Search results for: photonic crystals
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Search results for: photonic crystals

90 A Comparative Study of a Defective Superconductor/ Semiconductor-Dielectric Photonic Crystal

Authors: S. Sadegzadeh, A. Mousavi

Abstract:

Temperature-dependent tunable photonic crystals have attracted widespread interest in recent years. In this research, transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a single defect have been studied. Here, we assume two different defect layers: InSb as a semiconducting layer and HgBa2Ca2Cu3O10 as a high-temperature superconducting layer. Both the defect layers have temperature-dependent refractive indexes. Two different types of dielectric materials (Si as a high-refractive index dielectric and MgF2 as a low-refractive index dielectric) are used to construct the asymmetric structures (Si/MgF2)NInSb(Si/MgF2)N named S.I, and (Si/MgF2)NHgBa2Ca2Cu3O10(Si/MgF2)N named S.II. It is found that in response to the temperature changes, transmission peaks within the photonic band gap of the S.II structure, in contrast to S.I, show a small wavelength shift. Furthermore, the results show that under the same conditions, S.I structure generates an extra defect mode in the transmission spectra. Besides high efficiency transmission property of S.II structure, it can be concluded that the semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals are more sensitive to temperature variation than superconductor types.

Keywords: Defect modes, photonic crystals, semiconductor, superconductor, transmission.

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89 Photonic Crystals for Novel Applications in Integrated-Optic Communication Systems and Devices

Authors: Vijay Janyani, Neetu Joshi, Jigyasa Pagaria, Parul Pathak

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal (PhC) based devices are being increasingly used in multifunctional, compact devices in integrated optical communication systems. They provide excellent controllability of light, yet maintaining the small size required for miniaturization. In this paper, the band gap properties of PhCs and their typical applications in optical waveguiding are considered. Novel PhC based applications such as nonlinear switching and tapers are considered and simulation results are shown using the accurate time-domain numerical method based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) scheme. The suitability of these devices for novel applications is discussed and evaluated.

Keywords: Band gap engineering, Nonlinear switching, Photonic crystals, PhC tapers, waveguides.

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88 Computation of the Filtering Properties of Photonic Crystal Waveguide Discontinuities Using the Mode Matching Method

Authors: Athanasios Theoharidis, Thomas Kamalakis, Ioannis Neokosmidis, Thomas Sphicopoulos

Abstract:

In this paper, the application of the Mode Matching (MM) method in the case of photonic crystal waveguide discontinuities is presented. The structure under consideration is divided into a number of cells, which supports a number of guided and evanescent modes. These modes can be calculated numerically by an alternative formulation of the plane wave expansion method for each frequency. A matrix equation is then formed relating the modal amplitudes at the beginning and at the end of the structure. The theory is highly efficient and accurate and can be applied to study the transmission sensitivity of photonic crystal devices due to fabrication tolerances. The accuracy of the MM method is compared to the Finite Difference Frequency Domain (FDFD) and the Adjoint Variable Method (AVM) and good agreement is observed.

Keywords: Optical Communications, Integrated Optics, Photonic Crystals, Optical Waveguide Discontinuities.

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87 A High-Crosstalk Silicon Photonic Arrayed Waveguide Grating

Authors: Qing Fang, Lianxi Jia, Junfeng Song, Chao Li, Xianshu Luo, Mingbin Yu, Guoqiang Lo

Abstract:

In this paper, we demonstrated a 1 × 4 silicon photonic cascaded arrayed waveguide grating, which is fabricated on a SOI wafer with a 220 nm top Si layer and a 2µm buried oxide layer. The measured on-chip transmission loss of this cascaded arrayed waveguide grating is ~ 5.6 dB, including the fiber-to-waveguide coupling loss. The adjacent crosstalk is 33.2 dB. Compared to the normal single silicon photonic arrayed waveguide grating with a crosstalk of ~ 12.5 dB, the crosstalk of this device has been dramatically increased.

Keywords: Silicon photonic, arrayed waveguide grating, high-crosstalk, cascaded structure.

