Search results for: Quadrature
73 Quadrature Formula for Sampled Functions
Authors: Khalid Minaoui, Thierry Chonavel, Benayad Nsiri, Driss Aboutajdine
This paper deals with efficient quadrature formulas involving functions that are observed only at fixed sampling points. The approach that we develop is derived from efficient continuous quadrature formulas, such as Gauss-Legendre or Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature. We select nodes at sampling positions that are as close as possible to those of the associated classical quadrature and we update quadrature weights accordingly. We supply the theoretical quadrature error formula for this new approach. We show on examples the potential gain of this approach.
Keywords: Gauss-Legendre, Clenshaw-Curtis, quadrature, Peano kernel, irregular sampling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1267
72 Analysis of Complex Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks
Authors: Chimin Tsai
Abstract:This work consists of three parts. First, the alias-free condition for the conventional two-channel quadrature mirror filter bank is analyzed using complex arithmetic. Second, the approach developed in the first part is applied to the complex quadrature mirror filter bank. Accordingly, the structure is simplified and the theory is easier to follow. Finally, a new class of complex quadrature mirror filter banks is proposed. Interesting properties of this new structure are also discussed.
Keywords: Aliasing cancellation, complex signal processing, polyphase realization, quadrature mirror filter banks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1981
71 A New Quadrature Rule Derived from Spline Interpolation with Error Analysis
Authors: Hadi Taghvafard
Abstract:We present a new quadrature rule based on the spline interpolation along with the error analysis. Moreover, some error estimates for the reminder when the integrand is either a Lipschitzian function, a function of bounded variation or a function whose derivative belongs to Lp are given. We also give some examples to show that, practically, the spline rule is better than the trapezoidal rule.
Keywords: Quadrature, Spline interpolation, Trapezoidal rule, Numericalintegration, Error analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2083
70 Mechanical Quadrature Methods for Solving First Kind Boundary Integral Equations of Stationary Stokes Problem
Authors: Xin Luo, Jin Huang, Pan Cheng
By means of Sidi-Israeli’s quadrature rules, mechanical quadrature methods (MQMs) for solving the first kind boundary integral equations (BIEs) of steady state Stokes problem are presented. The convergence of numerical solutions by MQMs is proved based on Anselone’s collective compact and asymptotical compact theory, and the asymptotic expansions with the odd powers of the errors are provided, which implies that the accuracy of the approximations by MQMs possesses high accuracy order O (h3). Finally, the numerical examples show the efficiency of our methods.
Keywords: Stokes problem, boundary integral equation, mechanical quadrature methods, asymptotic expansions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1280
69 More on Gaussian Quadratures for Fuzzy Functions
Authors: Shu-Xin Miao
In this paper, the Gaussian type quadrature rules for fuzzy functions are discussed. The errors representation and convergence theorems are given. Moreover, four kinds of Gaussian type quadrature rules with error terms for approximate of fuzzy integrals are presented. The present paper complements the theoretical results of the paper by T. Allahviranloo and M. Otadi [T. Allahviranloo, M. Otadi, Gaussian quadratures for approximate of fuzzy integrals, Applied Mathematics and Computation 170 (2005) 874-885]. The obtained results are illustrated by solving some numerical examples.
Keywords: Guassian quadrature rules, fuzzy number, fuzzy integral, fuzzy solution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1304
68 Near Perfect Reconstruction Quadrature Mirror Filter
Authors: A. Kumar, G. K. Singh, R. S. Anand
In this paper, various algorithms for designing quadrature mirror filter are reviewed and a new algorithm is presented for the design of near perfect reconstruction quadrature mirror filter bank. In the proposed algorithm, objective function is formulated using the perfect reconstruction condition or magnitude response condition of prototype filter at frequency (ω = 0.5π) in ideal condition. The cutoff frequency is iteratively changed to adjust the filters coefficients using optimization algorithm. The performances of the proposed algorithm are evaluated in term of computation time, reconstruction error and number of iterations. The design examples illustrate that the proposed algorithm is superior in term of peak reconstruction error, computation time, and number of iterations. The proposed algorithm is simple, easy to implement, and linear in nature.
