Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 178

Search results for: link utilization

178 Integrated Subset Split for Balancing Network Utilization and Quality of Routing

Authors: S. V. Kasmir Raja, P. Herbert Raj

Abstract:

The overlay approach has been widely used by many service providers for Traffic Engineering (TE) in large Internet backbones. In the overlay approach, logical connections are set up between edge nodes to form a full mesh virtual network on top of the physical topology. IP routing is then run over the virtual network. Traffic engineering objectives are achieved through carefully routing logical connections over the physical links. Although the overlay approach has been implemented in many operational networks, it has a number of well-known scaling issues. This paper proposes a new approach to achieve traffic engineering without full-mesh overlaying with the help of integrated approach and equal subset split method. Traffic engineering needs to determine the optimal routing of traffic over the existing network infrastructure by efficiently allocating resource in order to optimize traffic performance on an IP network. Even though constraint-based routing [1] of Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is developed to address this need, since it is not widely tested or debugged, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) resort to TE methods under Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), which is the most commonly used intra-domain routing protocol. Determining OSPF link weights for optimal network performance is an NP-hard problem. As it is not possible to solve this problem, we present a subset split method to improve the efficiency and performance by minimizing the maximum link utilization in the network via a small number of link weight modifications. The results of this method are compared against results of MPLS architecture [9] and other heuristic methods.

Keywords: Constraint based routing, Link Utilization, Subsetsplit method and Traffic Engineering.

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177 Modified Energy and Link Failure Recovery Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: M. Jayekumar, V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network finds role in environmental monitoring, industrial applications, surveillance applications, health monitoring and other supervisory applications. Sensing devices form the basic operational unit of the network that is self-battery powered with limited life time. Sensor node spends its limited energy for transmission, reception, routing and sensing information. Frequent energy utilization for the above mentioned process leads to network lifetime degradation. To enhance energy efficiency and network lifetime, we propose a modified energy optimization and node recovery post failure method, Energy-Link Failure Recovery Routing (E-LFRR) algorithm. In our E-LFRR algorithm, two phases namely, Monitored Transmission phase and Replaced Transmission phase are devised to combat worst case link failure conditions. In Monitored Transmission phase, the Actuator Node monitors and identifies suitable nodes for shortest path transmission. The Replaced Transmission phase dispatches the energy draining node at early stage from the active link and replaces it with the new node that has sufficient energy. Simulation results illustrate that this combined methodology reduces overhead, energy consumption, delay and maintains considerable amount of alive nodes thereby enhancing the network performance.

Keywords: Actuator node, energy efficient routing, energy hole, link failure recovery, link utilization, wireless sensor network.

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176 Appraisal on Link Lifetime Prediction Using Geographical Information

Authors: C. Nallusamy, A. Sabari, K. Suganya

Abstract:

Geographical routing protocol requires node physical location information to make forwarding decision. Geographical routing uses location service or position service to obtain the position of a node. The geographical information is a geographic coordinates or can be obtained through reference points on some fixed coordinate system. Link can be formed between two nodes. Link lifetime plays a crucial role in MANET. Link lifetime represent how long the link is stable without any failure between the nodes. Link failure may occur due to mobility and because of link failure energy of nodes can be drained. Thus this paper proposes survey about link lifetime prediction using geographical information.

Keywords: MANET, Geographical routing, Link lifetime, Link stability.

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175 Study on Radio Link Availability in Millimeter Wave Range

Authors: Boncho G. Bonev, Kliment N. Angelov, Emil S. Altimirski

Abstract:

In this paper, the link quality in SHF and EHF ranges are studied. In order to achieve high data rate higher frequencies must be used – centimeter waves (SHF), millimeter waves (EHF) or optical range. However, there are significant problem when a radio link work in that diapason – rain attenuation and attenuation in earth-s atmosphere. Based on statistical rain rates data for Bulgaria, the link availability can be determined, depending on the working frequency, the path length and the Power Budget of the link. For the calculations of rain attenuation and atmosphere-s attenuation the ITU recommendations are used.