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86 Analysis of Scattering Behavior in the Cavity of Phononic Crystals with Archimedean Tilings

Authors: Yi-Hua Chen, Hsiang-Wen Tang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen

Abstract:

The defect mode of two-dimensional phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings was explored in the present study. Finite element method and supercell method were used to obtain dispersion relation of phononic crystals. The simulations of the acoustic wave propagation within phononic crystals are demonstrated. Around the cavity which is created by removing several cylinders in the perfect Archimedean tilings, whispering-gallery mode (WGM) can be observed. The effects of the cavity geometry on the WGM modes are investigated. The WGM modes with high Q-factor and high cavity pressure can be obtained by phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings.

Keywords: Defect mode, Archimedean tilings, phononic crystals, whispering- gallery modes.

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85 Increasing Directional Intensity of Output Light Beam from Photonic Crystal Slab Outlet Including Micro Cavity Resonators

Authors: A. Mobini, K. Saghafi, V. Ahmadi

Abstract:

in this paper we modified a simple two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide by creating micro cavity resonators in order to increase the output light emission which can be applicable to photonic integrated circuits. The micro cavity resonators are constructed by removing two tubes close to the waveguide output. Coupling emitted light from waveguide with those micro cavities, results increasing intensity of waveguide output light. Inserting a tube in last row of waveguide, we have improved directionality of output light beam.

Keywords: photonic crystal, waveguide, micro cavity resonators, directional emission

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84 Fabrication of Single Crystal of Mg Alloys Containing Rare Earth Elements

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Single crystals of Magnesium alloys such as Mg-1Al, Mg-1Zn-0.5Y, Mg-3Li, and AZ31 alloys were successfully fabricated in this study by employing the modified Bridgman method. Single crystals of pure Mg were also made in this study. To determine the exact orientation of crystals, Laue back-reflection method and pole figure measurement were carried out on each single crystal. Dimensions of single crystals were 10 mm in diameter and 120 mm in length. Hardness and compression tests were conducted and the results revealed that hardness and the strength strongly depended on the orientation. The closer to basal one the orientation was, the higher hardness and compressive strength were. The effect of alloying was not higher than that of orientation. After compressive deformation of single crystals, the orientation of the crystals was found to rotate and to be parallel to the basal orientation.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Hardness, Mg alloys, Modified Bridgman method, Orientation, Pole figure, Single crystal.

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83 Improved Plasmonic Demultiplexer Based on Tapered and Rectangular Slot MIM Waveguide

Authors: Aso Rahimzadegan, Seyyed Poorya Hosseini, Kamran Qaderi

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed two novel plasmonic demultiplexing structures based on metal-insulator-metal surfaces which, beside their compact size, have a very good transmission spectrum. The impact of the key internal parameters on the transmission spectrum is numerically analyzed by using the twodimensional (2D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structures could be used to develop ultra-compact photonic wavelength demultiplexing devices for large-scale photonic integration.

Keywords: Photonic integrated devices, Plasmonics, Metalinsulator- metal (MIM) waveguide, Demultiplexers.

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82 Tunable Photonic Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on EOPM and VPBS

Authors: R. Heydari, M. R. Salehi

Abstract:

A tunable photonic microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficient based on an electro-optic phase modulator (EOPM) and a variable polarization beamsplitter (VPBS) is demonstrated. A two-tap microwave bandpass filter with one negative coefficient is presented. The chromatic dispersion and optical coherence are not affected on this filter.

Keywords: Bandpass filter, EOPM, photonic microwave filter, polarization beamsplitter.