Keywords: Aliasing cancellations filter bank, Filter banks, quadrature mirror filter (QMF), subband coding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2207
67 Generalized Differential Quadrature Nonlinear Consolidation Analysis of Clay Layer with Time-Varied Drainage Conditions
Authors: A. Bahmanikashkouli, O.R. Bahadori Nezhad
Abstract:In this article, the phenomenon of nonlinear consolidation in saturated and homogeneous clay layer is studied. Considering time-varied drainage model, the excess pore water pressure in the layer depth is calculated. The Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method is used for the modeling and numerical analysis. For the purpose of analysis, first the domain of independent variables (i.e., time and clay layer depth) is discretized by the Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto series and then the nonlinear system of equations obtained from the GDQ method is solved by means of the Newton-Raphson approach. The obtained results indicate that the Generalized Differential Quadrature method, in addition to being simple to apply, enjoys a very high accuracy in the calculation of excess pore water pressure.
Keywords: Generalized Differential Quadrature method, Nonlinear consolidation, Nonlinear system of equations, Time-varied drainageProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1885
66 A High-Frequency Low-Power Low-Pass-Filter-Based All-Current-Mirror Sinusoidal Quadrature Oscillator
Authors: A. Leelasantitham, B. Srisuchinwong
Abstract:A high-frequency low-power sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is presented through the use of two 2nd-order low-pass current-mirror (CM)-based filters, a 1st-order CM low-pass filter and a CM bilinear transfer function. The technique is relatively simple based on (i) inherent time constants of current mirrors, i.e. the internal capacitances and the transconductance of a diode-connected NMOS, (ii) a simple negative resistance RN formed by a resistor load RL of a current mirror. Neither external capacitances nor inductances are required. As a particular example, a 1.9-GHz, 0.45-mW, 2-V CMOS low-pass-filter-based all-current-mirror sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is demonstrated. The oscillation frequency (f0) is 1.9 GHz and is current-tunable over a range of 370 MHz or 21.6 %. The power consumption is at approximately 0.45 mW. The amplitude matching and the quadrature phase matching are better than 0.05 dB and 0.15°, respectively. Total harmonic distortions (THD) are less than 0.3 %. At 2 MHz offset from the 1.9 GHz, the carrier to noise ratio (CNR) is 90.01 dBc/Hz whilst the figure of merit called a normalized carrier-to-noise ratio (CNRnorm) is 153.03 dBc/Hz. The ratio of the oscillation frequency (f0) to the unity-gain frequency (fT) of a transistor is 0.25. Comparisons to other approaches are also included.
Keywords: Sinusoidal quadrature oscillator, low-pass-filterbased, current-mirror bilinear transfer function, all-current-mirror, negative resistance, low power, high frequency, low distortion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1914
65 On One Application of Hybrid Methods For Solving Volterra Integral Equations
Authors: G.Mehdiyeva, V.Ibrahimov, M.Imanova
Abstract:As is known, one of the priority directions of research works of natural sciences is introduction of applied section of contemporary mathematics as approximate and numerical methods to solving integral equation into practice. We fare with the solving of integral equation while studying many phenomena of nature to whose numerically solving by the methods of quadrature are mainly applied. Taking into account some deficiency of methods of quadrature for finding the solution of integral equation some sciences suggested of the multistep methods with constant coefficients. Unlike these papers, here we consider application of hybrid methods to the numerical solution of Volterra integral equation. The efficiency of the suggested method is proved and a concrete method with accuracy order p = 4 is constructed. This method in more precise than the corresponding known methods.
Keywords: Volterra integral equation, hybrid methods, stability and degree, methods of quadratureProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1271
64 Mechanical Quadrature Methods and Their Extrapolations for Solving First Kind Boundary Integral Equations of Anisotropic Darcy-s Equation
Authors: Xin Luo, Jin Huang, Chuan-Long Wang
The mechanical quadrature methods for solving the boundary integral equations of the anisotropic Darcy-s equations with Dirichlet conditions in smooth domains are presented. By applying the collectively compact theory, we prove the convergence and stability of approximate solutions. The asymptotic expansions for the error show that the methods converge with the order O (h3), where h is the mesh size. Based on these analysis, extrapolation methods can be introduced to achieve a higher convergence rate O (h5). An a posterior asymptotic error representation is derived in order to construct self-adaptive algorithms. Finally, the numerical experiments show the efficiency of our methods.