Keywords: rain attenuation, atmospheric gaseous attenuation, link availability, link breaking probability

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174 Trust and Reputation Mechanism with Path Optimization in Multipath Routing

Authors: Ramya Dorai, M. Rajaram

Abstract:

A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that communicate with each other with wireless links and without pre-existing communication infrastructure. Routing is an important issue which impacts network performance. As MANETs lack central administration and prior organization, their security concerns are different from those of conventional networks. Wireless links make MANETs susceptible to attacks. This study proposes a new trust mechanism to mitigate wormhole attack in MANETs. Different optimization techniques find available optimal path from source to destination. This study extends trust and reputation to an improved link quality and channel utilization based Adhoc Ondemand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV). Differential Evolution (DE) is used for optimization.

Keywords: Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), Adhoc Ondemand Multi-Path Distance Vector (AOMDV), Trust and Reputation, Differential Evolution (DE), Link Quality, Channel Utilization.

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173 Research of Dynamic Location Referencing Method Based On Intersection and Link Partition

Authors: Lv Wei-feng, Dai Xi, Zhu Tong-yu

Abstract:

Dynamic location referencing method is an important technology to shield map differences. These method references objects of the road network by utilizing condensed selection of its real-world geographic properties stored in a digital map database, which overcomes the defections existing in pre-coded location referencing methods. The high attributes completeness requirements and complicated reference point selection algorithm are the main problems of recent researches. Therefore, a dynamic location referencing algorithm combining intersection points selected at the extremities compulsively and road link points selected according to link partition principle was proposed. An experimental system based on this theory was implemented. The tests using Beijing digital map database showed satisfied results and thus verified the feasibility and practicability of this method.

Keywords: Dynamic location referencing, inter-sectionreferencing, road link partition, road link point referencing.

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172 Design of Ka-Band Satellite Links in Indonesia

Authors: Zulfajri Basri Hasanuddin

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for broadband services in Indonesia. Therefore, the answer is the use of Ka-Band which has some advantages such as wider bandwidth, the higher transmission speeds, and smaller size of antenna in the ground. However, rain attenuation is the primary factor in the degradation of signal at the Kaband. In this paper, the author will determine whether the Ka-band frequency can be implemented in Indonesia which has high intensity of rainfall.

Keywords: Ka-Band, Link Budget, Link Availability, BER, Eb/No, C/N.

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171 DC Link Floating for Grid Connected PV Converters

Authors: Attila Balogh, Eszter Varga, István Varjasi

Abstract:

Nowadays there are several grid connected converter in the grid system. These grid connected converters are generally the converters of renewable energy sources, industrial four quadrant drives and other converters with DC link. These converters are connected to the grid through a three phase bridge. The standards prescribe the maximal harmonic emission which could be easily limited with high switching frequency. The increased switching losses can be reduced to the half with the utilization of the wellknown Flat-top modulation. The suggested control method is the expansion of the Flat-top modulation with which the losses could be also reduced to the half compared to the Flat-top modulation. Comparing to traditional control these requirements can be simultaneously satisfied much better with the DLF (DC Link Floating) method.

Keywords: DC link floating, high efficiency, PV converter, control method.

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170 Dynamic Modeling of Tow Flexible Link Manipulators

Authors: E. Abedi, A. Ahmadi Nadooshan, S. Salehi

Abstract:

Modeling and vibration of a flexible link manipulator with tow flexible links and rigid joints are investigated which can include an arbitrary number of flexible links. Hamilton principle and finite element approach is proposed to model the dynamics of flexible manipulators. The links are assumed to be deflection due to bending. The association between elastic displacements of links is investigated, took into account the coupling effects of elastic motion and rigid motion. Flexible links are treated as Euler-Bernoulli beams and the shear deformation is thus abandoned. The dynamic behavior due to flexibility of links is well demonstrated through numerical simulation. The rigid-body motion and elastic deformations are separated by linearizing the equations of motion around the rigid body reference path. Simulation results are shown on for both position and force trajectory tracking tasks in the presence of varying parameters and unknown dynamics remarkably well. The proposed method can be used in both dynamic simulation and controller design.