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81 Voltage-Controllable Liquid Crystals Lens

Authors: Wen-Chi Hung, Tung-Kai Liu, Ming-Shan Tsai, Chun-Che Lee, I-Min Jiang

Abstract:

This study investigates a voltage-controllable liquid crystals lens with a Fresnel zone electrode. When applying a proper voltage on the liquid crystal cell, a Fresnel-zone-distributed electric field is induced to direct liquid crystals aligned in a concentric structure. Owing to the concentrically aligned liquid crystals, a Fresnel lens is formed. We probe the Fresnel liquid crystal lens using a polarized incident beam with a wavelength of 632.8 nm, finding that the diffraction efficiency depends on the applying voltage. A remarkable diffraction efficiency of ~39.5 % is measured at the voltage of 0.9V. Additionally, a dual focus lens is fabricated by attaching a plane-convex lens to the Fresnel liquid crystals cell. The Fresnel LC lens and the dual focus lens may be applied for DVD/CD pick-up head, confocal microscopy system, or electrically-controlling optical systems.

Keywords: Liquid Crystals Lens, Fresnel Lens, and Dual focus

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80 Photonic Crystal Waveguide 1x3 Flexible Power Splitter for Optical Network

Authors: Jyothi Digge, B. U. Rindhe, S. K. Narayankhedkar

Abstract:

A compact 1x3 power splitter based on Photonic Crystal Waveguides (PCW) with flexible power splitting ratio is presented in this paper. Multimode interference coupler (MMI) is integrated with PCW. The device size reduction compared with the conventional MMI power splitter is attributed to the large dispersion of the PCW. Band Solve tool is used to calculate the band structure of PCW. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is adopted to simulate the relevant structure at 1550nm wavelength. The device is polarization insensitive and allows the control of output (o/p) powers within certain percentage points for both polarizations.

Keywords: Dispersion, MMI Coupler, Photonic Bandgap, Power Splitter.

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79 Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Nanostructured Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: Optical communication systems, nanostructured, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber.

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78 Static Recrystallization Behavior of Mg Alloy Single Crystals

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Jae Ho Choi, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Single crystals of Magnesium alloys such as pure Mg, Mg-1Zn-0.5Y, Mg-0.1Y, and Mg-0.1Ce alloys were successfully fabricated in this study by employing the modified Bridgman method. To determine the exact orientation of crystals, pole figure measurement using X-ray diffraction were carried out on each single crystal. Hardness and compression tests were conducted followed by subsequent recrysatllization annealing. Recrystallization kinetics of Mg alloy single crystals has been investigated. Fabricated single crystals were cut into rectangular shaped specimen and solution treated at 400oC for 24 hrs, and then deformed in compression mode by 30% reduction. Annealing treatment for recrystallization has been conducted on these cold-rolled plates at temperatures of 300oC for various times from 1 to 20 mins. The microstructure observation and hardness measurement conducted on the recrystallized specimens revealed that static recrystallization of ternary alloy single crystal was very slow, while recrystallization behavior of binary alloy single crystals appeared to be very fast.

Keywords: Magnesium, Mg-rare earth alloys, compression test, static recrystallization, hardness.

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77 Study of Photonic Crystal Band Gap and Hexagonal Microcavity Based on Elliptical Shaped Holes

Authors: A. Benmerkhi, A. Bounouioua, M. Bouchemat, T. Bouchemat

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a numerical optical properties of a triangular periodic lattice of elliptical air holes. We report the influence of the ratio (semi-major axis length of elliptical hole to the filling ratio) on the photonic band gap. Then by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm, the resonant wavelength of the point defect microcavities in a two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) shifts towards the low wavelengths with significantly increased filing ratio. It can be noted that the Q factor is gradually changed to higher when the filling ratio increases. It is due to an increase in reflectivity of the PC mirror. Also we theoretically investigate the H1 cavity, where the value of semi-major axis (Rx) of the six holes surrounding the cavity are fixed at 0.5a and the Rx of the two edge air holes are fixed at the optimum value of 0.52a. The highest Q factor of 4.1359 × 106 is achieved at the resonant mode located at λ = 1.4970 µm.

Keywords: Photonic crystal, microcavity, filling ratio, elliptical holes.

