LCA/CFD Studies of Artisanal Brick Manufacture in Mexico
Environmental performance of artisanal brick manufacture was studied by Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis in Mexico. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the environmental impact during artisanal brick manufacture. LCA cradle-to-gate approach was complemented with CFD analysis to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The lifecycle includes the stages of extraction, baking and transportation to the gate. The functional unit of this study was the production of a single brick in Chihuahua, Mexico and the impact categories studied were carcinogens, respiratory organics and inorganics, climate change radiation, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity, acidification/ eutrophication, land use, mineral use and fossil fuels. Laboratory techniques for fuel characterization, gas measurements in situ, and AP42 emission factors were employed in order to calculate gas emissions for inventory data. The results revealed that the categories with greater impacts are ecotoxicity and carcinogens. The CFD analysis is helpful in predicting the thermal diffusion and contaminants from a defined source. LCA-CFD synergy complemented the EIA and allowed us to identify the problem of thermal efficiency within the system.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1123939Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1310
 Klemeš, J.J., Varbanov, P.S., Huisingh D. (2012). Recent cleaner production advances in process monitoring and optimisation. J. Clean. Prod., 34, 1-8.
 Bhander, G. S., Hauschild, M., McAloone, T. (2003). Implementing life cycle assessment in product development. Environ. Prog., 22(4), 255-267.
 Socolof, M.L., Geibig, J.R. (2006). Evaluating human and ecological impacts of a product life cycle: The complementary roles of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment. Hum. Ecol. Risk. Assess., 12, 510-527.
 Tukker, A. (2000). Life cycle assessment as a tool in environmental impact assessment. Environ. Impact Asses. Rev., 20, 435-456.
 Grant, A., Ries, R. (2013). Impact of building service life models on life cycle assessment. Build. Res. Inf., 41, 168-186.
 Buyle, M., Braet, J., Audenaert, A. (2013). Life cycle assessment in the construction sector: A review. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 26, 379-388.
 Castell A., Menoufi K., de Gracia A., Rincón L., Boer D., Cabeza L.F. (2013). Life Cycle Assessment of alveolar brick construction system incorporating phase change materials (PCMs). Appl. Energy, 101, 600-608.
 Zhang, X., Shen, L., Zhang, L. (2013). Life cycle assessment of the air emissions during building construction process: A case study in Hong Kong. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 17, 160-169.
 Kim, R.H., Tae, S.H., Yang, K.H., Kim, T.H., Roh, S. J. (2015). Analysis of lifecycle CO2 reduction performance for long‐life apartment house. Environ. Prog. Sustain. Energy, 34(2), 555-566.
 Simion, I.M., Ghinea, C., Maxineasa, S.G., Taranu, N., Bonoli, A., Gavrilescu, M. (2013). Ecological footprint applied in the assessment of construction and demolition waste integrated management, Environ. Eng. Manag. J., 12, 779-788.
 National Institute of Statistics and Geography. (2011). Annual Survey of Manufacturing Industry, Online at: http://www.inegi.org.mx/est/ contenidos/espanol/proyectos/metadatos/encuestas/eia_222.asp?s=est&c=10584.
 Rincón, E., Wellens, A. (2011). Cálculo de indicadores de ecoeficiencia para dos empresas ladrilleras mexicanas (Calculation of eco-efficiency indicators for two Mexican brick companies). Rev. Int. Contam. Ambie., 27, 333-345.
 Barran-Berdon, A.L., Gonzalez, G., Aboytes, G.P., Rodea-Palomares, I., Carrillo-Chavez, A., Gomez-Ruiz, H., Cuéllar, B.V. (2012). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from a brick manufacturing location in central México. Rev. Int. Contam. Ambie., 28, 277-288.
 Martínez-González G.M., Jiménez-Islas H. Experimental study of the firing of red clay bricks using liquefied petroleum gas. J. Sci. Ind. Res. India. 73 (10), 661-666, 2014.