Keywords: Flexible manipulator, flexible link, dynamicmodeling, end point.

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169 RF Link Budget Analysis at 915 MHz band for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Abdellah Chehri, Hussein Mouftah, Paul Fortier, Hasnaa Aniss

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network has recently emerged as enablers of several areas. Real applications of WSN are being explored and some of them are yet to come. While the potential of sensor networks has been only beginning to be realized, several challenges still remain. One of them is the experimental evaluation of WSN. Therefore, deploying and operating a testbed to study the real behavior of WSN become more and more important. The main contribution of this work is to analysis the RF link budget behavior of wireless sensor networks in underground mine gallery.

Keywords: Sensor networks, RF Link, path loss.

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168 An Approach to the Solving Non-Steiner Minimum Link Path Problem

Authors: V. Tereshchenko, A. Tregubenko

Abstract:

In this study we survey the method for fast finding a minimum link path between two arbitrary points within a simple polygon, which can pass only through the vertices, with preprocessing.

Keywords: Minimum link path, simple polygon, Steiner points, optimal algorithm.

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167 Accurate Modeling and Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of a Flexible-Link Manipulator

Authors: M. Pala Prasad Reddy, Jeevamma Jacob

Abstract:

Accurate dynamic modeling and analysis of flexible link manipulator (FLM) with non linear dynamics is very difficult due to distributed link flexibility and few studies have been conducted based on assumed modes method (AMM) and finite element models. In this paper a nonlinear dynamic model with first two elastic modes is derived using combined Euler/Lagrange and AMM approaches. Significant dynamics associated with the system such as hub inertia, payload, structural damping, friction at joints, combined link and joint flexibility are incorporated to obtain the complete and accurate dynamic model. The response of the FLM to the applied bang-bang torque input is compared against the models derived from LS-DYNA finite element discretization approach and linear finite element models. Dynamic analysis is conducted using LS-DYNA finite element model which uses the explicit time integration scheme to simulate the system. Parametric study is conducted to show the impact payload mass. A numerical result shows that the LS-DYNA model gives the smooth hub-angle profile.

 

Keywords: Flexible link manipulator, AMM, FEM, LS-DYNA, Bang-bang torque input.

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166 Analytical Investigation of Replaceable Links with Reduced Web Section for Link-to-Column Connections in Eccentrically Braced Frames

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Sijeong Jeong, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

The use of eccentrically braced frame (EBF) is increasing day by day as EBF possesses high elastic stiffness, stable inelastic response under cyclic lateral loading, and excellent ductility and energy dissipation capacity. The ductility and energy dissipation capacity of EBF depends on the active link beams. Recently, there are two types EBFs; these are conventional EBFs and EBFs with replaceable links. The conventional EBF has a disadvantage during maintenance in post-earthquake. The concept of removable active link beam in EBF is developed to overcome the limitation of the conventional EBF in post-earthquake. In this study, a replaceable link with reduced web section is introduced and design equations are suggested. In addition, nonlinear finite element analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the proposed links.

Keywords: EBFs, replaceable link, earthquake disaster, reduced section.

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165 The Effect of Vertical Shear-Link in Improving the Seismic Performance of Structures with Eccentrically Bracing Systems

Authors: Mohammad Reza Baradaran, Farhad Hamzezarghani, Mehdi Rastegari Ghiri, Zahra Mirsanjari

Abstract:

Passive control methods can be utilized to build earthquake resistant structures, and also to strengthen the vulnerable ones. In this paper, we studied the effect of this system in increasing the ductility and energy dissipation and also modeled the behavior of this type of eccentric bracing, and compared the hysteresis diagram of the modeled samples with the laboratory samples. We studied several samples of frames with vertical shear-links in order to assess the behavior of this type of eccentric bracing. Each of these samples was modeled in finite element software ANSYS 9.0, and was analyzed under the static cyclic loading. It was found that vertical shear-links have a more stable hysteresis loops. Another analysis showed that using honeycomb beams as the horizontal beam along with steel reinforcement has no negative effect on the hysteresis behavior of the sample.