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76 CMOS-Compatible Plasmonic Nanocircuits for On-Chip Integration

Authors: Shiyang Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong

Abstract:

Silicon photonics is merging as a unified platform for driving photonic based telecommunications and for local photonic based interconnect but it suffers from large footprint as compared with the nanoelectronics. Plasmonics is an attractive alternative for nanophotonics. In this work, two CMOS compatible plasmonic waveguide platforms are compared. One is the horizontal metal-insulator-Si-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic waveguide and the other is metal-insulator-Si hybrid plasmonic waveguide. Various passive and active photonic devices have been experimentally demonstrated based on these two plasmonic waveguide platforms.

Keywords: Plasmonics, on-chip integration, Silicon photonics.

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75 Optical Induction of 2D and 3D Photonic Lattices in Photorefractive Materials based on Talbot effect

Authors: A. Badalyan, R. Hovsepyan, V. Mekhitaryan, P. Mantashyan, R. Drampyan

Abstract:

In this paper we report the technique of optical induction of 2 and 3-dimensional (2D and 3D) photonic lattices in photorefractive materials based on diffraction grating self replication -Talbot effect. 1D and 2D different rotational symmery diffraction masks with the periods of few tens micrometers and 532 nm cw laser beam were used in the experiments to form an intensity modulated light beam profile. A few hundred micrometric scale replications of mask generated intensity structures along the beam propagation axis were observed. Up to 20 high contrast replications were detected for 1D annular mask with 30

Keywords: Diffraction gratings, laser, photonic lattice, Talbot effect.

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74 Demand and Price Evolution Forecasting as Tools for Facilitating the RoadMapping Process of the Photonic Component Industry

Authors: T. Kamalakis, I. Neokosmidis, D. Varoutas, T. Sphicopoulos

Abstract:

The photonic component industry is a highly innovative industry with a large value chain. In order to ensure the growth of the industry much effort must be devoted to road mapping activities. In such activities demand and price evolution forecasting tools can prove quite useful in order to help in the roadmap refinement and update process. This paper attempts to provide useful guidelines in roadmapping of optical components and considers two models based on diffusion theory and the extended learning curve for demand and price evolution forecasting.

Keywords: Roadmapping, Photonic Components, Forecasting, Diffusion Theory.

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73 A High Quality Factor Filter Based on Quasi-Periodic Photonic Structure

Authors: Hamed Alipour-Banaei, Farhad Mehdizadeh

Abstract:

We report the design and characterization of ultra high quality factor filter based on one-dimensional photonic-crystal Thue- Morse sequence structure. The behavior of aperiodic array of photonic crystal structure is numerically investigated and we show that by changing the angle of incident wave, desired wavelengths could be tuned and a tunable filter is realized. Also it is shown that high quality factor filter be achieved in the telecommunication window around 1550 nm, with a device based on Thue-Morse structure. Simulation results show that the proposed structure has a quality factor more than 100000 and it is suitable for DWDM communication applications.

Keywords: Thue-Morse, filter, quality factor.

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72 A High-Resolution Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal

Authors: Ti-An Tsai, Chun-Chih Wang, Hung-Wen Wang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution refractive index sensor based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal (MPC) composed of a triangular lattice array of air holes embedded in Si matrix. A microcavity is created by changing the radius of an air hole in the middle of the photonic crystal. The cavity filled with gyrotropic materials can serve as a refractive index sensor. The shift of the resonant frequency of the sensor is obtained numerically using finite difference time domain method under different ambient conditions having refractive index from n = 1.0 to n = 1.1. The numerical results show that a tiny change in refractive index of  Δn = 0.0001 is distinguishable. In addition, the spectral response of the MPC sensor is studied while an external magnetic field is present. The results show that the MPC sensor exhibits a dramatic improvement in resolution.

Keywords: Magnetic photonic crystal, refractive index sensor, sensitivity, high-resolution.

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71 Synthesis of Dispersion-Compensating Triangular Lattice Index-Guiding Photonic Crystal Fibers Using the Directed Tabu Search Method

Authors: F. Karim

Abstract:

In this paper, triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are synthesized to compensate the chromatic dispersion of a single mode fiber (SMF-28) for an 80 km optical link operating at 1.55 µm, by using the directed tabu search algorithm. Hole-to-hole distance, circular air-hole diameter, solid-core diameter, ring number and PCF length parameters are optimized for this purpose. Three Synthesized PCFs with different physical parameters are compared in terms of their objective functions values, residual dispersions and compensation ratios.