Keywords: Darcy's equation, anisotropic, mechanical quadrature methods, extrapolation methods, a posteriori error estimate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1442
63 Current-Mode Resistorless SIMO Universal Filter and Four-Phase Quadrature Oscillator
Authors: Jie Jin
In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode single input and multi-outputs (SIMO) universal filter and quadrature oscillator with a similar circuit are proposed. The circuits only consist of three Current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA) and two grounded capacitors, which are resistorless, and they are suitable for monolithic integration. The universal filter uses minimum CDTAs and passive elements to realize SIMO type low-pass (LP), high-pass (HP), band-pass (BP) band-stop (BS) and all-pass (AP) filter functions simultaneously without any component matching conditions. The angular frequency (ω0) and the quality factor (Q) of the proposed filter can be electronically controlled and tuned orthogonal. By some modifications of the filter, a new current-mode four-phase quadrature oscillator (QO) can be obtained easily. The condition of oscillation (CO) and frequency of oscillation (FO) of the QO can be controlled electronically and independently through the bias current of the CDTAs, and it is suitable for variable frequency oscillator. Moreover, all the passive and active sensitivities of the circuits are low. SPICE simulation results are included to confirm the theory.
Keywords: Universal Filter, Quadrature Oscillator, Current mode, Current differencing transconductance amplifiers.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1842
62 Coupled Galerkin-DQ Approach for the Transient Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction
Authors: S. A. Eftekhari
In this paper, a numerical algorithm using a coupled Galerkin-Differential Quadrature (DQ) method is proposed for the solution of dam-reservoir interaction problem. The governing differential equation of motion of the dam structure is discretized by the Galerkin method and the DQM is used to discretize the fluid domain. The resulting systems of ordinary differential equations are then solved by the Newmark time integration scheme. The mixed scheme combines the simplicity of the Galerkin method and high accuracy and efficiency of the DQ method. Its accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated by comparing the calculated results with those of the existing literature. It is shown that highly accurate results can be obtained using a small number of Galerkin terms and DQM sampling points. The technique presented in this investigation is general and can be used to solve various fluid-structure interaction problems.
Keywords: Dam-reservoir system, Differential quadrature method, Fluid-structure interaction, Galerkin method, Integral quadrature method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1767
61 Design of Two-Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using Digital All-Pass Filters
Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Yi-Lin Shieh
The paper deals with the minimax design of two-channel linear-phase (LP) quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks using infinite impulse response (IIR) digital all-pass filters (DAFs). Based on the theory of two-channel QMF banks using two IIR DAFs, the design problem is appropriately formulated to result in an appropriate Chebyshev approximation for the desired group delay responses of the IIR DAFs and the magnitude response of the low-pass analysis filter. Through a frequency sampling and iterative approximation method, the design problem can be solved by utilizing a weighted least squares approach. The resulting two-channel QMF banks can possess approximately LP response without magnitude distortion. Simulation results are presented for illustration and comparison.
Keywords: Chebyshev approximation, Digital All-Pass Filter, Quadrature Mirror Filter, Weighted Least Squares.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2565
60 The Particle Swarm Optimization Against the Runge’s Phenomenon: Application to the Generalized Integral Quadrature Method
Authors: A. Zerarka, A. Soukeur, N. Khelil
In the present work, we introduce the particle swarm optimization called (PSO in short) to avoid the Runge-s phenomenon occurring in many numerical problems. This new approach is tested with some numerical examples including the generalized integral quadrature method in order to solve the Volterra-s integral equations
Keywords: Integral equation, particle swarm optimization, Runge's phenomenon.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1290
59 Solution of Density Dependent Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equation Using Differential Quadrature Method
Authors: Gülnihal Meral
Abstract:In this study, the density dependent nonlinear reactiondiffusion equation, which arises in the insect dispersal models, is solved using the combined application of differential quadrature method(DQM) and implicit Euler method. The polynomial based DQM is used to discretize the spatial derivatives of the problem. The resulting time-dependent nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations(ODE-s) is solved by using implicit Euler method. The computations are carried out for a Cauchy problem defined by a onedimensional density dependent nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation which has an exact solution. The DQM solution is found to be in a very good agreement with the exact solution in terms of maximum absolute error. The DQM solution exhibits superior accuracy at large time levels tending to steady-state. Furthermore, using an implicit method in the solution procedure leads to stable solutions and larger time steps could be used.
