness scatterings as well as ballistic phenomena in the pocket implanted n-MOSFET. The model is simulated for various pocket profile and device parameters as well as for various bias conditions. Simulation results show that the subthreshold drain current data matches the experimental data already published in the literature.
Keywords: Linear Pocket Profile, Pocket Implanted n-MOSFET, Subthreshold Drain Current and Effective Mobility Model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2442
19 Inversion Layer Effective Mobility Model for Pocket Implanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET
Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Quazi D. M. Khosru
Abstract:Carriers scattering in the inversion channel of n- MOSFET dominates the drain current. This paper presents an effective electron mobility model for the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The model is developed by using two linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges. The channel is divided into three regions at source, drain and central part of the channel region. The total number of inversion layer charges is found for these three regions by numerical integration from source to drain ends and the number of depletion layer charges is found by using the effective doping concentration including pocket doping effects. These two charges are then used to find the effective normal electric field, which is used to find the effective mobility model incorporating the three scattering mechanisms, such as, Coulomb, phonon and surface roughness scatterings as well as the ballistic phenomena for the pocket implanted nano-scale n-MOSFET. The simulation results show that the derived mobility model produces the same results as found in the literatures.
Keywords: Linear Pocket Profile, Pocket Implanted n-MOSFET, Effective Electric Field and Effective Mobility Model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1741
18 Impact of Gate Insulation Material and Thickness on Pocket Implanted MOS Device
Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan
Abstract:This paper reports on the impact study with the variation of the gate insulation material and thickness on different models of pocket implanted sub-100 nm n-MOS device. The gate materials used here are silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum silicate (Al2SiO5), silicon nitride (Si3N4), alumina (Al2O3), hafnium silicate (HfSiO4), tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5), hafnium dioxide (HfO2), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and lanthanum oxide (La2O3) upon a p-type silicon substrate material. The gate insulation thickness was varied from 2.0 nm to 3.5 nm for a 50 nm channel length pocket implanted n-MOSFET. There are several models available for this device. We have studied and simulated threshold voltage model incorporating drain and substrate bias effects, surface potential, inversion layer charge, pinch-off voltage, effective electric field, inversion layer mobility, and subthreshold drain current models based on two linear symmetric pocket doping profiles. We have changed the values of the two parameters, viz. gate insulation material and thickness gradually fixing the other parameter at their typical values. Then we compared and analyzed the simulation results. This study would be helpful for the nano-scaled MOS device designers for various applications to predict the device behavior.
Keywords: Linear symmetric pocket profile, pocket implanted n-MOS Device, model, impact of gate material, insulator thickness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 254
17 Doping Profile Measurement and Characterization by Scanning Capacitance Microscope for PocketImplanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET
Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Farseem Mannan Mohammedy, Quazi Deen Mohd Khosru
Abstract:This paper presents the doping profile measurement and characterization technique for the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. Scanning capacitance microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to image the extent of lateral dopant diffusion in MOS structures. The data are capacitance vs. voltage measurements made on a nano scale device. The technique is nondestructive when imaging uncleaved samples. Experimental data from the published literature are presented here on actual, cleaved device structures which clearly indicate the two-dimensional dopant profile in terms of a spatially varying modulated capacitance signal. Firstorder deconvolution indicates the technique has much promise for the quantitative characterization of lateral dopant profiles. The pocket profile is modeled assuming the linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges. From the model, the effective doping concentration is found to use in modeling and simulation results of the various parameters of the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The potential of the technique to characterize important device related phenomena on a local scale is also discussed.
Keywords: Linear Pocket Profile, Pocket Implanted n-MOSFET, Scanning Capacitance Microscope, Atomic Force Microscope.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1876
16 Role of Process Parameters on Pocket Milling with Abrasive Water Jet Machining Technique
Authors: T. V. K. Gupta, J. Ramkumar, Puneet Tandon, N. S. Vyas
Abrasive Water Jet Machining is an unconventional machining process well known for machining hard to cut materials. The primary research focus on the process was for through cutting and a very limited literature is available on pocket milling using AWJM. The present work is an attempt to use this process for milling applications considering a set of various process parameters. Four different input parameters, which were considered by researchers for part separation, are selected for the above application, i.e., abrasive size, flow rate, standoff distance and traverse speed. Pockets of definite size are machined to investigate surface roughness, material removal rate and pocket depth. Based on the data available through experiments on SS304 material, it is observed that higher traverse speeds gives a better finish because of reduction in the particle energy density and lower depth is also observed. Increase in the standoff distance and abrasive flow rate reduces the rate of material removal as the jet loses its focus and occurrence of collisions within the particles. ANOVA for individual output parameter has been studied to know the significant process parameters.
