Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32119
Low Latency Routing Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Abdel Ilah Alshabtat, Liang Dong


In this paper, we proposed a new routing protocol for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that equipped with directional antenna. We named this protocol Directional Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (DOLSR). This protocol is based on the well known protocol that is called Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR). We focused in our protocol on the multipoint relay (MPR) concept which is the most important feature of this protocol. We developed a heuristic that allows DOLSR protocol to minimize the number of the multipoint relays. With this new protocol the number of overhead packets will be reduced and the End-to-End delay of the network will also be minimized. We showed through simulation that our protocol outperformed Optimized Link State Routing Protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol and Ad- Hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol in reducing the End-to-End delay and enhancing the overall throughput. Our evaluation of the previous protocols was based on the OPNET network simulation tool.

Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Ad-Hoc RoutingProtocols, Optimized link State Routing Protocol, Unmanned AerialVehicles, Directional Antenna.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2229


[1] C. E. Perkins, Ad Hoc Networking. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2001.
[2] P. Jacquet, A.Laouiti, P. Minet, and L. Viennot, "Performance analysis of olsr multipoint relay flooding in two ad-hoc wireless network models," Tech. Rep., september 2001, research Report-4260.
[3] G. He, "Destination-sequenced distance vector (dsdv) protocol," Tech. Rep., 2002, helsinki University of Technology, Finland.
[4] Y. Tseng, C. Shen, and W. Chen, "Mobile ip and ad-hoc networks: An integration and implementation experience," Tech. Rep., 2003, department of Computer Science,and Information Engineering., National Chiao Tung Univ., Taiwan.
[5] C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer, and S. Das, "Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (aodv) routing,", July 2003.
[6] R. V. Boppana and A. Mathur, "Analysis of the dynamic source routing protocol for ad hoc networks," in IEEE Workshop on Next Generation Wireless Networks (WoNGeN), India, December 2005.
[7] R. Izhak and Z. Runhe, "Placement of uavs as communication relays aiding mobile ad hoc wireless networks," in Military Communications Conference IEEE,MILCOM, 2007, pp. 1 - 7.
[8] S. Srinivasan and H. Latchman, "Airborne traffic surveillance systemsvideo surveillance of highway traffic," in Proceedings of the ACM 2nd international workshop on Video surveillance, 2004.
[9] D. Hague, T. Kung, and B. Suter, "Field experimentation of cotsbased uav networking," in Military Communications Conference IEEE,MILCOM, October 2006, pp. 1-7.
[10] M. Takai, J. Martin, A. Ren, and R. Bagrodia, "Directional virtual carrier sensing for directional antennas in mobile ad-hoc networks," in Proc. of the ACM MobiHoc, 2002.
[11] Y.-B. Ko, V. Shankarkumar, and N. H. Vaidya, "Medium access control protocols using directional antennas in ad hoc networks," in INFOCOM 2000. Nineteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE, 2000.
[12] Z. Huang and C.-C. Shen, "A comparison study of omni-directional and directional mac protocols for ad-hoc networks," in Proc. of IEEE Globecom-02, VOL 1, pages 57-61), 2002.
[13] R. Ramanathan, "On the performance of ad-hoc networks with beamforming antennas," in Proceedings of the 2nd ACM international symposium on Mobile Ad-hoc networking and computing, Long Beach, California, pages 95-105, 2001.
[14] S. Horisawa, S. Bandyopadhyay, K. Hausike, and S. Tawara, "An adaptive mac and directional routing protocol for ad-hoc wireless networks using espar antenna," in Proceedings of the 2nd ACM international symposium on Mobile Ad-hoc networking and computing, Pages: 243 - 246, 2001.
[15] X. Hong, K. Xu, and M. Gerla, "Scalable routing protocols for mobile ad-hoc networks," IEEE NETWORK, vol. 16, 2002.
[16] S. R. Das, R. Castaneda, and J. Yan, "Simulation based performance evaluation of mobile, ad-hoc network routing protocols," ACM/Baltzer MONET J., vol. 5, pp. 179-189, 2000.
[17] X. Hong, M. Gerla, Y. Yi, K. Xu, and T. J. Kwon, "Scalable ad hoc routing in large, dense wireless networks using clustering and landmarks," in Proc. IEEE ICC New York, 2002.
[18] C. Santivanez, R. Ramanathan, and I. Stavrakakis, "Making link-state routing scale for ad-hoc networks," in International Symposium on Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking and Computing, Proceedings of the 2nd ACM international symposium on Mobile Ad-Hoc networking and computing, Long Beach, CA, USA, 2001.
[19] Z. J. Haas and M. R. Pearlman, "The performance of query control schemes for the zone routing protocol," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON), vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 427-438, 2001.
[20] G. Pei, M. Gerla, and X. Hong, "Lanmar: Landmark routing for large scale wireless ad hoc networks with group mobility," in Proc. IEEE/ACM MobiHOC , Boston, MA, pp. 11-18, 2000.
[21] A. Nasipuri and J. Mandava, "On-demand routing using directional antennas in mobile ad hoc networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN2000), 2000.
[22] A. K. Saha and D. B. Johnson, "Routing improvement using directional antennas in mobile ad-hoc networks," in Proceeding of IEEE GLOBALCOM- 04, 2004.
[23] A. K. Saha, "Energy saving and parition bridging using directional antennas in mobile ad hoc networks," Master-s thesis, Rice University, May 2003.
[24] R. Choudhury and N. Vaidya, "Impact of directional antennas on ad hoc routing," in 8th Conference on Personal and Wireless Communication (PWC), 2003.
[25] R. R. Choudhury and N. H. Vaidya, "Performance of ad-hoc routing using directional antennas," Journal of Ad-Hoc Networks, November 2004.
[26] Y. Ge, T. Kunz, and L. Lamont, "Quality of service routing in ad-hoc networks using olsr," in Proceeding of the 36th Hawii International Conference on System Science, 2003.
[27] P. Jacquet, A. Laouiti, P. Minet, and L. Viennot, "Performance of multipoint relaying in ad-hoc mobile routing protocols," in Proceedings of the 2nd International IFIP-TC6 Networking Conference on Networking Technologies, Services, and Protocols, 2002, pp. 387-398.
[28] A. Busson, N. Mitton, and E. Fleury, "Analysis of the multi-point relay selection in olsr and implications," in the 4th Mediterranean Ad-Hoc Networking Workshop, MED-HOC-NET 05, France, 2005.
[29] A. Huhtonen, "Comparing aodv and olsr routing protocols," April 2004, seminar on Internetworking, Sjkulla.
[30] E. Nordstrom, P. Gunningberg, C. Rohner, and O. Wibling, "A comprehensive comparison of manet routing protocols in simulation, emulation and the real world," Uppsala University, pp. 1-12, 2006.
[31] H. Pucha, S. M. Das, and Y. C. Hu, "The performance impact of traffic patterns on routing protocols in mobile ad-hoc networks," Journal Computer networks, vol. 51, pp. 3595-3616, August 2007.