 Gupta S., Narayan R. Brick kiln industry in long-term impacts biomass and diversity structure of plant communities. Curr. Sci. India. 99 (1), 72-79, 2010.
 Khan H.R., Rahman K., Rouf A.A., Sattar G.S., Oki Y., Adachi T. Assessment of degradation of agricultural soils arising from brick burning in selected soil profiles. Int. J. of Environ. Sci. Tech. 4 (4), 471-480, 2007.
 Rajarathnam, U., Athalye, V., Ragavan, S., Maithel, S., Lalchandani, D., Kumar, S., Bond, T. (2014). Assessment of air pollutant emissions from brick kilns. Atmos. Environ., 98, 549-553.
 Chávez, M., Hajra, B., Stathopoulos, T., Bahloul, A. (2011). Near-field pollutant dispersion in the built environment by CFD and wind tunnel simulations. J. Wind. Eng. Ind. Aerod., 99, 330-339.
 Van Hooff, T., Blocken, B. (2013). CFD evaluation of natural ventilation of indoor environments by the concentration decay method: CO2 gas dispersion from a semi-enclosed stadium. Build. Environ., 61, 1-17.
 Gousseau, P., Blocken, B., Stathopoulos, T., Van Heijst, G. (2011. CFD simulation of near-field pollutant dispersion on a high-resolution grid: a case study by LES and RANS for a building group in downtown Montreal. Atmos. Environ., 45, 428-438.
 Hang, J., Li, Y., Sandberg, M., Buccolieri, R., Di Sabatino S. (2012). The influence of building height variability on pollutant dispersion and pedestrian ventilation in idealized high-rise urban areas. Build. Environ., 56, 346-360.
 Tominaga, Y., Stathopoulos T. (2010). Numerical simulation of dispersion around an isolated cubic building: model evaluation of RANS and LES. Build. Environ., 45, 2231-2239.
 Gallagher, J., Gill, L.W., McNabola, A. (2012). Numerical modelling of the passive control of air pollution in asymmetrical urban street canyons using refined mesh discretization schemes. Build. Environ., 56, 232-240.
 Huimin, L., Xuezhi, Z., Haiping, C., Shunxiang, H., Feng, L., Gang, W. (2012). Numerical Simulation and Field Experiment Validation of Atmospheric Pollution Chemical Accidents Based on Canopy Model. Procedia Environ. Sci., 12, 30-37.
 Li, J., Zhang, B., Liu, M., Wang, Y. (2009). Numerical simulation of the large-scale malignant environmental pollution incident. Process Saf. Environ., 87, 232-244.
 Qingchun, M., Laibin, Z. (2011). CFD simulation study on gas dispersion for risk assessment: A case study of sour gas well blowout. Safety Sci., 49, 1289-1295.
 Bhat, A.S., Kumar, A., Akbar-Khanjadeh, F., Ames, A. (2011). Application of computational fluid dynamics to dispersion of particulate matter emitted during the injection of biosolids on a farm field. Environ. Prog. Sustain. Energy,, 30(4), 522-526.
 ISO I. (2006). 14040, Environmental management—life cycle assessment—principles and framework.
 ISO I. (2006). 14044, Environmental management—life cycle assessment— Requirements and guidelines.
 Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Stationary Internal Combustion Sources. Technology Transfer Network Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emissions Factors, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., Online at: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch01/index.html.
 Koroneos, C., Dompros, A. (2007). Environmental assessment of brick production in Greece. Building and Environment, 42, 2114-2123.
 Almeida, M. A., Dias, A. C., Demertzi, M., Arroja, L.(2015). Contribution to the development of product category rules for ceramic bricks. Journal of Cleaner Production, 92, 206-215.
 Kua H. W., Kamath S. (2014). An attributional and consecuential life cycle assessment of substituting concrete with bricks. Journal of Cleaner Production, 81,190-200.
 Kumbhar, S., Kulkami, N., Rao, A. B., Rao, B. (2014). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Traditional Bricks in Western Maharashtra, India. Energy Procedia, 54, 260-269.