Keywords: Abrasive flow rate, surface finish, abrasive size, standoff distance, traverse speed.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4091
15 Temperature-dependent Structural Perturbation of Tuna Myoglobin
Authors: Yoshihiro Ochiai
Abstract:To unveil the mechanism of fast autooxidation of fish myoglobins, the effect of temperature on the structural change of tuna myoglobin was investigated. Purified myoglobin was subjected to preincubation at 5, 20, 50 and 40oC. Overall helical structural decay through thermal treatment up to 95oC was monitored by circular dichroism spectrometry, while the structural changes around the heme pocket was measured by ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrophotometry. As a result, no essential structural change of myoglobin was observed under 30oC, roughly equivalent to their body temperature, but the structure was clearly damaged at 40oC. The Soret band absorption hardly differed irrespective of preincubation temperature, suggesting that the structure around the heme pocket was not perturbed even after thermal treatment.
Keywords: denaturation, myoglobin, stability, tuna.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1867
14 Sustainability of Healthcare Insurance in India: A Review of Health Insurance Scheme Launched by States in India
Authors: Mohd Zuhair, Ram Babu Roy
This paper presents an overview of the accessibility, design, and functioning of health insurance plans launched by state governments in India. In recent years, the governments of several states in India have come forward to provide health insurance coverage for the low-income group and rural population to reduce the out of pocket expenditure (OPE) on healthcare. Different health insurance schemes have different structures and offerings which differ in the different demographic factors. This study will portray a comparative analysis of the various health insurance schemes by analyzing different offerings and finance generation of the schemes. The comparative analysis will explain the lesson to be learned from these schemes and extend the existing knowledge of the health insurance in India. This would help in recognizing tension between various drivers and identifying issues pertaining to the sustainability of health insurance schemes in India.
Keywords: Health insurance, out of pocket expenditure, universal healthcare, sustainability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 914
13 The Clinical Use of Ahmed Valve Implant as an Aqueous Shunt for Control of Uveitic Glaucoma in Dogs
Authors: Khaled M. Ali, M. A. Abdel-Hamid, Ayman A. Mostafa
Abstract:Objective: Safety and efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the management of uveitis induced glaucoma evaluated on the five dogs with uncontrollable glaucoma. Materials and Methods: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV®; New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA) is a flow restrictive, nonobstructive self-regulating valve system. Preoperative ocular evaluation included direct ophthalmoscopy and measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP). The implant was examined and primed prior to implantation. The selected site of the valve implantation was the superior quadrant between the superior and lateral rectus muscles. A fornix-based incision was made through the conjunectiva and Tenon’s capsule. A pocket is formed by blunt dissection of Tenon’s capsule from the episclera. The body of the implant was inserted into the pocket with the leading edge of the device around 8-10 mm from the limbus. Results: No post-operative complications were detected in the operated eyes except a persistent corneal edema occupied the upper half of the cornea in one case. Hyphaema was very mild and seen only in two cases which resolved quickly two days after surgery. Endoscopical evaluation for the operated eyes revealed a normal ocular fundus with clearly visible optic papilla, tapetum and retinal blood vessels. No evidence of hemorrhage, infection, adhesions or retinal abnormalities was detected. Conclusion: Ahmed glaucoma valve is safe and effective implant for treatment of uveitic glaucoma in dogs.