Keywords: Vertical shear-link, passive control, cyclic analysis, energy dissipation, honeycomb beam.

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164 Link Availability Estimation for Modified AOMDV Protocol

Authors: R. Prabha, N. Ramaraj

Abstract:

Routing in adhoc networks is a challenge as nodes are mobile, and links are constantly created and broken. Present ondemand adhoc routing algorithms initiate route discovery after a path breaks, incurring significant cost to detect disconnection and establish a new route. Specifically, when a path is about to be broken, the source is warned of the likelihood of a disconnection. The source then initiates path discovery early, avoiding disconnection totally. A path is considered about to break when link availability decreases. This study modifies Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing (AOMDV) so that route handoff occurs through link availability estimation.

Keywords: Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), Routing, Adhoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector routing (AOMDV), Link Availability.

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163 Configuration and the Calculation of Link Budget for a Connection via a Geostationary Satellite for Multimedia Application in the Ka Band

Authors: M. A. Mebrek, L.H.Abderrahmane, A. Himeur, S. Bendoukha

Abstract:

In this article, we are going to do a study that consist in the configuration of a link between an earth station to broadcast multimedia service and a user of this service via a geostationary satellite in Ka- band and the set up of the different components of this link and then to make the calculation of the link budget for this system. The application carried out in this work, allows us to calculate the link budget in both directions: the uplink and downlink, as well as all parameters used in the calculation and the development of a link budget. Finally, we will try to verify using the application developed the feasibility of implementation of this system.

Keywords: Geostationary satellite, ground station, ka band, link budget, telecommunication.

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162 Resonant DC Link in PWM AC Chopper

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon

Abstract:

This paper proposes a resonant dc link in PWM ac chopper. This can solve the spike problems and also reduce the switching loss. The configuration and PWM pattern of the proposed technique are presented. The simulation results are used to confirm the theory.

Keywords: PWM ac chopper and Resonant dc link.

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161 Lower energy Gait Pattern Generation in 5-Link Biped Robot Using Image Processing

Authors: Byounghyun Kim, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to find natural gait of biped robot such as human being by analyzing the COG (Center Of Gravity) trajectory of human being's gait. It is discovered that human beings gait naturally maintain the stability and use the minimum energy. This paper intends to find the natural gait pattern of biped robot using the minimum energy as well as maintaining the stability by analyzing the human's gait pattern that is measured from gait image on the sagittal plane and COG trajectory on the frontal plane. It is not possible to apply the torques of human's articulation to those of biped robot's because they have different degrees of freedom. Nonetheless, human and 5-link biped robots are similar in kinematics. For this, we generate gait pattern of the 5-link biped robot by using the GA algorithm of adaptation gait pattern which utilize the human's ZMP (Zero Moment Point) and torque of all articulation that are measured from human's gait pattern. The algorithm proposed creates biped robot's fluent gait pattern as that of human being's and to minimize energy consumption because the gait pattern of the 5-link biped robot model is modeled after consideration about the torque of human's each articulation on the sagittal plane and ZMP trajectory on the frontal plane. This paper demonstrate that the algorithm proposed is superior by evaluating 2 kinds of the 5-link biped robot applied to each gait patterns generated both in the general way using inverse kinematics and in the special way in which by considering visuality and efficiency.

Keywords: 5-link biped robot, gait pattern, COG (Center OfGravity), ZMP (Zero Moment Point).