Keywords: Density Dependent Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equation, Differential Quadrature Method, Implicit Euler Method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2130
58 Coupled Lateral-Torsional Free Vibrations Analysis of Laminated Composite Beam using Differential Quadrature Method
Authors: S.H. Mirtalaie, M. Mohammadi, M.A. Hajabasi, F.Hejripour
In this paper the Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) is employed to study the coupled lateral-torsional free vibration behavior of the laminated composite beams. In such structures due to the fiber orientations in various layers, the lateral displacement leads to a twisting moment. The coupling of lateral and torsional vibrations is modeled by the bending-twisting material coupling rigidity. In the present study, in addition to the material coupling, the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account in the definition of the potential and kinetic energies of the beam. The governing differential equations of motion which form a system of three coupled PDEs are solved numerically using DQ procedure under different boundary conditions consist of the combinations of simply, clamped, free and other end conditions. The resulting natural frequencies and mode shapes for cantilever beam are compared with similar results in the literature and good agreement is achieved.
Keywords: Differential Quadrature Method, Free vibration, Laminated composite beam, Material coupling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1909
57 A Direct Down-conversion Receiver for Low-power Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Gianluca Cornetta, Abdellah Touhafi, David J. Santos, Jose Manuel Vazquez
A direct downconversion receiver implemented in 0.13 μm 1P8M process is presented. The circuit is formed by a single-end LNA, an active balun for conversion into balanced mode, a quadrature double-balanced passive switch mixer and a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator. The receiver operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM band and complies with IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) specifications. The circuit exhibits a very low noise figure of only 2.27 dB and dissipates only 14.6 mW with a 1.2 V supply voltage and is hence suitable for low-power applications.
Keywords: LNA, Active Balun, Passive Mixer, VCO, IEEE 802.15.4(ZigBee).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2209
56 Implementation of Second Order Current- Mode Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Current Controllability
Authors: Koson Pitaksuttayaprot, Winai Jaikla
Abstract:The realization of current-mode quadrature oscillators using current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifiers (CCCCTAs) and grounded capacitors is presented. The proposed oscillators can provide 2 sinusoidal output currents with 90º phase difference. It is enabled non-interactive dual-current control for both the condition of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation. High output impedances of the configurations enable the circuit to be cascaded without additional current buffers. The use of only grounded capacitors is ideal for integration. The circuit performances are depicted through PSpice simulations, they show good agreement to theoretical anticipation.
Keywords: Current-mode, Oscillator, Integrated circuit, CCCCTA.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1798
55 Nonlinear Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Hollow Beams with Super-Elliptic Cross-Sections
Authors: G. Akgun, I. Algul, H. Kurtaran
In this paper geometrically nonlinear static behavior of laminated composite hollow super-elliptic beams is investigated using generalized differential quadrature method. Super-elliptic beam can have both oval and elliptic cross-sections by adjusting parameters in super-ellipse formulation (also known as Lamé curves). Equilibrium equations of super-elliptic beam are obtained using the virtual work principle. Geometric nonlinearity is taken into account using von-Kármán nonlinear strain-displacement relations. Spatial derivatives in strains are expressed with the generalized differential quadrature method. Transverse shear effect is considered through the first-order shear deformation theory. Static equilibrium equations are solved using Newton-Raphson method. Several composite super-elliptic beam problems are solved with the proposed method. Effects of layer orientations of composite material, boundary conditions, ovality and ellipticity on bending behavior are investigated.
Keywords: Generalized differential quadrature, geometric nonlinearity, laminated composite, super-elliptic cross-section.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 959
54 Optimal Design of Two-Channel Recursive Parallelogram Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks
Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Yi-Lin Shieh
This paper deals with the optimal design of two-channel recursive parallelogram quadrature mirror filter (PQMF) banks. The analysis and synthesis filters of the PQMF bank are composed of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive digital all-pass filters (DAFs) with nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP) support region. The design problem can be facilitated by using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive NSHP DAFs, we appropriately formulate the design problem to result in an optimization problem that can be solved by using a weighted least-squares (WLS) algorithm in the minimax (L∞) optimal sense. The designed 2-D recursive PQMF bank achieves perfect magnitude response and possesses satisfactory phase response without requiring extra phase equalizer. Simulation results are also provided for illustration and comparison.
