Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 876

Search results for: solar tracking.

876 Solar Tracking System Using a Refrigerant as Working Medium for Solar Energy Conversion

Authors: S. Sendhil Kumar, S. N. Vijayan

Abstract:

Utilization of solar energy can be found in various domestic and industrial applications. The performance of any solar collector is largely affected by various parameters such as glazing, absorber plate, top covers, and heating pipes. Technology improvements have brought us another method for conversion of solar energy to direct electricity using solar photovoltaic system. Utilization and extraction of solar energy is the biggest problem in these conversion methods. This paper aims to overcome these problems and take the advantages of available energy from solar by maximizing the utilization through solar tracking system using a refrigerant as a working medium. The use of this tracking system can help increase the efficiency of conversion devices by maximum utilization of solar energy. The dual axis tracking system gives maximum energy output compared to single axis tracking system.

Keywords: Refrigerant, solar collector, solar energy, solar panel, solar tracking.

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875 Solar Tracking System: More Efficient Use of Solar Panels

Authors: J. Rizk, Y. Chaiko

Abstract:

This paper shows the potential system benefits of simple tracking solar system using a stepper motor and light sensor. This method is increasing power collection efficiency by developing a device that tracks the sun to keep the panel at a right angle to its rays. A solar tracking system is designed, implemented and experimentally tested. The design details and the experimental results are shown.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Power Optimization.

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874 Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic for Solar Photovoltaic Systems Under Non-Uniform Irradiation Conditions

Authors: P. Selvam, S. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has played a vital role to enhance the efficiency of solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation under varying atmospheric temperature and solar irradiation. However, it is hard to track the maximum power point using conventional linear controllers due to the natural inheritance of nonlinear I-V and P-V characteristics of solar PV systems. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is suitable for nonlinear system control applications and eliminating oscillations, circuit complexities present in the conventional perturb and observation and incremental conductance methods respectively. Hence, in this paper, FLC is proposed for tracking exact MPPT of solar PV power generation system under varying solar irradiation conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed FLC-based MPPT controller is validated through simulation and analysis using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, maximum power point tracking, photovoltaic.

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873 Parameters Influencing the Output Precision of a Lens-Lens Beam Generator Solar Concentrator

Authors: M. Tawfik, X. Tonnellier, C. Sansom

Abstract:

The Lens-Lens Beam Generator (LLBG) is a Fresnel-based optical concentrating technique which provides flexibility in selecting the solar receiver location compared to conventional techniques through generating a powerful concentrated collimated solar beam. In order to achieve that, two successive lenses are used and followed by a flat mirror. Hence the generated beam emerging from the LLBG has a high power flux which impinges on the target receiver, it is important to determine the precision of the system output. In this present work, mathematical investigation of different parameters affecting the precision of the output beam is carried out. These parameters include: Deflection in sun-facing lens and its holding arm, delay in updating the solar tracking system, and the flat mirror surface flatness. Moreover, relationships that describe the power lost due to the effect of each parameter are derived in this study.

Keywords: Fresnel lens, LLBG, solar concentrator, solar tracking.

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872 Highly Efficient Low Power Consumption Tracking Solar Cells for White LED-Based Lighting System

Authors: Theerawut Jinayim, Somchai Arunrungrasmi, Tanes Tanitteerapan, Narong Mungkung

Abstract:

Although White LED lighting systems powered by solar cells have presented for many years, they are not widely used in today application because of their cost and low energy conversion efficiency. The proposed system use the dc power generated by fixed solar cells module to energize White LED light sources that are operated by directly connected White LED with current limitation resistors, resulting in much more power consumption. This paper presents the use of white LED as a general lighting application powered by tracking solar cells module and using pulse to apply the electrical power to the White LED. These systems resulted in high efficiency power conversion, low power consumption, and long light of the white LED.

Keywords: Efficiency, lighting, light-emitting diode, pulse, Solar, white LED.