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160 Missing Link Data Estimation with Recurrent Neural Network: An Application Using Speed Data of Daegu Metropolitan Area

Authors: JaeHwan Yang, Da-Woon Jeong, Seung-Young Kho, Dong-Kyu Kim

Abstract:

In terms of ITS, information on link characteristic is an essential factor for plan or operation. But in practical cases, not every link has installed sensors on it. The link that does not have data on it is called “Missing Link”. The purpose of this study is to impute data of these missing links. To get these data, this study applies the machine learning method. With the machine learning process, especially for the deep learning process, missing link data can be estimated from present link data. For deep learning process, this study uses “Recurrent Neural Network” to take time-series data of road. As input data, Dedicated Short-range Communications (DSRC) data of Dalgubul-daero of Daegu Metropolitan Area had been fed into the learning process. Neural Network structure has 17 links with present data as input, 2 hidden layers, for 1 missing link data. As a result, forecasted data of target link show about 94% of accuracy compared with actual data.

Keywords: Data Estimation, link data, machine learning, road network.

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159 Examination of the Water and Nutrient Utilization of Maize Hybrids on Chernozem Soil

Authors: L. G. Karancsi

Abstract:

The research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép AGTC MÉK research area of the University of Debrecen in Hungary. We examined the yield, the yield production per 1kg NPK fertilizer and the water and nutrient utilization of hybrid PR37N01 and PR37M81 in 2013. We found that PR37N01 produced the most yield at the level of N120+P (17,476kg ha-1) while PR37M81 reached the highest yield at level N150+PK (16,754kg ha-1). Studies related to yield production per 1kg NPK indicated that the best results were achieved at level N30+PK compared to the control treatment. Yield production per 1kg NPK was17.6kg kg-1 by P37N01 and 44.2kg kg-1 by PR37M81. By comparing the water utilization of hybrids we found that the worst water utilization results were reached in the control treatment (PR37N01: 26.2kg mm-1, PR37M81: 19.5kg mm-1). The best water utilization values were produced at level N120+PK in the case of hybrid PR37N01 (32.1kg mm-1) and at N150+PK in the case of hybrid PR37M81 (30.8kg mm-1). We established the values of the nutrient reaction and the fertilizer optimum of hybrids. We discovered a strong relationship between the amount of fertilizer applied and the yield produced (r2= 0.8228–0.9515). The best nutrient response was induced by hybrid PR37N01, while the weakest results were reached by hybrid PR37M81.

Keywords: Hybrid, maize, nutrient, yield, water utilization.

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158 Motion Control of a 2-link Revolute Manipulator in an Obstacle-Ridden Workspace

Authors: Avinesh Prasad, Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a solution to the motion control problem of a 2-link revolute manipulator arm. We require the end-effector of the arm to move safely to its designated target in a priori known workspace cluttered with fixed circular obstacles of arbitrary position and sizes. Firstly a unique velocity algorithm is used to move the end-effector to its target. Secondly, for obstacle avoidance a turning angle is designed, which when incorporated into the control laws ensures that the entire robot arm avoids any number of fixed obstacles along its path enroute the target. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensure that the equilibrium point of the system is asymptotically stable. Computer simulations of the proposed technique are presented.

Keywords: 2-link revolute manipulator, motion control, obstacle avoidance, asymptotic stability.

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157 A Type-2 Fuzzy Model for Link Prediction in Social Network

Authors: Mansoureh Naderipour, Susan Bastani, Mohammad Fazel Zarandi

Abstract:

Predicting links that may occur in the future and missing links in social networks is an attractive problem in social network analysis. Granular computing can help us to model the relationships between human-based system and social sciences in this field. In this paper, we present a model based on granular computing approach and Type-2 fuzzy logic to predict links regarding nodes’ activity and the relationship between two nodes. Our model is tested on collaboration networks. It is found that the accuracy of prediction is significantly higher than the Type-1 fuzzy and crisp approach.

Keywords: Social Network, link prediction, granular computing, Type-2 fuzzy sets.

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156 Performance Comparison of Prim’s and Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm to Select Shortest Path in Case of Link Failure

Authors: Rimmy Yadav, Avtar Singh

Abstract:

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a promising modern approach to the unused combinatorial optimization. Here ACO is applied to finding the shortest during communication link failure. In this paper, the performances of the prim’s and ACO algorithm are made. By comparing the time complexity and program execution time as set of parameters, we demonstrate the pleasant performance of ACO in finding excellent solution to finding shortest path during communication link failure.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, link failure, prim’s algorithm.

