Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: manufacture

121 Effects of Manufacture and Assembly Errors on the Output Error of Globoidal Cam Mechanisms

Authors: Shuting Ji, Yueming Zhang, Jing Zhao

Abstract:

The output error of the globoidal cam mechanism can be considered as a relevant indicator of mechanism performance, because it determines kinematic and dynamical behavior of mechanical transmission. Based on the differential geometry and the rigid body transformations, the mathematical model of surface geometry of the globoidal cam is established. Then we present the analytical expression of the output error (including the transmission error and the displacement error along the output axis) by considering different manufacture and assembly errors. The effects of the center distance error, the perpendicular error between input and output axes and the rotational angle error of the globoidal cam on the output error are systematically analyzed. A globoidal cam mechanism which is widely used in automatic tool changer of CNC machines is applied for illustration. Our results show that the perpendicular error and the rotational angle error have little effects on the transmission error but have great effects on the displacement error along the output axis. This study plays an important role in the design, manufacture and assembly of the globoidal cam mechanism.

Keywords: Globoidal cam mechanism, manufacture error, transmission error, automatic tool changer.

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120 Study of the Effect of Project Management on Manufacturing and Production Projects

Authors: S.B. Ahmadi, Z. Moradpour, Gh. Liaghat

Abstract:

In this article the accumulated results out of the effects and length of the manufacture and production projects in the university and research standard have been settled with the usefulness definition of the process of project management for the accessibility to the proportional pattern in the “time and action" stages. Studies show that many problems confronted by the researchers in these projects are connected to the non-profiting of: 1) autonomous timing for gathering the educational theme, 2) autonomous timing for planning and pattern, presenting before the construction, and 3) autonomous timing for manufacture and sample presentation from the output. The result of this study indicates the division of every manufacture and production projects into three smaller autonomous projects from its kind, budget and autonomous expenditure, shape and order of the stages for the management of these kinds of projects. In this case study real result are compared with theoretical results.

Keywords: Project management, Manufacturing, production.

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119 CAD/CAM Algorithms for 3D Woven Multilayer Textile Structures

Authors: Martin A. Smith, Xiaogang Chen

Abstract:

This paper proposes new algorithms for the computeraided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) of 3D woven multi-layer textile structures. Existing commercial CAD/CAM systems are often restricted to the design and manufacture of 2D weaves. Those CAD/CAM systems that do support the design and manufacture of 3D multi-layer weaves are often limited to manual editing of design paper grids on the computer display and weave retrieval from stored archives. This complex design activity is time-consuming, tedious and error-prone and requires considerable experience and skill of a technical weaver. Recent research reported in the literature has addressed some of the shortcomings of commercial 3D multi-layer weave CAD/CAM systems. However, earlier research results have shown the need for further work on weave specification, weave generation, yarn path editing and layer binding. Analysis of 3D multi-layer weaves in this research has led to the design and development of efficient and robust algorithms for the CAD/CAM of 3D woven multi-layer textile structures. The resulting algorithmically generated weave designs can be used as a basis for lifting plans that can be loaded onto looms equipped with electronic shedding mechanisms for the CAM of 3D woven multi-layer textile structures.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, Multi-layer, Textile, Weave.

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118 LCA/CFD Studies of Artisanal Brick Manufacture in Mexico

Authors: H. A. Lopez-Aguilar, E. A. Huerta-Reynoso, J. A. Gomez, J. A. Duarte-Moller, A. Perez-Hernandez

Abstract:

Environmental performance of artisanal brick manufacture was studied by Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis in Mexico. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the environmental impact during artisanal brick manufacture. LCA cradle-to-gate approach was complemented with CFD analysis to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The lifecycle includes the stages of extraction, baking and transportation to the gate. The functional unit of this study was the production of a single brick in Chihuahua, Mexico and the impact categories studied were carcinogens, respiratory organics and inorganics, climate change radiation, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity, acidification/ eutrophication, land use, mineral use and fossil fuels. Laboratory techniques for fuel characterization, gas measurements in situ, and AP42 emission factors were employed in order to calculate gas emissions for inventory data. The results revealed that the categories with greater impacts are ecotoxicity and carcinogens. The CFD analysis is helpful in predicting the thermal diffusion and contaminants from a defined source. LCA-CFD synergy complemented the EIA and allowed us to identify the problem of thermal efficiency within the system.

Keywords: LCA, CFD, brick, artisanal.