Keywords: Parallelogram Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank, Doubly Complementary Filter, Nonsymmetric Half-Plane Filter, Weighted Least Squares Algorithm, Digital All-Pass Filter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1427
53 Local Error Control in the RK5GL3 Method
Authors: J.S.C. Prentice
Abstract:The RK5GL3 method is a numerical method for solving initial value problems in ordinary differential equations, and is based on a combination of a fifth-order Runge-Kutta method and 3-point Gauss-Legendre quadrature. In this paper we describe an effective local error control algorithm for RK5GL3, which uses local extrapolation with an eighth-order Runge-Kutta method in tandem with RK5GL3, and a Hermite interpolating polynomial for solution estimation at the Gauss-Legendre quadrature nodes.
Keywords: RK5GL3, RKrGLm, Runge-Kutta, Gauss-Legendre, Hermite interpolating polynomial, initial value problem, local error.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1352
52 Transverse Vibration of Non-Homogeneous Rectangular Plates of Variable Thickness Using GDQ
The effect of non-homogeneity on the free transverse vibration of thin rectangular plates of bilinearly varying thickness has been analyzed using generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The non-homogeneity of the plate material is assumed to arise due to linear variations in Young’s modulus and density of the plate material with the in-plane coordinates x and y. Numerical results have been computed for fully clamped and fully simply supported boundary conditions. The solution procedure by means of GDQ method has been implemented in a MATLAB code. The effect of various plate parameters has been investigated for the first three modes of vibration. A comparison of results with those available in literature has been presented.
Keywords: Bilinear thickness, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ), non-homogeneous, Rectangular.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2360
51 Comparison of BER Performances for Conventional and Non-Conventional Mapping Schemes Used in OFDM
Authors: Riddhi Parmar, Shilpi Gupta, Upena Dalal
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the techniques for high speed data rate communication with main consideration for 4G and 5G systems. In OFDM, there are several mapping schemes which provide a way of parallel transmission. In this paper, comparisons of mapping schemes used by some standards have been made and also has been discussed about the performance of the non-conventional modulation technique. The Comparisons of Bit Error Rate (BER) performances for conventional and non-conventional modulation schemes have been done using MATLAB software. Mentioned schemes used in OFDM system can be selected on the basis of the requirement of power or spectrum efficiency and BER analysis.
Keywords: BER, π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (Pi/4 DQPSK), OFDM, phase shift keying, quadrature phase shift keying.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3000
50 Optimization of Bit Error Rate and Power of Ad-hoc Networks Using Genetic Algorithm
Authors: Anjana Choudhary
The ad hoc networks are the future of wireless technology as everyone wants fast and accurate error free information so keeping this in mind Bit Error Rate (BER) and power is optimized in this research paper by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). The digital modulation techniques used for this paper are Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK), M-ary Phase Shift Keying (M-ary PSK), and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). This work is implemented on Wireless Ad Hoc Networks (WLAN). Then it is analyze which modulation technique is performing well to optimize the BER and power of WLAN.
Keywords: Bit Error Rate, Genetic Algorithm, Power, Phase Shift Keying, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, Signal to Noise Ratio, Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2981
49 Optimization of Quantization in Higher Order Modulations for LDPC-Coded Systems
Authors: M.Sushanth Babu, P.Krishna, U.Venu, M.Ranjith
Abstract:In this paper, we evaluate the choice of suitable quantization characteristics for both the decoder messages and the received samples in Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) coded systems using M-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) schemes. The analysis involves the demapper block that provides initial likelihood values for the decoder, by relating its quantization strategy of the decoder. A mapping strategy refers to the grouping of bits within a codeword, where each m-bit group is used to select a 2m-ary signal in accordance with the signal labels. Further we evaluate the system with mapping strategies like Consecutive-Bit (CB) and Bit-Reliability (BR). A new demapper version, based on approximate expressions, is also presented to yield a low complexity hardware implementation.
Keywords: Low Density parity Check, Mapping, Demapping, Quantization, Quadrature Amplitude ModulationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1626
48 Research of a Multistep Method Applied to Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equation
Authors: M.Imanova, G.Mehdiyeva, V.Ibrahimov
Abstract:Solution of some practical problems is reduced to the solution of the integro-differential equations. But for the numerical solution of such equations basically quadrature methods or its combination with multistep or one-step methods are used. The quadrature methods basically is applied to calculation of the integral participating in right hand side of integro-differential equations. As this integral is of Volterra type, it is obvious that at replacement with its integrated sum the upper limit of the sum depends on a current point in which values of the integral are defined. Thus we receive the integrated sum with variable boundary, to work with is hardly. Therefore multistep method with the constant coefficients, which is free from noted lack and gives the way for finding it-s coefficients is present.