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871 Simulation and Analysis of Control System for a Solar Desalination System

Authors: R. Prakash, B. Meenakshipriya, R. Kumaravelan

Abstract:

Fresh water is one of the resources which is getting depleted day by day. A wise method to address this issue is by the application of renewable energy-sun irradiation and by means of decentralized, cheap, energetically self-sufficient, robust and simple to operate plants, distillates can be obtained from sea, river or even sewage. Solar desalination is a technique used to desalinate water using solar energy. The present work deals with the comprehensive design and simulation of solar tracking system using LabVIEW, temperature and mass flow rate control of the solar desalination plant using LabVIEW and also analysis of single phase inverter circuit with LC filters for solar pumping system in MATLAB. The main objective of this work is to improve the performance of solar desalination system using automatic tracking system, output control using temperature and mass flow rate control system and also to reduce the harmonic distortion in the solar pumping system by means of LC filters. The simulation of single phase inverter was carried out using MATLAB and the output waveforms were analyzed. Simulations were performed for optimum output temperature control, which in turn controls the mass flow rate of water in the thermal collectors. Solar tracking system was accomplished using LABVIEW and was tested successfully. The thermal collectors are tracked in accordance with the sun’s irradiance levels, thereby increasing the efficiency of the thermal collectors.

Keywords: Desalination, Electro dialysis, LabVIEW, MATLAB, PWM inverter, Reverse osmosis.

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870 Optimization of Solar Tracking Systems

Authors: A. Zaher, A. Traore, F. Thiéry, T. Talbert, B. Shaer

Abstract:

In this paper, an intelligent approach is proposed to optimize the orientation of continuous solar tracking systems on cloudy days. Considering the weather case, the direct sunlight is more important than the diffuse radiation in case of clear sky. Thus, the panel is always pointed towards the sun. In case of an overcast sky, the solar beam is close to zero, and the panel is placed horizontally to receive the maximum of diffuse radiation. Under partly covered conditions, the panel must be pointed towards the source that emits the maximum of solar energy and it may be anywhere in the sky dome. Thus, the idea of our approach is to analyze the images, captured by ground-based sky camera system, in order to detect the zone in the sky dome which is considered as the optimal source of energy under cloudy conditions. The proposed approach is implemented using experimental setup developed at PROMES-CNRS laboratory in Perpignan city (France). Under overcast conditions, the results were very satisfactory, and the intelligent approach has provided efficiency gains of up to 9% relative to conventional continuous sun tracking systems.

Keywords: Clouds detection, fuzzy inference systems, images processing, sun trackers.

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869 BLDC Motor Driven for Solar Photo Voltaic Powered Air Cooling System

Authors: D. Shobha Rani, M. Muralidhar

Abstract:

Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power systems can be employed as electrical power sources to meet the daily residential energy needs of rural areas that have no access to grid systems. In view of this, a standalone SPV powered air cooling system is proposed in this paper, which constitutes a dc-dc boost converter, two voltage source inverters (VSI) connected to two brushless dc (BLDC) motors which are coupled to a centrifugal water pump and a fan blower. A simple and efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique based on Silver Mean Method (SMM) is utilized in this paper. The air cooling system is developed and simulated using the MATLAB / Simulink environment considering the dynamic and steady state variation in the solar irradiance.

Keywords: Boost converter, solar photovoltaic array, voltage source inverter, brushless DC motor, solar irradiance, Maximum Power Point Tracking, Silver Mean Method.

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868 Comparison of Stationary and Two-Axis Tracking System of 50MW Photovoltaic Power Plant in Al-Kufra, Libya: Landscape Impact and Performance

Authors: Yasser Aldali

Abstract:

The scope of this paper is to evaluate and compare the potential of LS-PV(Large Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant) power generation systems in the southern region of Libya at Al-Kufra for both stationary and tracking systems. A Microsoft Excel-VBA program has been developed to compute slope radiation, dew-point, sky temperature, and then cell temperature, maximum power output and module efficiency of the system for stationary system and for tracking system. The results for energy production show that the total energy output is 114GWh/year for stationary system and 148GWh/year for tracking system. The average module efficiency for the stationary system is 16.6% and 16.2% for the tracking system.

The values of electricity generation capacity factor (CF) and solar capacity factor (SCF) for stationary system were found to be 26% and 62.5% respectively and 34% and 82% for tracking system. The GCR (Ground Cover Ratio) for a stationary system is 0.7, which corresponds to a tilt angle of 24°. The GCR for tracking system was found to be 0.12. The estimated ground area needed to build a 50MW PV plant amounts to approx. 0.55km2 for a stationary PV field constituted by HIT PV arrays and approx. 91MW/ km2. In case of a tracker PV field, the required ground area amounts approx.2.4km2 and approx. 20.5MW/ km2.

Keywords: Large PV power plant, solar energy, environmental impact, Dual-axis tracking system, stationary system.