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117 Design and Manufacturing of a Propeller for Axial-Flow Fan

Authors: D. Almazo, M. Toledo, C. Rodríguez

Abstract:

This work presents a methodology for the design and manufacture of propellers oriented to the experimental verification of theoretical results based on the combined model. The design process begins by using algorithms in Matlab which output data contain the coordinates of the points that define the blade airfoils, in this case the NACA 6512 airfoil was used. The modeling for the propeller blade was made in NX7, through the imported files in Matlab and with the help of surfaces. Later, the hub and the clamps were also modeled. Finally, NX 7 also made possible to create post-processed files to the required machine. It is possible to find the block of numbers with G & M codes about the type of driver on the machine. The file extension is .ptp. These files made possible to manufacture the blade, and the hub of the propeller.

Keywords: Airfoil, CAM, manufacturing, mathematical algorithm, numeric control, propeller design, simulation.

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116 The Effects of Country of Manufacture and Country of Brand on Purchase Intention: The Moderating Role of Brand Experience

Authors: Natinee Thanajaro

Abstract:

In the past few decades, international research on the country of origin of products has garnered significant interest, particularly in investigating the effects of consumers’ evaluation and perception. As globalization and market competition rise, international firms are seeking ways to control their labour costs and minimise taxes. Many products are outsourced and manufactured in countries with cheap labour. Consequently, the proliferation of ‘bi-national’ products has increased, raising important questions related to consumers’ perception. Moreover, the rapid growth in emerging markets, especially in Asia, has made these countries attractive options for international brands. Therefore, studying the country of origin allows firms and researchers to understand how customers perceive such information regarding the country of manufacture and the country of the brand. This study aims to investigate the influence of the country of manufacture (COM) and country of brand (COB) on Thai consumers’ perception of the brand. In addition, it embraces a different perspective on brand experience as a moderating factor. A sample of 403 Thai respondents was collected through face-to-face survey questionnaires in central Bangkok. This research employs an experiment using a factorial design to test the hypotheses. SPSS statistics software was adopted to analyse and validate the reliability of the testing of the constructs and model hypotheses. The results of this research show that the respondents positively respond to the COB more than the COM, and brand experience plays a moderating role in this research. This research provides a significant contribution to the existing literature and managerial practicality by using multi-dimensional information on the country and analyses the relationships between these dimensions.

Keywords: Brand experience, country of brand, country of manufacture, purchase intention.

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115 Interoperable CNC System for Turning Operations

Authors: Yusri Yusof, Stephen Newman, Aydin Nassehi, Keith Case

Abstract:

The changing economic climate has made global manufacturing a growing reality over the last decade, forcing companies from east and west and all over the world to collaborate beyond geographic boundaries in the design, manufacture and assemble of products. The ISO10303 and ISO14649 Standards (STEP and STEP-NC) have been developed to introduce interoperability into manufacturing enterprises so as to meet the challenge of responding to production on demand. This paper describes and illustrates a STEP compliant CAD/CAPP/CAM System for the manufacture of rotational parts on CNC turning centers. The information models to support the proposed system together with the data models defined in the ISO14649 standard used to create the NC programs are also described. A structured view of a STEP compliant CAD/CAPP/CAM system framework supporting the next generation of intelligent CNC controllers for turn/mill component manufacture is provided. Finally a proposed computational environment for a STEP-NC compliant system for turning operations (SCSTO) is described. SCSTO is the experimental part of the research supported by the specification of information models and constructed using a structured methodology and object-oriented methods. SCSTO was developed to generate a Part 21 file based on machining features to support the interactive generation of process plans utilizing feature extraction. A case study component has been developed to prove the concept for using the milling and turning parts of ISO14649 to provide a turn-mill CAD/CAPP/CAM environment.

Keywords:

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114 Productive Design and Calculation of Intermittent Mechanisms with Radial Parallel Cams

Authors: Pavel Dostrašil, Petr Jirásko

Abstract:

The paper deals with the kinematics and automated calculation of intermittent mechanisms with radial cams. Currently, electronic cams are increasingly applied in the drives of working link mechanisms. Despite a huge advantage of electronic cams in their reprogrammability or instantaneous change of displacement diagrams, conventional cam mechanisms have an irreplaceable role in production and handling machines. With high frequency of working cycle periods, the dynamic load of the proper servomotor rotor increases and efficiency of electronic cams strongly decreases. Though conventional intermittent mechanisms with radial cams are representatives of fixed automation, they have distinct advantages in their high speed (high dynamics), positional accuracy and relatively easy manufacture. We try to remove the disadvantage of firm displacement diagram by reducing costs for simple design and automated calculation that leads reliably to high-quality and inexpensive manufacture.