Keywords: Triangular lattice index-guiding photonic crystal fiber, dispersion compensation, directed tabu search, synthesis.

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70 Growth and Characterization of L-Asparagine (LAS) Crystal Admixture of Paranitrophenol (PNP): A NLO Material

Authors: Grace Sahaya Sheba, P. Omegala Priyakumari, M. Gunasekaran

Abstract:

L-asparagine admixture Paranitrophenol (LAPNP) single crystals were grown successfully by solution method with slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Crystals of size 12mm×5 mm×3mm have been obtained in 15 days. The grown crystals were Brown color and transparent. The solubility of the grown samples has been found out at various temperatures. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were determined by X-ray diffraction technique. The reflection planes of the sample were confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction study and diffraction peaks were indexed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the crystals. UV–visible absorption spectrum was recorded to study the optical transparency of grown crystal. The nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz–Perry powder technique and a study of its second harmonic generation efficiency in comparison with potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) has been made. The mechanical strength of the crystal was estimated by Vickers hardness test. The grown crystals were subjected to thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The dielectric behavior of the sample was also studied

Keywords: Characterization, Microhardnes, Non-linear optical materials, Solution growth, Spectroscopy, XRD.

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69 CMOS-Compatible Silicon Nanoplasmonics for On-Chip Integration

Authors: Shiyang Zhu, Guo-Qiang Lo, Dim-Lee Kwong

Abstract:

Although silicon photonic devices provide a significantly larger bandwidth and dissipate a substantially less power than the electronic devices, they suffer from a large size due to the fundamental diffraction limit and the weak optical response of Si. A potential solution is to exploit Si plasmonics, which may not only miniaturize the photonic device far beyond the diffraction limit, but also enhance the optical response in Si due to the electromagnetic field confinement. In this paper, we discuss and summarize the recently developed metal-insulator-Si-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic waveguide as well as various passive and active plasmonic components based on this waveguide, including coupler, bend, power splitter, ring resonator, MZI, modulator, detector, etc. All these plasmonic components are CMOS compatible and could be integrated with electronic and conventional dielectric photonic devices on the same SOI chip. More potential plasmonic devices as well as plasmonic nanocircuits with complex functionalities are also addressed.

Keywords: Silicon nanoplasmonics, Silicon nanophotonics, Onchip integration, CMOS

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68 Enhancement of Raman Scattering using Photonic Nanojet and Whispering Gallery Mode of a Dielectric Microstructure

Authors: A. Arya, R. Laha, V. R. Dantham

Abstract:

We report the enhancement of Raman scattering signal by one order of magnitude using photonic nanojet (PNJ) of a lollipop shaped dielectric microstructure (LSDM) fabricated by a pulsed CO₂ laser. Here, the PNJ is generated by illuminating sphere portion of the LSDM with non-resonant laser. Unlike the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, this technique is simple, and the obtained results are highly reproducible. In addition, an efficient technique is proposed to enhance the SERS signal with the help of high quality factor optical resonance (whispering gallery mode) of a LSDM. From the theoretical simulations, it has been found that at least an order of magnitude enhancement in the SERS signal could be achieved easily using the proposed technique. We strongly believe that this report will enable the research community for improving the Raman scattering signals.

Keywords: Localized surface plasmons, photonic nanojet, SERS, whispering gallery mode.

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67 Multi-Wavelength Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Photonic Crystal Fiber and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Zian Cheak Tiu, Harith Ahmad, Sulaiman Wadi Harun

Abstract:

A simple multi-wavelength passively Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using low cost multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber (SA), which is prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a host polymer. The multi-wavelength operation is achieved based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect by incorporating 50 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in the ring cavity. The EDFL produces a stable multi-wavelength comb spectrum for more than 14 lines with a fixed spacing of 0.48 nm. The laser also demonstrates a stable pulse train with the repetition rate increases from 14.9 kHz to 25.4 kHz as the pump power increases from the threshold power of 69.0 mW to the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW. The minimum pulse width of 4.4 μs was obtained at the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW while the highest energy of 0.74 nJ was obtained at pump power of 69.0 mW.