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867 Evaluation of A 50MW Two-Axis Tracking Photovoltaic Power Plant for AL-Jagbob, Libya: Energetic, Economic, and Environmental Impact Analysis

Authors: Y. Aldali, F. Ahwide

Abstract:

This paper investigates the application of large scale (LS-PV) two-axis tracking photovoltaic power plant in Al-Jagbob, Libya. A 50MW PV-grid connected (two-axis tracking) power plant design in Al-Jagbob, Libya has been carried out presently. A hetero-junction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) type PV module has been selected and modeled. A Microsoft Excel-VBA program has been constructed to compute slope radiation, dew-point, sky temperature, and then cell temperature, maximum power output and module efficiency for this system, for tracking system. The results for energy production show that the total energy output is 128.5 GWh/year. The average module efficiency is 16.6%. The electricity generation capacity factor (CF) and solar capacity factor (SCF) were found to be 29.3% and 70.4% respectively. A 50MW two axis tracking power plant with a total energy output of 128.5 GWh/year would reduce CO2 pollution by 85,581 tonnes of each year. The payback time for the proposed LS-PV photovoltaic power plant was found to be 4 years.

Keywords: Large PV power plant, solar energy, environmental impact, Dual-axis tracking system.

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866 Empirical Survey of the Solar System Based on the Fusion of GPS and Image Processing

Authors: S. Divya Gnanarathinam, S. Sundaramurthy

Abstract:

The tremendous increase in the population of the world creates the immediate need for the energy resources. All the people in the world need the sustainable energy resources which have low costs. Solar energy is appraised as one of the main energy resources in warm countries. The areas in the west of India like Rajasthan, Gujarat, etc. are immensely rich in solar energy resources. This paper deals with the development of dual axis solar tracker using Arduino board. Depending on the astronomical estimates of the sun from the GPS and sensor image processing outcomes, a methodology is proposed to locate the position of the sun to obtain the maximum solar energy. Based on the outcomes, the solar tracking system figures out whether to use image processing outcomes or astronomical estimates to attain the maximum efficiency of the solar panel. Finally, the experimental values obtained from the solar tracker for both the sunny and the rainy days are being tabulated.

Keywords: Dual axis solar tracker, Arduino board, LDR sensors, global positioning system.

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865 Fuzzy Logic Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Designed for 10kW Solar Photovoltaic System with Different Membership Functions

Authors: S. Karthika, K. Velayutham, P. Rathika, D. Devaraj

Abstract:

The electric power supplied by a photovoltaic power generation systems depends on the solar irradiation and temperature. The PV system can supply the maximum power to the load at a particular operating point which is generally called as maximum power point (MPP), at which the entire PV system operates with maximum efficiency and produces its maximum power. Hence, a Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods are used to maximize the PV array output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point. The proposed MPPT controller is designed for 10kW solar PV system installed at Cape Institute of Technology. This paper presents the fuzzy logic based MPPT algorithm. However, instead of one type of membership function, different structures of fuzzy membership functions are used in the FLC design. The proposed controller is combined with the system and the results are obtained for each membership functions in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulation results are decided that which membership function is more suitable for this system.

Keywords: MPPT, DC-DC Converter, Fuzzy logic controller, Photovoltaic (PV) system.

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864 Development of One-Axis Didactic Solar Tracker for Photovoltaic Panels

Authors: L. J. de Bessa Neto, M. R. B. Guerra Vale, F. K. O. M. Varella Guerra

Abstract:

In recent years, solar energy has established itself as one of the main sources of renewable energy, gaining a large space in electricity generation around the world. However, due to the low performance of photovoltaic panels, technologies need to be sought to maximize the production of electricity. In this regard, the present study aims to develop a prototype of solar tracker for didactics applications, controlled with the Arduino® platform, that enables the movement of photovoltaic plates in relation to the sun positions throughout the day through an electromechanical system, optimizing, thus, the efficiency of solar photovoltaic generation and improvements for the photovoltaic effect. The solar tracking technology developed in this work was presented of the shape oral and practical in two middle schools in the municipality of Mossoró/RN, being one of the public network and other of the private network, always keeping the average age of the students, in the case, around 16 years, contemplating an average of 60 students in each of the visits. Thus, it is concluded that the present study contributed substantially to the dissemination of knowledge concerning the photovoltaic solar generation, as well as the study of solar trackers, thus arousing the interest and curiosity of the students regarding the thematic approached.

Keywords: Alternative energy, solar tracker, energy efficiency.