Keywords: Cam mechanism, displacement diagram, intermittentmechanism, radial parallel cam

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113 Real Time Compensation of Machining Errors for Machine Tools NC based on Systematic Dispersion

Authors: M. Rahou, A. Cheikh, F. Sebaa

Abstract:

Manufacturing tolerancing is intended to determine the intermediate geometrical and dimensional states of the part during its manufacturing process. These manufacturing dimensions also serve to satisfy not only the functional requirements given in the definition drawing, but also the manufacturing constraints, for example geometrical defects of the machine, vibration and the wear of the cutting tool. In this paper, an experimental study on the influence of the wear of the cutting tool (systematic dispersions) is explored. This study was carried out on three stages .The first stage allows machining without elimination of dispersions (random, systematic) so the tolerances of manufacture according to total dispersions. In the second stage, the results of the first stage are filtered in such way to obtain the tolerances according to random dispersions. Finally, from the two previous stages, the systematic dispersions are generated. The objective of this study is to model by the least squares method the error of manufacture based on systematic dispersion. Finally, an approach of optimization of the manufacturing tolerances was developed for machining on a CNC machine tool

Keywords: Dispersions, Compensation, modeling, manufacturing Tolerance, machine tool.

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112 Advantages of Vibration in the GMAW Process for Improving the Quality and Mechanical Properties

Authors: C. A. C. Castro, D. C. Urashima, E. P. Silva, P. M. L.Silva

Abstract:

Since 1920, the industry has almost completely changed the rivets production techniques for the manufacture of permanent welding join production of structures and manufacture of other products. The welding arc is the process more widely used in industries. This is accomplished by the heat of an electric arc which melts the base metal while the molten metal droplets are transferred through the arc to the welding pool, protected from the atmosphere by a gas curtain. The GMAW (Gas metal arc welding) process is influenced by variables such as: current, polarity, welding speed, electrode: extension, position, moving direction; type of joint, welder's ability, among others. It is remarkable that the knowledge and control of these variables are essential for obtaining satisfactory quality welds, knowing that are interconnected so that changes in one of them requiring changes in one or more of the other to produce the desired results. The optimum values are affected by the type of base metal, the electrode composition, the welding position and the quality requirements. Thus, this paper proposes a new methodology, adding the variable vibration through a mechanism developed for GMAW welding, in order to improve the mechanical and metallurgical properties which does not affect the ability of the welder and enables repeatability of the welds made. For confirmation metallographic analysis and mechanical tests were made.

Keywords: HAZ, GMAW, vibration, welding.

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111 Mechanical Design and Theoretical Analysis of a Four Fingered Prosthetic Hand Incorporating Embedded SMA Bundle Actuators

Authors: Kevin T. O'Toole, Mark M. McGrath

Abstract:

The psychological and physical trauma associated with the loss of a human limb can severely impact on the quality of life of an amputee rendering even the most basic of tasks very difficult. A prosthetic device can be of great benefit to the amputee in the performance of everyday human tasks. This paper outlines a proposed mechanical design of a 12 degree-of-freedom SMA actuated artificial hand. It is proposed that the SMA wires be embedded intrinsically within the hand structure which will allow for significant flexibility for use either as a prosthetic hand solution, or as part of a complete lower arm prosthetic solution. A modular approach is taken in the design facilitating ease of manufacture and assembly, and more importantly, also allows the end user to easily replace SMA wires in the event of failure. A biomimetric approach has been taken during the design process meaning that the artificial hand should replicate that of a human hand as far as is possible with due regard to functional requirements. The proposed design has been exposed to appropriate loading through the use of finite element analysis (FEA) to ensure that it is structurally sound. Theoretical analysis of the mechanical framework was also carried out to establish the limits of the angular displacement and velocity of the finger tip as well finger tip force generation. A combination of various polymers and Titanium, which are suitably lightweight, are proposed for the manufacture of the design.

Keywords: Hand prosthesis, mechanical design, shape memory alloys, wire bundle actuation.