Keywords: Ahmed valve, endoscopy, glaucoma, ocular fundus.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1885
12 Hydraulic Optimization of an Adjustable Spiral-Shaped Evaporator
Authors: Matthias Feiner, Francisco Javier Fernández García, Michael Arneman, Martin Kipfmüller
To ensure reliability in miniaturized devices or processes with increased heat fluxes, very efficient cooling methods have to be employed in order to cope with small available cooling surfaces. To address this problem, a certain type of evaporator/heat exchanger was developed: It is called a swirl evaporator due to its flow characteristic. The swirl evaporator consists of a concentrically eroded screw geometry in which a capillary tube is guided, which is inserted into a pocket hole in components with high heat load. The liquid refrigerant R32 is sprayed through the capillary tube to the end face of the blind hole and is sucked off against the injection direction in the screw geometry. Its inner diameter is between one and three millimeters. The refrigerant is sprayed into the pocket hole via a small tube aligned in the center of the bore hole and is sucked off on the front side of the hole against the direction of injection. The refrigerant is sucked off in a helical geometry (twisted flow) so that it is accelerated against the hot wall (centrifugal acceleration). This results in an increase in the critical heat flux of up to 40%. In this way, more heat can be dissipated on the same surface/available installation space. This enables a wide range of technical applications. To optimize the design for the needs in various fields of industry, like the internal tool cooling when machining nickel base alloys like Inconel 718, a correlation-based model of the swirl-evaporator was developed. The model is separated into 3 subgroups with overall 5 regimes. The pressure drop and heat transfer are calculated separately. An approach to determine the locality of phase change in the capillary and the swirl was implemented. A test stand has been developed to verify the simulation.
Keywords: Helically-shaped, oil-free, R32, swirl-evaporator, twist flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 311
11 Pedometer Development Utilizing an Accelerometer Sensor
Authors: Ling-Mei Wu, Jia-Shing Sheu, Wei-Cian Jheng, Ying-Tung Hsiao
This paper develops a pedometer with a three-axis acceleration sensor that can be placed with any angle. The proposed pedometer measures the number of steps while users walk, jog or run. It can be worn on users’ waistband or placed within pocket or backpack. The work address to improve on the general pedometers, which can only be used in a single direction or can only count of steps without the continuous exercise judgment mechanism. Finally, experimental results confirm the superior performance of the proposed pedometer.
Keywords: Accelerometer sensor, Angle estimation, Pedometer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4589
10 Efficient CNC Milling by Adjusting Material Removal Rate
Authors: Majid Tolouei-Rad
Abstract:This paper describes a combined mathematicalgraphical approach for optimum tool path planning in order to improve machining efficiency. A methodology has been used that stabilizes machining operations by adjusting material removal rate in pocket milling operations while keeping cutting forces within limits. This increases the life of cutting tool and reduces the risk of tool breakage, machining vibration, and chatter. Case studies reveal the fact that application of this approach could result in a slight increase of machining time, however, a considerable reduction of tooling cost, machining vibration, noise and chatter can be achieved in addition to producing a better surface finish.
Keywords: CNC machines, milling, optimization, removal rate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3335
9 Mutational Effect to Particular Interaction Energy of Cycloguanil Drug to Plasmodium Plasmodium Falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase Enzymes
Authors: A. Maitarad, P. Maitarad
Abstract:In order to find the particular interaction energy between cylcloguanil and the amino acids surrounding the pocket of wild type and quadruple mutant type PfDHFR enzymes, the MP2 method with basis set 6-31G(d,p) level of calculations was performed. The obtained interaction energies found that Asp54 has the strongest interaction energy to both wild type and mutant type of - 12.439 and -11.250 kcal/mol, respectively and three amino acids; Asp54, Ile164 and Ile14 formed the H-bonding with cycloguanil drug. Importantly, the mutation at Ser108Asn was the key important of cycloguanil resistant with showing repulsive interaction energy.
Keywords: Cycloguanil, DHFR, malaria disease, interactionenergy, quantum calculationsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1295
8 A Web-Based System for Mapping Features into ISO 14649-Compliant Machining Workingsteps
Authors: J. C. T. Benavente, J. C. E. Ferreira
The rapid development of manufacturing and information systems has caused significant changes in manufacturing environments in recent decades. Mass production has given way to flexible manufacturing systems, in which an important characteristic is customized or "on demand" production. In this scenario, the seamless and without gaps information flow becomes a key factor for success of enterprises. In this paper we present a framework to support the mapping of features into machining workingsteps compliant with the ISO 14649 standard (known as STEP-NC). The system determines how the features can be made with the available manufacturing resources. Examples of the mapping method are presented for features such as a pocket with a general surface.