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863 A Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Panels Using SEPIC Converter

Authors: S. Ganesh, J. Janani, G. Besliya Angel

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques should be used in photovoltaic systems to maximize the PV panel output power by tracking continuously the maximum power point which depends on panel’s temperature and on irradiance conditions. Incremental conductance control method has been used as MPPT algorithm. The methodology is based on connecting a pulse width modulated dc/dc SEPIC converter, which is controlled by a microprocessor based unit. The SEPIC converter is one of the buck-boost converters which maintain the output voltage as constant irrespective of the solar isolation level. By adjusting the switching frequency of the converter the maximum power point has been achieved. The main difference between the method used in the proposed MPPT systems and other technique used in the past is that PV array output power is used to directly control the dc/dc converter thus reducing the complexity of the system. The resulting system has high efficiency, low cost and can be easily modified. The tracking capability has been verified experimentally with a 10 W solar panel under a controlled experimental setup. The SEPIC converter and their control strategies has been analyzed and simulated using Simulink/Matlab software.

Keywords: Maximum Power Point Tracking, Microprocessor, PV Module, SEPIC Converter.

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862 Performance Comparison between ĆUK and SEPIC Converters for Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Incremental Conductance Technique in Solar Power Applications

Authors: James Dunia, Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most important energy resources since it is clean, pollution free, and endless. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the photovoltaic output power, irrespective the variations of temperature and radiation conditions. This paper presents a comparison between Ćuk and SEPIC converter in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) system. In the paper, advantages and disadvantages of both converters are described. Incremental conductance control method has been used as maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm. The two converters and MPPT algorithm were modelled using MATLAB/Simulink software for simulation. Simulation results show that both Ćuk and SEPIC converters can track the maximum power point with some minor variations. 

Keywords: Ćuk Converter, Incremental Conductance, Maximum Power Point Tracking, PV Module, SEPIC Converter.

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861 Impact of Reflectors on Solar Energy Systems

Authors: J. Rizk, M. H. Nagrial

Abstract:

The paper aims to show that implementing different types of reflectors in solar energy systems, will dramatically improve energy production by means of concentrating and intensifying more sunlight onto a solar cell. The Solar Intensifier unit is designed to increase efficiency and performance of a set of solar panels. The unit was fabricated and tested. The experimental results show good improvement in the performance of the solar energy system.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Power optimization, Solar Energy.

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860 Object Tracking System Using Camshift, Meanshift and Kalman Filter

Authors: Afef Salhi, Ameni Yengui Jammaoussi

Abstract:

This paper presents a implementation of an object tracking system in a video sequence. This object tracking is an important task in many vision applications. The main steps in video analysis are two: detection of interesting moving objects and tracking of such objects from frame to frame. In a similar vein, most tracking algorithms use pre-specified methods for preprocessing. In our work, we have implemented several object tracking algorithms (Meanshift, Camshift, Kalman filter) with different preprocessing methods. Then, we have evaluated the performance of these algorithms for different video sequences. The obtained results have shown good performances according to the degree of applicability and evaluation criteria.

Keywords: Tracking, meanshift, camshift, Kalman filter, evaluation.

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859 A Note on Significance of Solar Pond Technology for Power Generation

Authors: Donepudi Jagadish

Abstract:

In the view of current requirements of power generation and the increased interest on renewable energy sources, many options are available for generation of clean power. Solar power generation would be one of the best options in this context. The solar pond uses the principle of conversion of solar energy into heat energy, and also has the capability of storing this energy for certain period of time. The solar ponds could be best option for the regions with high solar radiation throughout the day, and also has free land availability. The paper depicts the significance of solar pond for conversion of solar energy into heat energy with a sight towards the parameters like thermal efficiency, working conditions and cost of construction. The simulation of solar pond system has been carried out for understanding the trends of the thermal efficiencies with respect to time.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Solar Pond, Energy Efficiency, Construction of Solar Pond.

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858 Human Tracking across Heterogeneous Systems Based On Mobile Agent Technologies

Authors: Tappei Yotsumoto, Atsushi Nomura, Kozo Tanigawa, Kenichi Takahashi, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

In a human tracking system, expanding a monitoring range of one system is complicating the management of devices and increasing its cost. Therefore, we propose a method to realize a wide-range human tracking by connecting small systems. In this paper, we examined an agent deploy method and information contents across the heterogeneous human tracking systems. By implementing the proposed method, we can construct a human tracking system across heterogeneous systems, and the system can track a target continuously between systems.

Keywords: Human tracking system, mobile agent, monitoring.