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110 Application of Powder Metallurgy Technologies for Gas Turbine Engine Wheel Production

Authors: Liubov Magerramova, Eugene Kratt, Pavel Presniakov

Abstract:

A detailed analysis has been performed for several schemes of Gas Turbine Wheels production based on additive and powder technologies including metal, ceramic, and stereolithography 3-D printing. During the process of development and debugging of gas turbine engine components, different versions of these components must be manufactured and tested. Cooled blades of the turbine are among of these components. They are usually produced by traditional casting methods. This method requires long and costly design and manufacture of casting molds. Moreover, traditional manufacturing methods limit the design possibilities of complex critical parts of engine, so capabilities of Powder Metallurgy Techniques (PMT) were analyzed to manufacture the turbine wheel with air-cooled blades. PMT dramatically reduce time needed for such production and allow creating new complex design solutions aimed at improving the technical characteristics of the engine: improving fuel efficiency and environmental performance, increasing reliability, and reducing weight. To accelerate and simplify the blades manufacturing process, several options based on additive technologies were used. The options were implemented in the form of various casting equipment for the manufacturing of blades. Methods of powder metallurgy were applied for connecting the blades with the disc. The optimal production scheme and a set of technologies for the manufacturing of blades and turbine wheel and other parts of the engine can be selected on the basis of the options considered.

Keywords: Additive technologies, gas turbine engine, powder technology, turbine wheel.

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109 Research on the Methodologies of the Opportune Innovation - A Case Study of BYD

Authors: Guangjie Liu

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to research on the methodologies of BYD to implement the opportune innovation. BYD is a Chinese company which has the IT component manufacture, the rechargeable battery and the automobile businesses. The paper deals with the innovation methodology as the same as the IPR management BYD implements in order to obtain the rapid growth of technology development with the reasonable cost of money and time.

Keywords: Opportune innovation, vertical integration, unpatenting integration, patenting.

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108 An Empirical Investigation on the Dynamics of Knowledge and IT Industries in Korea

Authors: Sang Ho Lee, Tae Heon Moon, Youn Taik Leem, Kwang Woo Nam

Abstract:

Knowledge and IT inputs to other industrial production have become more important as a key factor for the competitiveness of national and regional economies, such as knowledge economies in smart cities. Knowledge and IT industries lead the industrial innovation and technical (r)evolution through low cost, high efficiency in production, and by creating a new value chain and new production path chains, which is referred as knowledge and IT dynamics. This study aims to investigate the knowledge and IT dynamics in Korea, which are analyzed through the input-output model and structural path analysis. Twenty-eight industries were reclassified into seven categories; Agriculture and Mining, IT manufacture, Non-IT manufacture, Construction, IT-service, Knowledge service, Non-knowledge service to take close look at the knowledge and IT dynamics. Knowledge and IT dynamics were analyzed through the change of input output coefficient and multiplier indices in terms of technical innovation, as well as the changes of the structural paths of the knowledge and IT to other industries in terms of new production value creation from 1985 and 2010. The structural paths of knowledge and IT explain not only that IT foster the generation, circulation and use of knowledge through IT industries and IT-based service, but also that knowledge encourages IT use through creating, sharing and managing knowledge. As a result, this paper found the empirical investigation on the knowledge and IT dynamics of the Korean economy. Knowledge and IT has played an important role regarding the inter-industrial transactional input for production, as well as new industrial creation. The birth of the input-output production path has mostly originated from the knowledge and IT industries, while the death of the input-output production path took place in the traditional industries from 1985 and 2010. The Korean economy has been in transition to a knowledge economy in the Smart City.

Keywords: Knowledge and IT industries, input-output model, structural path analysis, dynamics of knowledge and IT, knowledge economy, knowledge city, smart city.

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107 Computer Aided Design Solution Based on Genetic Algorithms for FMEA and Control Plan in Automotive Industry

Authors: Nadia Belu, Laurentiu M. Ionescu, Agnieszka Misztal

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a computer-aided solution with Genetic Algorithms in order to reduce the drafting of reports: FMEA analysis and Control Plan required in the manufacture of the product launch and improved knowledge development teams for future projects. The solution allows to the design team to introduce data entry required to FMEA. The actual analysis is performed using Genetic Algorithms to find optimum between RPN risk factor and cost of production. A feature of Genetic Algorithms is that they are used as a means of finding solutions for multi criteria optimization problems. In our case, along with three specific FMEA risk factors is considered and reduce production cost. Analysis tool will generate final reports for all FMEA processes. The data obtained in FMEA reports are automatically integrated with other entered parameters in Control Plan. Implementation of the solution is in the form of an application running in an intranet on two servers: one containing analysis and plan generation engine and the other containing the database where the initial parameters and results are stored. The results can then be used as starting solutions in the synthesis of other projects. The solution was applied to welding processes, laser cutting and bending to manufacture chassis for buses. Advantages of the solution are efficient elaboration of documents in the current project by automatically generating reports FMEA and Control Plan using multiple criteria optimization of production and build a solid knowledge base for future projects. The solution which we propose is a cheap alternative to other solutions on the market using Open Source tools in implementation.