Keywords: Features, ISO 14649 standard, STEP-NC, mapping, machining workingsteps.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1772
7 Feature-Based Machining using Macro
Authors: M. Razak, A. Jusoh, A. Zakaria
Abstract:This paper presents an on-going research work on the implementation of feature-based machining via macro programming. Repetitive machining features such as holes, slots, pockets etc can readily be encapsulated in macros. Each macro consists of methods on how to machine the shape as defined by the feature. The macro programming technique comprises of a main program and subprograms. The main program allows user to select several subprograms that contain features and define their important parameters. With macros, complex machining routines can be implemented easily and no post processor is required. A case study on machining of a part that comprised of planar face, hole and pocket features using the macro programming technique was carried out. It is envisaged that the macro programming technique can be extended to other feature-based machining fields such as the newly developed STEP-NC domain.
Keywords: Feature-based machining, CNC, Macro, STEP-NC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2527
6 Bluetooth Piconet System for Child Care Applications
Authors: Ching-Sung Wang, Teng-Wei Wang, Zhen-Ting Zheng
This study mainly concerns a safety device designed for child care. When children are out of sight or the caregivers cannot always pay attention to the situation, through the functions of this device, caregivers can immediately be informed to make sure that the children do not get lost or hurt, and thus, ensure their safety. Starting from this concept, a device is produced based on the relatively low-cost Bluetooth piconet system and a three-axis gyroscope sensor. This device can transmit data to a mobile phone app through Bluetooth, in order that the user can learn the situation at any time. By simply clipping the device in a pocket or on the waist, after switching on/starting the device, it will send data to the phone to detect the child’s fall and distance. Once the child is beyond the angle or distance set by the app, it will issue a warning to inform the phone owner.
Keywords: Children care, piconet system, three-axis gyroscope, distance detection, falls detection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 769
5 Flame Acceleration of Premixed Natural Gas/Air Explosion in Closed Pipe
Authors: H. Mat Kiah, Rafiziana M. Kasmani, Norazana Ibrahim, Roshafima R. Ali, Aziatul N.Sadikin
An experimental study has been done to investigate the flame acceleration in a closed pipe. A horizontal steel pipe, 2m long and 0.1m in diameter (L/D of 20), was used in this work. For tests with 90 degree bends, the bend had a radius of 0.1m and thus, the pipe was lengthened 1m (based on the centreline length of the segment). Ignition was affected at one end of the vessel while the other end was closed. Only stoichiometric concentration (Ф, = 1.0) of natural gas/air mixtures will be reported in this paper. It was demonstrated that bend pipe configuration gave three times higher in maximum overpressure (5.5 bars) compared to straight pipe (2.0 bars). From the results, the highest flame speed, of 63ms-1, was observed in a gas explosion with bent pipe; greater by a factor of ~3 as compared with straight pipe (23ms-1). This occurs because bending acts similar to an obstacle, in which this mechanism can induce more turbulence, initiating combustion in an unburned pocket at the corner region and causing a high mass burning rate, which increases the flame speed.
Keywords: Bending, gas explosion, bending, flame acceleration, overpressure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2153
4 Molecular Dynamics Study on Laninamivir Inhibiting Neuraminidases of H5N1 and pH1N1 Influenza a Viruses
Authors: A. Meeprasert, W. Khuntawee, S. Hannongbua, T. Rungrotmongkol
Abstract:Viral influenza A subtypes H5N1 and pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) have worldwide emerged and transmitted. The most common anti-influenza drug for treatment of both seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses is oseltamivir that nowadays becomes resistance to influenza neuraminidase. The novel long-acting drug, laninamivir, was discovered for treatment of the patients infected with influenza B and influenza A viruses. In the present study, laninamivir complexed with wild-type strain of both H5N1 and pH1N1 viruses were comparatively determined the structures and drug-target interactions by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results show that the hydrogen bonding interactions formed between laninamivir and its binding residues are likely similar for the two systems. Additionally, the presence of intermolecular interactions from laninamivir to the residues in the binding pocket is established through their side chains in accordance with hydrogen bond interactions.