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857 Optical Analysis of Variable Aperture Mechanism for a Solar Reactor

Authors: Akanksha Menon, Nesrin Ozalp

Abstract:

Solar energy is not only sustainable but also a clean alternative to be used as source of high temperature heat for many processes and power generation. However, the major drawback of solar energy is its transient nature. Especially in solar thermochemical processing, it is crucial to maintain constant or semiconstant temperatures inside the solar reactor. In our laboratory, we have developed a mechanism allowing us to achieve semi-constant temperature inside the solar reactor. In this paper, we introduce the concept along with some updated designs and provide the optical analysis of the concept under various incoming flux.

Keywords: Aperture, Solar reactor, Optical analysis, Solar thermal

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856 Object Tracking in Motion Blurred Images with Adaptive Mean Shift and Wavelet Feature

Authors: Iman Iraei, Mina Sharifi

Abstract:

A method for object tracking in motion blurred images is proposed in this article. This paper shows that object tracking could be improved with this approach. We use mean shift algorithm to track different objects as a main tracker. But, the problem is that mean shift could not track the selected object accurately in blurred scenes. So, for better tracking result, and increasing the accuracy of tracking, wavelet transform is used. We use a feature named as blur extent, which could help us to get better results in tracking. For calculating of this feature, we should use Harr wavelet. We can look at this matter from two different angles which lead to determine whether an image is blurred or not and to what extent an image is blur. In fact, this feature left an impact on the covariance matrix of mean shift algorithm and cause to better performance of tracking. This method has been concentrated mostly on motion blur parameter. transform. The results reveal the ability of our method in order to reach more accurately tracking.

Keywords: Mean shift, object tracking, blur extent, wavelet transform, motion blur.

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855 Potential of Solar Energy in Zarqa Region

Authors: Ali M. Jawarneh, Ahmad S. AL-Shyyab

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to present the potential of solar energy in Zarqa region. The solar radiation along year 2009 was obtained from Pyranometer which measures the global radiation over horizontal surfaces. Solar data in several different forms, over period of 5 minutes, hour-by-hour, daily and monthly data radiation have been presented. Briefly, the yearly global solar radiation in Zarqa is 7297.5 MJ/m2 (2027 kWh/m²) and the average annual solar radiation per day is 20 MJ/m2 (5.5 Kwh/m2). More specifically, the average annual solar radiation per day is 12.9 MJ/m2 (3.57 Kwh/m2) in winter and 25 MJ/m2 (7 Kwh/m2) in summer.

Keywords: Solar Energy, Pyranometer, Zarqa Region

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854 Simulation of Tracking Time Delay Algorithm using Mathcad Package

Authors: Mahmud Hesain ALdwaik, Omar Hsiain Eldwaik

Abstract:

This paper deals with tracking and estimating time delay between two signals. The simulation of this algorithm accomplished by using Mathcad package is carried out. The algorithm we will present adaptively controls and tracking the delay, so as to minimize the mean square of this error. Thus the algorithm in this case has task not only of seeking the minimum point of error but also of tracking the change of position, leading to a significant improving of performance. The flowchart of the algorithm is presented as well as several tests of different cases are carried out.

Keywords: Tracking time delay, Algorithm simulation, Mathcad, MSE

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853 A Novel Tracking Method Using Filtering and Geometry

Authors: Sang Hoon Lee, Jong Sue Bae, Taewan Kim, Jin Mo Song, Jong Ju Kim

Abstract:

Image target detection and tracking methods based on target information such as intensity, shape model, histogram and target dynamics have been proven to be robust to target model variations and background clutters as shown by recent researches. However, no definitive answer has been given to occluded target by counter measure or limited field of view(FOV). In this paper, we will present a novel tracking method using filtering and computational geometry. This paper has two central goals: 1) to deal with vulnerable target measurements; and 2) to maintain target tracking out of FOV using non-target-originated information. The experimental results, obtained with airborne images, show a robust tracking ability with respect to the existing approaches. In exploring the questions of target tracking, this paper will be limited to consideration of airborne image.

Keywords: Tracking, Computational geometry, Homography, Filter

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852 Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Estimated Power for PV Energy Conversion System

Authors: Zainab Almukhtar, Adel Merabet

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for maximum power point tracking of a photovoltaic energy conversion system is presented. This method is based on using the difference between the power from the solar panel and an estimated power value to control the DC-DC converter of the photovoltaic system. The difference is continuously compared with a preset error permitted value. If the power difference is more than the error, the estimated power is multiplied by a factor and the operation is repeated until the difference is less or equal to the threshold error. The difference in power will be used to trigger a DC-DC boost converter in order to raise the voltage to where the maximum power point is achieved. The proposed method was experimentally verified through a PV energy conversion system driven by the OPAL-RT real time controller. The method was tested on varying radiation conditions and load requirements, and the Photovoltaic Panel was operated at its maximum power in different conditions of irradiation.