Keywords: Automotive industry, control plan, FMEA.

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106 Design and Development of Constant Stress Composite Cantilever Beam

Authors: Vinod B. Suryawanshi, Ajit D. Kelkar

Abstract:

Composite materials, due to their unique properties such as high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and impact resistance have huge potential as structural materials in automotive, construction and transportation applications. However, these properties often come at higher cost owing to complex design methods, difficult manufacturing processes and raw material cost. Traditionally, tapered laminated composite structures are manufactured using autoclave manufacturing process by ply drop off technique. Autoclave manufacturing though very powerful suffers from high capital investment and higher energy consumption. As per the current trends in composite manufacturing, Out of Autoclave (OoA) processes are looked as emerging technologies for manufacturing the structural composite components for aerospace and defense applications. However, there is a need for improvement among these processes to make them reliable and consistent. In this paper, feasibility of using out of autoclave process to manufacture the variable thickness cantilever beam is discussed. The minimum weight design for the composite beam is obtained using constant stress beam concept by tailoring the thickness of the beam. Ply drop off techniques was used to fabricate the variable thickness beam from glass/epoxy prepregs. Experiments were conducted to measure bending stresses along the span of the cantilever beam at different intervals by applying the concentrated load at the free end. Experimental results showed that the stresses in the bean at different intervals were constant. This proves the ability of OoA process to manufacture the constant stress beam. Finite element model for the constant stress beam was developed using commercial finite element simulation software. It was observed that the simulation results agreed very well with the experimental results and thus validated design and manufacturing approach used.

Keywords: Beams, Composites, Constant Stress, Structures.

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105 Effect of the Workpiece Position on the Manufacturing Tolerances

Authors: M. Rahou, F. Sebaa, A. Cheikh

Abstract:

Manufacturing tolerancing is intended to determine the intermediate geometrical and dimensional states of the part during its manufacturing process. These manufacturing dimensions also serve to satisfy not only the functional requirements given in the definition drawing, but also the manufacturing constraints, for example geometrical defects of the machine, vibration and the wear of the cutting tool. The choice of positioning has an important influence on the cost and quality of manufacture. To avoid this problem, a two-step approach has been developed. The first step is dedicated to the determination of the optimum position. As for the second step, a study was carried out for the tightening effect on the tolerance interval.

Keywords: Dispersion, tolerance, manufacturing, position.

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104 Wood Ashes from Electrostatic Filter as a Replacement for the Fly Ashes in Concrete

Authors: Piotr-Robert Lazik, Harald Garrecht

Abstract:

Many concrete technologists are looking for a solution to replace Fly Ashes that would be unavailable in a few years as an element that occurs as a major component of many types of concrete. The importance of such component is clear - it saves cement and reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that occurs during cement production. Wood Ashes from electrostatic filter can be used as a valuable substitute in concrete. The laboratory investigations showed that the wood ash concrete had a compressive strength comparable to coal fly ash concrete. These results indicate that wood ash can be used to manufacture normal concrete.

Keywords: Wood ashes, fly ashes, electric filter, replacement, concrete technology.

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103 Regulation, Co-Regulation and Self-Regulation of Civil Unmanned Aircrafts in Europe

Authors: M. de Miguel Molina, V. Santamarina Campos, M. V. Segarra Oña, B. de Miguel Molina

Abstract:

Safety and security concerns play a key role during the design of civil UAs (aircraft controlled by a pilot who is not onboard it) by the producers and the offer of different services by the operators. At present, European countries have fragmented regulations about the manufacture and use of civil drones, therefore the European institutions are trying to approach all these regulations into a common one. In this sense, not only law but also ethics can give guidelines to the industry in order to obtain better reports from their clients. With our results, we would like to give advice to the European industry, as well as give new insights to the academia and policymakers.

Keywords: Ethics, regulation, safety, security.