Keywords: Multi-wavelength, Q-switched, multi-wall carbon nanotube, photonic crystal fiber.

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66 Accurate Time Domain Method for Simulation of Microstructured Electromagnetic and Photonic Structures

Authors: Vijay Janyani, Trevor M. Benson, Ana Vukovic

Abstract:

A time-domain numerical model within the framework of transmission line modeling (TLM) is developed to simulate electromagnetic pulse propagation inside multiple microcavities forming photonic crystal (PhC) structures. The model developed is quite general and is capable of simulating complex electromagnetic problems accurately. The field quantities can be mapped onto a passive electrical circuit equivalent what ensures that TLM is provably stable and conservative at a local level. Furthermore, the circuit representation allows a high level of hybridization of TLM with other techniques and lumped circuit models of components and devices. A photonic crystal structure formed by rods (or blocks) of high-permittivity dieletric material embedded in a low-dielectric background medium is simulated as an example. The model developed gives vital spatio-temporal information about the signal, and also gives spectral information over a wide frequency range in a single run. The model has wide applications in microwave communication systems, optical waveguides and electromagnetic materials simulations.

Keywords: Computational Electromagnetics, Numerical Simulation, Transmission Line Modeling.

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65 Effect of Flowrate and Coolant Temperature on the Efficiency of Progressive Freeze Concentration on Simulated Wastewater

Authors: M. Jusoh, R. Mohd Yunus, M. A. Abu Hassan

Abstract:

Freeze concentration freezes or crystallises the water molecules out as ice crystals and leaves behind a highly concentrated solution. In conventional suspension freeze concentration where ice crystals formed as a suspension in the mother liquor, separation of ice is difficult. The size of the ice crystals is still very limited which will require usage of scraped surface heat exchangers, which is very expensive and accounted for approximately 30% of the capital cost. This research is conducted using a newer method of freeze concentration, which is progressive freeze concentration. Ice crystals were formed as a layer on the designed heat exchanger surface. In this particular research, a helical structured copper crystallisation chamber was designed and fabricated. The effect of two operating conditions on the performance of the newly designed crystallisation chamber was investigated, which are circulation flowrate and coolant temperature. The performance of the design was evaluated by the effective partition constant, K, calculated from the volume and concentration of the solid and liquid phase. The system was also monitored by a data acquisition tool in order to see the temperature profile throughout the process. On completing the experimental work, it was found that higher flowrate resulted in a lower K, which translated into high efficiency. The efficiency is the highest at 1000 ml/min. It was also found that the process gives the highest efficiency at a coolant temperature of -6 °C.

Keywords: Freeze concentration, progressive freeze concentration, freeze wastewater treatment, ice crystals.

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64 Group Velocity Dispersion Management of Microstructure Optical Fibers

Authors: S. M. Abdur Razzak, M. A. Rashid, Y. Namihira, A. Sayeem

Abstract:

A simple microstructure optical fiber design based on an octagonal cladding structure is presented for simultaneously controlling dispersion and leakage properties. The finite difference method with anisotropic perfectly matched boundary layer is used to investigate the guiding properties. It is demonstrated that octagonal photonic crystal fibers with four rings can assume negative ultra-flattened dispersion of -19 + 0.23 ps/nm/km in the wavelength range of 1.275 μm to 1.68 μm, nearly zero ultra-flattened dispersion of 0 ± 0.40 ps/nm/km in a 1.38 to 1.64 μm, and low confinement losses less than 10-3 dB/km in the entire band of interest.

Keywords: Finite difference modeling, group velocity dispersion, optical fiber design, photonic crystal fiber.

