The Effects of Country of Manufacture and Country of Brand on Purchase Intention: The Moderating Role of Brand Experience
Authors: Natinee Thanajaro
In the past few decades, international research on the country of origin of products has garnered significant interest, particularly in investigating the effects of consumers’ evaluation and perception. As globalization and market competition rise, international firms are seeking ways to control their labour costs and minimise taxes. Many products are outsourced and manufactured in countries with cheap labour. Consequently, the proliferation of ‘bi-national’ products has increased, raising important questions related to consumers’ perception. Moreover, the rapid growth in emerging markets, especially in Asia, has made these countries attractive options for international brands. Therefore, studying the country of origin allows firms and researchers to understand how customers perceive such information regarding the country of manufacture and the country of the brand. This study aims to investigate the influence of the country of manufacture (COM) and country of brand (COB) on Thai consumers’ perception of the brand. In addition, it embraces a different perspective on brand experience as a moderating factor. A sample of 403 Thai respondents was collected through face-to-face survey questionnaires in central Bangkok. This research employs an experiment using a factorial design to test the hypotheses. SPSS statistics software was adopted to analyse and validate the reliability of the testing of the constructs and model hypotheses. The results of this research show that the respondents positively respond to the COB more than the COM, and brand experience plays a moderating role in this research. This research provides a significant contribution to the existing literature and managerial practicality by using multi-dimensional information on the country and analyses the relationships between these dimensions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 235
 Ahmed, S.A. and d'Astous, A. (2004). ‘Perceptions of countries as producers of consumer goods: a t-shirt study in China’, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Vol. 8(2), pp. 187- 200.
 Ahmed, S.A., d’Astous, A. and Peterson, H.B. (2011). ‘Product-country fit in the Canadian Context’. Journal of Consumer Marketing. Vol. 28(4), pp. 300-309.
 Ahmed, Z.U., Johnson, J.P., Ling, C.P., Fang, T.W. and Hui, A.K. (2002). ‘Country- of-origin and brand effects on consumers' evaluations of cruise lines’. International Marketing Review, Vol. 19(2/3), pp.279-303.
 Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, Personality and Behavior. 2nd ed. Berkshire: Open University Press
 Al-Ekam, J.M.E., Mat, N.K.N., Salleh, S.M., Baharom, N.B., The, T.R.B.T., Noh, N.A.B. and Hussain, N.E.B. (2012). The Influence of Trust, Advertising, Family on Intention and Actual Purchase of Local Brand in Yemen. American Journal of Economics, Special Issue, pp.64-68.
 Brakus, J.J. (2001). A theory of consumer experience. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (10): 3478.
 Brakus, J.J, Schmitt, B.H. and Zarantonello, L. (2009). ‘Brand Experience: What Is It? How Is It Measured? Does It Affect Loyalty?’. Journal of Marketing Vol. 73.pp. 52–68.
 D’Astous, A. and Ahmed, S.A. (1999). The importance of country images in the formation of consumer product perceptions. International Marketing Review. 16(2), pp. 108-125.
 Eng, T., Ozdemir, S. and Michelson, G. (2016). ‘Brand origin and country of production congruity: Evidence from the UK and China’. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 69, pp. 5703-5711.
 Esch, F.R., Langner, T., Schmitt, B., Geus, P. (2006) ‘Are brands forever? How knowledge and relationships affect current and future purchases’. Jounal of Product Brand Management. Vol.15(2), Pp. 98–105.
 Fetscherin, M. and Toncar, M. (2010). ‘The effects of the country of brand and the country of manufacturing of automobiles: An experimental study of consumers' brand personality perceptions’. International Marketing Review, Vol. 27 Iss: 2, pp.164 – 178.
 Forsythe, S., Kim, J. O. and Petee, T. (1999). ‘Product cue usage in two Asian markets: Across cross-cultural comparison’. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Vol.16, pp.275-292.
 Gentile, C., Spiller, N. and Noci, G. (2007). How to Sustain the Customer Experience: An Overview of Experience Components that Co-create Value With the Customer. European Management Journal. Vol. 25. No. 5, pp. 395-410.
 Hamzaoui, L. and Merunka D. (2006) ‘Consumers' Product Evaluations in Emerging Markets Does Country of Design, Country of Manufacture, or Brand Image Matter?’ International Marketing Review, 24(4), pp.409–426.
 Hamzaoui-Essoussi, L., Merunka, D. and Bartikowski, B. (2011). “Brand Origin and Country of Manufacture Influences on Brand Equity and The Moderating Role of Brand Typicality”. Journal of Business Research, 64(9), pp.973-978.
 Hui, M.K. and Zhou, L. (2002). Linking Product Evaluations and Purchase Intention for Country-of-Origin Effects, Journal of Global Marketing, 15(3-4), pp.95-116.
 Kabadayi, S. and Lerman, D. (2011). Made in China but sold in at FAO Schwarz: country-of-origin effect and trusting beliefs. International Marketing Review. 28(1), pp. 102-126
 Kaynak, E., Kucukemiroglu, O. and Hyder, A.S. (2000). Consumers’ country-of-origin (COO) perceptions of imported products in homogenous less-developed country. European Journal of Marketing. 34(9/10), pp. 1221-1241.
 Khan, H. and Bamber, D. (2008). ‘Country of Origin Effects, Brand Image, and Social Status in an Emerging Market’. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Vol. 18 (5), pp.580–588.
 Keller, K. Understanding brands, branding and brand equity. Journal of Direct Data Digital Marketing Practice, Vol. 5, 7–20.
 Laroche, M., Papadopoulos, N., Heslop, L. A. and Mourali, M. (2005). ‘The influence of country image structure on consumer evaluations of foreign product’. International Marketing Review. Vol. 22(1), pp. 96-115.
 Lee, D. and Ganesh, G. (1999). Effects of partitioned country image in the context of brand image and familiarity, International Marketing Review, 16(1), pp. 18 –41.
 Lee, H. M., Chen, T., & Guy, B. S. (2014). ‘How the country-of origin image and brand name redeployment strategies affect acquirers’ brand equity after a merger and acquisition’, Journal of Global Marketing, 27(3), 191–206.
 Mostafa, R.H.A. (2015). “The impact of country of origin and country of manufacture of a brand on overall brand equity”, International Journal of Marketing Studies. 7(2), pp. 70-83.
 Nagashima, A. (1977), “A comparative ‘made in’ product image survey among Japanese businessmen”, Journal of Marketing, 41(3), pp. 95-100.
 Papadopoulos, N. and Heslop, L. A., (2014). Product-Country Images: Imapact and Role in Interantional Marketing. New York: Routledge.
 Phau, I. and Prendergast, G. (2000). ‘Conceptualizing the country of origin of brand’, Journal of Marketing Communications, Vol. 6(3), pp.159-170.
 Roth, K. P. and Diamantopolous, (2009). Advancing the country image construct. Journal of Business research, 62, pp.726-740.
 Schmitt, B. (1999) Experiential Marketing, Journal of Marketing Management, 15:1-3, 53-67
 Spears, N. and Singh, S.N. (2004) Measuring Attitude toward the Brand and Purchase Intentions, Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 26(2), pp.53-66.
 Witek-Hajduk, M. and Grudecka, M. (2019). ‘Country of origin from a management perspective of emerging market companies’. International Journal of Management and Economics 2019, Vol. 55(3) pp.212–229.