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102 Modeling and Implementation of an Oceanic- Robot Glider

Authors: C. Clements, M. Hasenohr, A. Anvar

Abstract:

A glider is in essence an unpowered vehicle and in this project we designed and built an oceanic glider, designed to operate underwater. This Glider was designed to collect ocean data such as temperature, pressure and (in future measures physical dimensions of the operating environment) and output this data to an external source. Development of the Oceanic Glider required research into various actuation systems that control buoyancy, pitch and yaw and the dynamics of these systems. It also involved the design and manufacture of the Glider and the design and implementation of a controller that enabled the Glider to navigate and move in an appropriate manner.

Keywords: Ocean Glider, Robot, Automation, Command, Control, Navigation.

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101 Analysis and Flight Test for Small Inflatable Wing Design

Authors: Zhang Jun-Tao, Hou Zhong-xi, Guo Zheng, Chen Li-li

Abstract:

This article discusses stress analysis and the shape characteristics of the inflatable wing, and then introduces the design method of inflatable wing, in order to accurately approximate a standard airfoil. It specifically analyses the aerodynamic characteristics of the inflatable wing with the method of CFD, along with comparing to standard airfoil, afterwards we carries out the manufacture of inflatable wing and the flight test.

Keywords: Inflatable wing, Stress analysis, Aerodynamic characteristics, Flight test

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100 Manufacture of Electroless Nickel/YSZ Composite Coatings

Authors: N. Bahiyah Baba, W. Waugh, A.M. Davidson

Abstract:

The paper discusses optimising work on a method of processing ceramic / metal composite coatings for various applications and is based on preliminary work on processing anodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The composite coating is manufactured by the electroless co-deposition of nickel and yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) simultaneously on to a ceramic substrate. The effect on coating characteristics of substrate surface treatments and electroless nickel bath parameters such as pH and agitation methods are also investigated. Characterisation of the resulting deposit by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) is also discussed.

Keywords: Electroless deposition, nickel, YSZ, composite

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99 The Effect on Rolling Mill of Waviness in Hot Rolled Steel

Authors: Sunthorn S., Kittiphat R.

Abstract:

The edge waviness in hot rolled steel is a common defect. Variables that affect such defect include raw material and machine. These variables are necessary to consider to understand such defect. This research studied the defect of edge waviness for SS 400 of metal sheet manufacture. Defect of metal sheets were divided into two groups. The specimens were investigated on chemical composition and mechanical properties to find the difference. The results of investigation showed that the difference was not significant. Therefore the roll mill machine should be used to adjust to support another location on a roller to avoide edge waviness.

Keywords: Edge waviness, Hot rolling steel, Metal sheet defect, SS 400, Roll leveler.

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98 Bio-Electrochemical Process Coupled with MnO2 Nanowires for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: A. Giwa, S. M. Jung, W. Fang, J. Kong, S. W. Hasan

Abstract:

MnO2 nanowires were developed as filtration media for wastewater treatment that uniquely combines several advantages. The resulting material demonstrated strong capability to remove the pollution of heavy metal ions and organic contents in water. In addition, the manufacture process of such material is practical and economical. In this work, MnO2 nanowires were integrated with the state-of-art bio-electrochemical system for wastewater treatment, to overcome problems currently encountered with organic, inorganic, heavy metal, and microbe removal, and to minimize the unit footprint (land/space occupation) at low cost. Results showed that coupling the bio-electrochemical with MnO2 resulted in very encouraging results with higher removal efficiencies of such pollutants.

Keywords: Bio-electrochemical, nanowires, wastewater, treatment.

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97 Opto-Mechanical Characterization of Aspheric Lenses from the Hybrid Method

Authors: Aliouane Toufik, Hamdi Amine, Bouzid Djamel

Abstract:

Aspheric optical components are an alternative to the use of conventional lenses in the implementation of imaging systems for the visible range. Spherical lenses are capable of producing aberrations. Therefore, they are not able to focus all the light into a single point. Instead, aspherical lenses correct aberrations and provide better resolution even with compact lenses incorporating a small number of lenses.

Metrology of these components is very difficult especially when the resolution requirements increase and insufficient or complexity of conventional tools requires the development of specific approaches to characterization.

This work is part of the problem existed because the objectives are the study and comparison of different methods used to measure surface rays hybrid aspherical lenses.

Keywords: Aspherical surface, Manufacture of lenses, precision molding, radius of curvature, roughness.