Keywords: Laninamivir, neuraminidase, H5N1, pandemic H1N1, wild-type, MD simulationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1557
3 Simulation and Experimental Research on Pocketing Operation for Toolpath Optimization in CNC Milling
Authors: Rakesh Prajapati, Purvik Patel, Avadhoot Rajurkar
Abstract:Nowadays, manufacturing industries augment their production lines with modern machining centers backed by CAM software. Several attempts are being made to cut down the programming time for machining complex geometries. Special programs/software have been developed to generate the digital numerical data and to prepare NC programs by using suitable post-processors for different machines. By selecting the tools and manufacturing process then applying tool paths and NC program are generated. More and more complex mechanical parts that earlier were being cast and assembled/manufactured by other processes are now being machined. Majority of these parts require lots of pocketing operations and find their applications in die and mold, turbo machinery, aircraft, nuclear, defense etc. Pocketing operations involve removal of large quantity of material from the metal surface. The modeling of warm cast and clamping a piece of food processing parts which the used of Pro-E and MasterCAM® software. Pocketing operation has been specifically chosen for toolpath optimization. Then after apply Pocketing toolpath, Multi Tool Selection and Reduce Air Time give the results of software simulation time and experimental machining time.
Keywords: Toolpath, part program, optimization, pocket.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 897
2 Non-Coplanar Nuclei in Heavy-Ion Reactions
Authors: Sahila Chopra, Hemdeep, Arshdeep Kaur, Raj K. Gupta
Abstract:In recent times, we noticed an interesting and important role of non-coplanar degree-of-freedom (Φ = 00) in heavy ion reactions. Using the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) with Φ degree-of-freedom included, we have studied three compound systems 246Bk∗, 164Yb∗ and 105Ag∗. Here, within the DCM with pocket formula for nuclear proximity potential, we look for the effects of including compact, non-coplanar configurations (Φc = 00) on the non-compound nucleus (nCN) contribution in total fusion cross section σfus. For 246Bk∗, formed in 11B+235U and 14N+232Th reaction channels, the DCM with coplanar nuclei (Φc = 00) shows an nCN contribution for 11B+235U channel, but none for 14N+232Th channel, which on including Φ gives both reaction channels as pure compound nucleus decays. In the case of 164Yb∗, formed in 64Ni+100Mo, the small nCN effects for Φ=00 are reduced to almost zero for Φ = 00. Interestingly, however, 105Ag∗ for Φ = 00 shows a small nCN contribution, which gets strongly enhanced for Φ = 00, such that the characteristic property of PCN presents a change of behaviour, like that of a strongly fissioning superheavy element to a weakly fissioning nucleus; note that 105Ag∗ is a weakly fissioning nucleus and Psurv behaves like one for a weakly fissioning nucleus for both Φ = 00 and Φ = 00. Apparently, Φ is presenting itself like a good degree-of-freedom in the DCM.
Keywords: Dynamical cluster-decay model, fusion cross sections, non-compound nucleus effects, non-coplanarity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1046
1 High-Rises and Urban Design: The Reasons for Unsuccessful Placemaking with Residential High-Rises in England
Authors: E. Kalcheva, A. Taki, Y. Hadi
High-rises and placemaking is an understudied combination which receives more and more interest with the proliferation of this typology in many British cities. The reason for studying three major cities in England: London, Birmingham and Manchester, is to learn from the latest advances in urban design in well-developed and prominent urban environment. The analysis of several high-rise sites reveals the weaknesses in urban design of contemporary British cities and presents an opportunity to study from the implemented examples. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to analyze design approaches towards creating a sustainable and varied urban environment when high-rises are involved. The research questions raised by the study are: what is the quality of high-rises and their surroundings; what facilities and features are deployed in the research area; what is the role of the high-rise buildings in the placemaking process; what urban design principles are applicable in this context. The methodology utilizes observation of the researched area by structured questions, developed by the author to evaluate the outdoor qualities of the high-rise surroundings. In this context, the paper argues that the quality of the public realm around the high-rises is quite low, missing basic but vital elements such as plazas, public art, and seating, along with landscaping and pocket parks. There is lack of coherence, the rhythm of the streets is often disrupted, and even though the high-rises are very aesthetically appealing, they fail to create a sense of place on their own. The implications of the study are that future planning can take into consideration the critique in this article and provide more opportunities for urban design interventions around high-rise buildings in the British cities.
Keywords: High-rises, placemaking, urban design, townscape.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1797