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63 Engineering Topology of Photonic Systems for Sustainable Molecular Structure: Autopoiesis Systems

Authors: Moustafa Osman Mohammed

Abstract:

This paper introduces topological order in descried social systems starting with the original concept of autopoiesis by biologists and scientists, including the modification of general systems based on socialized medicine. Topological order is important in describing the physical systems for exploiting optical systems and improving photonic devices. The stats of topologically order have some interesting properties of topological degeneracy and fractional statistics that reveal the entanglement origin of topological order, etc. Topological ideas in photonics form exciting developments in solid-state materials, that being; insulating in the bulk, conducting electricity on their surface without dissipation or back-scattering, even in the presence of large impurities. A specific type of autopoiesis system is interrelated to the main categories amongst existing groups of the ecological phenomena interaction social and medical sciences. The hypothesis, nevertheless, has a nonlinear interaction with its natural environment ‘interactional cycle’ for exchange photon energy with molecules without changes in topology (i.e., chemical transformation into products do not propagate any changes or variation in the network topology of physical configuration). The engineering topology of a biosensor is based on the excitation boundary of surface electromagnetic waves in photonic band gap multilayer films. The device operation is similar to surface Plasmonic biosensors in which a photonic band gap film replaces metal film as the medium when surface electromagnetic waves are excited. The use of photonic band gap film offers sharper surface wave resonance leading to the potential of greatly enhanced sensitivity. So, the properties of the photonic band gap material are engineered to operate a sensor at any wavelength and conduct a surface wave resonance that ranges up to 470 nm. The wavelength is not generally accessible with surface Plasmon sensing. Lastly, the photonic band gap films have robust mechanical functions that offer new substrates for surface chemistry to understand the molecular design structure, and create sensing chips surface with different concentrations of DNA sequences in the solution to observe and track the surface mode resonance under the influences of processes that take place in the spectroscopic environment. These processes led to the development of several advanced analytical technologies, which are automated, real-time, reliable, reproducible and cost-effective. This results in faster and more accurate monitoring and detection of biomolecules on refractive index sensing, antibody–antigen reactions with a DNA or protein binding. Ultimately, the controversial aspect of molecular frictional properties is adjusted to each other in order to form unique spatial structure and dynamics of biological molecules for providing the environment mutual contribution in investigation of changes due the pathogenic archival architecture of cell clusters.

Keywords: autopoiesis, engineering topology, photonic system molecular structure, biosensor

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62 CMOS-Compatible Deposited Materials for Photonic Layers Integrated above Electronic Integrated Circuit

Authors: Shiyang Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong

Abstract:

Silicon photonics has generated an increasing interest in recent years mainly for optical communications optical interconnects in microelectronic circuits or bio-sensing applications. The development of elementary passive and active components (including detectors and modulators), which are mainly fabricated on the silicon on insulator platform for CMOS-compatible fabrication, has reached such a performance level that the integration challenge of silicon photonics with microelectronic circuits should be addressed. Since crystalline silicon can only be grown from another silicon crystal, making it impossible to deposit in this state, the optical devices are typically limited to a single layer. An alternative approach is to integrate a photonic layer above the CMOS chip using back-end CMOS fabrication process. In this paper, various materials, including silicon nitride, amorphous silicon, and polycrystalline silicon, for this purpose are addressed.

Keywords: Silicon photonics, CMOS, Integration.

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61 Synthesis and Characterization of New Thermotropic Liquid Crystals Derived from 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde

Authors: Sie-Tiong Ha, Teck-Leong Lee, Yip-Foo Win, Siew-Ling Lee, Guan-Yeow Yeap

Abstract:

A homologous series of aromatic esters, 4-nalkanoyloxybenzylidene- 4--bromoanilines, nABBA, consisting of two 1,4-disubstituted phenyl cores and a Schiff base central linkage was synthesized. All the members can be differed by the number of carbon atoms at terminal alkanoyloxy chain (CnH2n-1COO-, n = 2, 6, 18). The molecular structure of nABBA was confirmed with infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and electron-ionization mass (EI-MS) spectrometry. Mesomorphic properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy.

Keywords: Liquid Crystals, Schiff base, Smectic, Mesomorphic

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