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96 Properties of Bricks Produced With Recycled Fine Aggregate

Authors: S. Ismail, Z. Yaacob

Abstract:

The main aim of this research is to study the possible use of recycled fine aggregate made from waste rubble wall to substitute partially for the natural sand used in the production of cement and sand bricks. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand; they were then replaced by recycled fine aggregate at 25, 50, 75, and 100% by weight of natural sand. A series of tests was carried out to study the effect of using recycled aggregate on the physical and mechanical properties of bricks, such as density, drying shrinkage, water absorption characteristic, compressive and flexural strength. Test results indicate that it is possible to manufacture bricks containing recycled fine aggregate with good characteristics that are similar in physical and mechanical properties to those of bricks with natural aggregate, provided that the percentage of recycled fine aggregates is limited up to 50-75%.

Keywords: Bricks, cement, recycled aggregate, sand

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95 Analyzing and Formulation of Product Lead Time

Authors: B. Fahimnia, L.H.S. Luong, B. Motevallian, R. M. Marian, M. M. Esmaeil

Abstract:

Product Lead Time (PLT) is the period of time from receiving a customer's order to delivering the final product. PLT is an indicator of the manufacturing controllability, efficiency and performance. Due to the explosion in the rate of technological innovations and the rapid changes in the nature of manufacturing processes, manufacturing firms can bring the new products to market quicker only if they can reduce their PLT and speed up the rate at which they can design, plan, control, and manufacture. Although there is a substantial body of research on manufacturing relating to cost and quality issues, there is no much specific research conducted in relation to the formulation of PLT, despite its significance and importance. This paper analyzes and formulates PLT which can be used as a guideline for achieving the shorter PLT. Further more this paper identifies the causes of delay and factors that contributes to the increased product lead-time.

Keywords: Manufacturing Control, Manufacturing Lead Time, Manufacturing Planning, Product Design, and Product Lead Time.

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94 Soil-Cement Floor Produced with Alum Water Treatment Residues

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Julio Lima, Natalia Vieira, Antonio Albuquerque, Isabela Santos

Abstract:

From a concern regarding the environmental impacts caused by the disposal of residues generated in Water Treatment Plants (WTP's), alternatives ways have been studied to use these residues as raw material for manufacture of building materials, avoiding their discharge on water streams, disposal on sanitary landfills or incineration. This paper aims to present the results of a research work, which is using WTR for replacing the soil content in the manufacturing of soil-cement floor with proportions of 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The samples tests showed a reduction mechanical strength in so far as has increased the amount of waste. The water absorption was below the maximum of 6% required by the standard. The application of WTR contributes to the reduction of the environmental damage in the water treatment industry.

Keywords: Residue, soil-cement floor, sustainable, WTP.

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93 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Cement Manufactured with Artificial Pozzolan (Waste Brick)

Authors: A. Naceri, M. Chikouche Hamina, P. Grosseau

Abstract:

The effect of artificial pozzolan (waste brick) on the physico-chemical properties of cement manufactured was investigated. The waste brick is generated by the manufacture of bricks. It was used in the proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass of cement to study its effect on the physico-chemical properties of cement incorporating artificial pozzolan. The physicochemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state (chemical composition, specific weight, fineness, consistency of the cement paste and setting times) were studied. The experimental results obtained show that the quantity of pozzolanic admixture (waste brick) of cement manufactured is the principal parameter who influences on the variation of the physico-chemical properties of the cement tested.

Keywords: Artificial pozzolan, waste brick, cement, physicochemicalcharacteristics.

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92 Laser Welded Ni-Cr Dental Alloys Inspection

Authors: Porojan S., Sandu L., Topală F.

Abstract:

Minor problems arising from optimizations by welding of fixed prostheses frameworks can be identified by macroscopic and microscopic visual inspection. The purpose of this study was to highlight the visible discontinuities present in the laser welds of dental Ni-Cr alloys. Ni-Cr base metal alloys designated for fixed prostheses manufacture were selected for the experiments. Using cast plates, preliminary tests were conducted by laser welding. Macroscopic visual inspection was done carefully to assess the defects of the welding rib. Electron microscopy images allowed visualization of small discontinuities, which escapes visual inspection. Making comparison to Ni-Cr alloys taken in the experiment and laser welded, after visual analysis, the best welds appear for Heraenium NA alloy.

Keywords: macroscopic visual inspection, electron microscopyimages, Ni-Cr dental alloys, laser welding.

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