Keywords: Control system, power error, solar panel, MPPT.

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851 Integral Tracking Control for a Piezoelectric Actuator System

Authors: J. H. Park, S. C. Jeong, J. H. Koo, H. Y. Jung, S. M. Lee

Abstract:

We propose an integral tracking control method for a piezoelectric actuator system. The proposed method achieves the output tracking without requiring any hysteresis observer or schemes to compensate the hysteresis effect. With the proposed control law, the system is converted into the standard singularly perturbed model. Using Tikhonov-s theorem, we guarantee that the tracking error can be reduced to arbitrarily small bound. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

Keywords: Piezoelectric actuator, tracking control, hysteresis effect.

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850 Design and Implementation of DC-DC Converter with Inc-Cond Algorithm

Authors: Mustafa Engin Basoğlu, Bekir Çakır

Abstract:

The most important component affecting the efficiency of photovoltaic power systems are solar panels. In other words, efficiency of these systems are significantly affected due to the being low efficiency of solar panel. Thus, solar panels should be operated under maximum power point conditions through a power converter. In this study, design of boost converter has been carried out with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm which is incremental conductance (Inc-Cond). By using this algorithm, importance of power converter in MPPT hardware design, impacts of MPPT operation have been shown. It is worth noting that initial operation point is the main criteria for determining the MPPT performance. In addition, it is shown that if value of load resistance is lower than critical value, failure operation is realized. For these analyzes, direct duty control is used for simplifying the control.

Keywords: Boost converter, Incremental Conductance (Inc- Cond), MPPT, Solar panel.

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849 Realtime Lip Contour Tracking For Audio-Visual Speech Recognition Applications

Authors: Mehran Yazdi, Mehdi Seyfi, Amirhossein Rafati, Meghdad Asadi

Abstract:

Detection and tracking of the lip contour is an important issue in speechreading. While there are solutions for lip tracking once a good contour initialization in the first frame is available, the problem of finding such a good initialization is not yet solved automatically, but done manually. We have developed a new tracking solution for lip contour detection using only few landmarks (15 to 25) and applying the well known Active Shape Models (ASM). The proposed method is a new LMS-like adaptive scheme based on an Auto regressive (AR) model that has been fit on the landmark variations in successive video frames. Moreover, we propose an extra motion compensation model to address more general cases in lip tracking. Computer simulations demonstrate a fair match between the true and the estimated spatial pixels. Significant improvements related to the well known LMS approach has been obtained via a defined Frobenius norm index.

Keywords: Lip contour, Tracking, LMS-Like

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848 CFD Analysis of Passive Cooling Building by Using Solar Chimney System

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

This research presents the design and analysis of solar air-conditioning systems particularly solar chimney which is a passive strategy for natural ventilation, and demonstrates the structures of these systems’ using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and finally compares the results with several examples, which have been studied experimentally and carried out previously. In order to improve the performance of solar chimney system, highly efficient sub-system components are considered for the design. The general purpose of the research is to understand how efficiently solar chimney systems generate cooling, and is to improve the efficient of such systems for integration with existing and future domestic buildings.

Keywords: Solar cooling system, solar chimney, active and passive solar technologies, natural ventilation, cavity depth, CFD models for solar chimney.

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847 Multiple Moving Talker Tracking by Integration of Two Successive Algorithms

Authors: Kenji Suyama, Masahiro Oshida, Noboru Owada

Abstract:

In this paper, an estimation accuracy of multiple moving talker tracking using a microphone array is improved. The tracking can be achieved by the adaptive method in which two algorithms are integrated, namely, the PAST (Projection Approximation Subspace Tracking) algorithm and the IPLS (Interior Point Least Square) algorithm. When either talker begins to speak again after a silent period, an appropriate feasible region for an evaluation function of the IPLS algorithm might not be set. Then, the tracking fails due to the incorrect updating. Therefore, if an increment of the number of active talkers is detected, the feasible region must be reset. Then, a low cost realization is required for the high speed tracking and a high accuracy realization is desired for the precise tracking. In this paper, the directions roughly estimated using the delayed-sum-array method are used for the resetting. Several results of experiments performed in an actual room environment show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: moving talkers tracking, microphone array, signal subspace

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