Keywords: Volterra integro-differential equations, multistepmethods, finite-difference methods, initial value problemProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1359
47 Recursive Least Squares Adaptive Filter a better ISI Compensator
Authors: O. P. Sharma, V. Janyani, S. Sancheti
Inter-symbol interference if not taken care off may cause severe error at the receiver and the detection of signal becomes difficult. An adaptive equalizer employing Recursive Least Squares algorithm can be a good compensation for the ISI problem. In this paper performance of communication link in presence of Least Mean Square and Recursive Least Squares equalizer algorithm is analyzed. A Model of communication system having Quadrature amplitude modulation and Rician fading channel is implemented using MATLAB communication block set. Bit error rate and number of errors is evaluated for RLS and LMS equalizer algorithm, due to change in Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and fading component gain in Rician fading Channel.
Keywords: Least mean square (LMS), Recursive least squares(RLS), Adaptive equalization, Bit error rate (BER), Rician fading channel, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), Signal to noiseratio (SNR).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2949
46 Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Comparative Analysis: Modulation Formats and Channel Spacings
Authors: A. Fayad, Q. Alqhazaly, T. Cinkler
In light of the substantial increase in end-user requirements and the incessant need of network operators to upgrade the capabilities of access networks, in this paper, the performance of the different modulation formats on eight-channels Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network (TWDM-PON) transmission system has been examined and compared. Limitations and features of modulation formats have been determined to outline the most suitable design to enhance the data rate and transmission reach to obtain the best performance of the network. The considered modulation formats are On-Off Keying Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ-OOK), Carrier Suppressed Return to Zero (CSRZ), Duo Binary (DB), Modified Duo Binary (MODB), Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), and Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK). The performance has been analyzed by varying transmission distances and bit rates under different channel spacing. Furthermore, the system is evaluated in terms of minimum Bit Error Rate (BER) and Quality factor (Qf) without applying any dispersion compensation technique, or any optical amplifier. Optisystem software was used for simulation purposes.
Keywords: Bit Error Rate, BER, Carrier Suppressed Return to Zero, CSRZ, Duo Binary, DB, Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, DQPSK, Modified Duo Binary, MODB, On-Off Keying Non-Return-to-Zero, NRZ-OOK, Quality factor, Qf, Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network, TWDM-PON.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 745
45 Bit Error Rate Monitoring for Automatic Bias Control of Quadrature Amplitude Modulators
Authors: Naji Ali Albakay, Abdulrahman Alothaim, Isa Barshushi
The most common quadrature amplitude modulator (QAM) applies two Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZM) and one phase shifter to generate high order modulation format. The bias of MZM changes over time due to temperature, vibration, and aging factors. The change in the biasing causes distortion to the generated QAM signal which leads to deterioration of bit error rate (BER) performance. Therefore, it is critical to be able to lock MZM’s Q point to the required operating point for good performance. We propose a technique for automatic bias control (ABC) of QAM transmitter using BER measurements and gradient descent optimization algorithm. The proposed technique is attractive because it uses the pertinent metric, BER, which compensates for bias drifting independently from other system variations such as laser source output power. The proposed scheme performance and its operating principles are simulated using OptiSystem simulation software for 4-QAM and 16-QAM transmitters.
Keywords: Automatic bias control, optical fiber communication, optical modulation, optical devices.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 348
44 Third Order Current-mode Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with High Output Impedances
Authors: Kritphon Phanruttanachai, Winai Jaikla
Abstract:This article presents a current-mode quadrature oscillator using differential different current conveyor (DDCC) and voltage differencing transconductance amplifier (VDTA) as active elements. The proposed circuit is realized fro m a non-inverting lossless integrator and an inverting second order low-pass filter. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be electronically/orthogonally controlled via input bias currents. The circuit description is very simple, consisting of merely 1 DDCC, 1 VDTA, 1 grounded resistor and 3 grounded capacitors. Using only grounded elements, the proposed circuit is then suitable for IC architecture. The proposed oscillator has high output impedance which is easy to cascade or dive the external load without the buffer devices. The PSPICE simulation results are depicted, and the given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The power consumption is approximately 1.76mW at ±1.25V supply voltages.
Keywords: Current-mode, oscillator, integrated circuit, DDCC, VDTAProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2228