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155 Feed-Forward Control in Half-Bridge Resonant DC Link Inverter

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a feed-forward control in a halfbridge resonant dc link inverter. The configuration of feed-forward control is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation and the halfbridge resonant dc link inverter consists of two inductors, one capacitor and two power switches. The simulation results show the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.

Keywords: Feed-forward control, Resonant dc link inverter, Synchronous sigma-delta modulation.

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154 Utilization of Process Mapping Tool to Enhance Production Drilling in Underground Metal Mining Operations

Authors: Sidharth Talan, Sanjay Kumar Sharma, Eoin Joseph Wallace, Nikita Agrawal

Abstract:

Underground mining is at the core of rapidly evolving metals and minerals sector due to the increasing mineral consumption globally. Even though the surface mines are still more abundant on earth, the scales of industry are slowly tipping towards underground mining due to rising depth and complexities of orebodies. Thus, the efficient and productive functioning of underground operations depends significantly on the synchronized performance of key elements such as operating site, mining equipment, manpower and mine services. Production drilling is the process of conducting long hole drilling for the purpose of charging and blasting these holes for the production of ore in underground metal mines. Thus, production drilling is the crucial segment in the underground metal mining value chain. This paper presents the process mapping tool to evaluate the production drilling process in the underground metal mining operation by dividing the given process into three segments namely Input, Process and Output. The three segments are further segregated into factors and sub-factors. As per the study, the major input factors crucial for the efficient functioning of production drilling process are power, drilling water, geotechnical support of the drilling site, skilled drilling operators, services installation crew, oils and drill accessories for drilling machine, survey markings at drill site, proper housekeeping, regular maintenance of drill machine, suitable transportation for reaching the drilling site and finally proper ventilation. The major outputs for the production drilling process are ore, waste as a result of dilution, timely reporting and investigation of unsafe practices, optimized process time and finally well fragmented blasted material within specifications set by the mining company. The paper also exhibits the drilling loss matrix, which is utilized to appraise the loss in planned production meters per day in a mine on account of availability loss in the machine due to breakdowns, underutilization of the machine and productivity loss in the machine measured in drilling meters per unit of percussion hour with respect to its planned productivity for the day. The given three losses would be essential to detect the bottlenecks in the process map of production drilling operation so as to instigate the action plan to suppress or prevent the causes leading to the operational performance deficiency. The given tool is beneficial to mine management to focus on the critical factors negatively impacting the production drilling operation and design necessary operational and maintenance strategies to mitigate them. 

Keywords: Process map, drilling loss matrix, availability, utilization, productivity, percussion rate.

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153 A Proposed Framework for Improving IT Utilization in the Energy Industry

Authors: Jin Kyung Park, Ji Yeon Cho, Yong Ho Shim, Su Jin Kim, Bong Gyou Lee

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to suggest direction for future study of the energy-IT industry that will be used for framework to increase IT utilization in the energy industry. Recently, Green IT is a becoming global issue because of global environmental pollution. Also, IT roles in energy industry are becoming more important. However, the related studies were IT industry oriented that is not sufficient to make plan for Green energy. Therefore, after analyzing existing studies related to Green energy and Green IT, re-categorization for Green energy-IT industry was suggested. Direction of framework is based on energy industry that enable to link between energy and IT. The results of this study suggest comprehensive insight to Green energy-IT industry. Thus it is able to provide useful implications and guidelines to increase IT utilization in the energy industry.

Keywords: Energy-IT Industry, Green Energy, Green IT, IT Utilization

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152 Utilization of Agro-Industrial Byproducts for Bacteriocin Production Using Newly Isolated Enterococcus faecium BS13

Authors: Vandana Bali, Manab B. Bera, Parmjit S. Panesar

Abstract:

Microbial production of antimicrobials as biopreservatives is the major area of focus nowadays due to increased interest of consumers towards natural and safe preservation of ready to eat food products. The agro-industrial byproduct based medium and optimized process conditions can contribute in economical production of bacteriocins. Keeping this in view, the present investigation was carried out on agro-industrial byproducts utilization for the production of bacteriocin using Enterococcus faecium BS13 isolated from local fermented food. Different agro-industrial byproduct based carbon sources (whey, potato starch liquor, kinnow peel, deoiledrice bran and molasses), nitrogen sources (soya okra, pea pod and corn steep liquor), metal ions and surfactants were tested for optimal bacteriocin production. The effect of various process parameters such as pH, temperature, inoculum level, agitation and time were also tested on bacteriocin production. The optimized medium containing whey, supplemented with 4%corn steep liquor and polysorbate-80 displayed maximum bacteriocin activity with 2% inoculum, at pH 6.5, temperature 40oC under shaking conditions (100 rpm).

Keywords: Bacteriocin, biopreservation, corn steep liquor, Enterococcus faecium, waste utilization, whey.

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151 Sustainable Water Utilization in Arid Region of Iran by Qanats

Authors: F. Boustani

Abstract:

To make use of the limited amounts of water in arid region, the Iranians developed man-made underground water channels called qanats (kanats) .In fact, qanats may be considered as the first long-distance water transfer system. Qanats are an ancient water transfer system found in arid regions wherein groundwater from mountainous areas, aquifers and sometimes from rivers, was brought to points of re-emergence such as an oasis, through one or more underground tunnels. The tunnels, many of which were kilometers in length, had designed for slopes to provide gravitational flow. The tunnels allowed water to drain out to the surface by gravity to supply water to lower and flatter agricultural land. Qanats have been an ancient, sustainable system facilitating the harvesting of water for centuries in Iran, and more than 35 additional countries of the world such as India, Arabia, Egypt, North Africa, Spain and even to New world. There are about 22000 qanats in Iran with 274000 kilometers of underground conduits all built by manual labor. The amount of water of the usable qanats of Iran produce is altogether 750 to 1000 cubic meter per second. The longest chain of qanat is situated in Gonabad region in Khorasan province. It is 70 kilometers long. Qanats are renewable water supply systems that have sustained agricultural settlement on the Iranian plateau for millennia. The great advantages of Qanats are no evaporation during transit, little seepage , no raising of the water- table and no pollution in the area surrounding the conduits. Qanat systems have a profound influence on the lives of the water users in Iran, and conform to Iran-s climate. Qanat allows those living in a desert environment adjacent to a mountain watershed to create a large oasis in an otherwise stark environment. This paper explains qanats structure designs, their history, objectives causing their creation, construction materials, locations and their importance in different times, as well as their present sustainable role in Iran.

Keywords: Iran, qanat, Sustainable water utilization.

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150 Feed-Forward Control in Resonant DC Link Inverter

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a feed-forward control in resonant dc link inverter. The feed-forward control configuration is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation. The simulation results showing the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.

Keywords: Feed-forward control, Resonant dc link inverter, Synchronous sigma-delta modulation.

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149 Optimal Controller with Backstepping and BELBIC for Single-Link Flexible Manipulator

Authors: Ali Reza Sahab, Amir Gholami Pastaki

Abstract:

In this paper, backstepping method (BM) is proposed for a single-link flexible mechanical manipulator. In each step of this method a positive value is obtained. Selections of the gain factor values are very important because controller will have different behavior for each different set of values. Improper selection of these gains can lead to instability of the system. In order to choose proper values for gains BELBIC method has been used in this work. Finally, to prove the efficiency of this method, the obtained results of proposed model are compared with robust controller one. Results show that the combination of backstepping and BELBIC that is presented here, can stabilized the system with higher speed, shorter settling time and lower overshoot in than robust controller.

Keywords: single-link flexible manipulator, backstepping, BELBIC

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