Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 141

Search results for: Continuity

141 Knowledge Continuity as a Part of Business Continuity Management

Authors: H. Urbancova, J. Urbanec

Abstract:

Today the intangible assets are the capital of knowledge and are the most important and the most valuable resource for organizations. All employees have knowledge independently of the kind of jobs they do. Knowledge is thus an asset, which influences business operations. The objective of this article is to identify knowledge continuity as an objective of business continuity management. The article has been prepared based on the analysis of secondary sources and the evaluation of primary sources of data by means of a quantitative survey conducted in the Czech Republic. The conclusion of the article is that organizations that apply business continuity management do not focus on the preservation of the knowledge of key employees. Organizations ensure knowledge continuity only intuitively, on a random basis, non-systematically and discontinuously. The non-ensuring of knowledge continuity represents a threat of loss of key knowledge for organizations and can also negatively affect business continuity.

Keywords: Business continuity, knowledge, organizations, survey.

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140 Advantages and Disadvantages of Business Continuity Management

Authors: K. Venclova, H. Urbancova, H. Vostra Vydrova

Abstract:

In current global economics the application of Business Continuity Management is the prerequisite for sustainable competitive advantage in an organization. Business Continuity Management is a managerial which identifies the potential impact of losses in an organization. The aim of this paper is to identify and critically evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of deploying Business Continuity Management in an organization on the basis of seven criteria. The strongest advantage of Business Continuity Management is in its capacity to identify a crisis situation and help the organization to flexibly and also to keep the critical knowledge within the organization. By contrast the main disadvantage is that establishing Business Continuity Management in an organization is time-consuming and its implementation as an integral part of the organizational culture present significant difficulties.

Keywords: Business continuity management, criteria, advantages, disadvantages, organisations, survey.

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139 Generating Arabic Fonts Using Rational Cubic Ball Functions

Authors: Fakharuddin Ibrahim, Jamaludin Md. Ali, Ahmad Ramli

Abstract:

In this paper, we will discuss about the data interpolation by using the rational cubic Ball curve. To generate a curve with a better and satisfactory smoothness, the curve segments must be connected with a certain amount of continuity. The continuity that we will consider is of type G1 continuity. The conditions considered are known as the G1 Hermite condition. A simple application of the proposed method is to generate an Arabic font satisfying the required continuity.

Keywords: Continuity, data interpolation, Hermite condition, rational Ball curve.

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138 Usage of Military Continuity Management System for Supporting of Emergency Management

Authors: R. Hajkova, J. Palecek, H. Malachova, A. Oulehlova

Abstract:

Ensuring of continuity of business is basic strategy of every company. Continuity of organization activities includes comprehensive procedures that help in solving unexpected situations of natural and anthropogenic character (for example flood, blaze, economic situations). Planning of continuity operations is a process that helps identify critical processes and implement plans for the security and recovery of key processes. The aim of this article is to demonstrate application of system approach to managing business continuity called business continuity management systems in military issues. This article describes the life cycle of business continuity management which is based on the established cycle PDCA (Plan- Do-Check-Act). After this is carried out by activities which are making by University of Defence during activation of forces and means of the integrated rescue system in case of emergencies - accidents at a nuclear power plant in Czech Republic. Activities of various stages of deployment earmarked forces and resources are managed and evaluated by using MCMS application (Military Continuity Management System).

Keywords: Business continuity management system, emergency management, military, nuclear safety.

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137 The Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Continuity and Memory

Authors: Andrey R. Khazbulatov, Moldir Nurpeiis

Abstract:

Contemporary science and technologies largely widen the gap between the spiritual and rational of the society. Industrial and technological breakthroughs might radically affect most processes in the society, thus losing the cultural heritage. The thinkers recognized the dangers of the decadence in the first place. In the present article the ways of preserving cultural heritage have been investigated. Memory has always been a necessary condition for selfidentification, - continuity is based on this. The authors have supported the hypothesis that continuity and ethnic memory are the very mechanisms that preserve cultural heritage. Such problemformulating will facilitate another, new look at the material, spiritual and arts spheres of the cultural heritage of numerous ethnic groups. The fundamental works by major European and Kazakh scientists have been taken as a basis for the research done.

Keywords: Continuity, cultural heritage, ethnic memory

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136 Scenarios of Societal Security and Business Continuity Cycles

Authors: Jiří F. Urbánek, Jiří Barta

Abstract:

Societal security, continuity scenarios and methodological cycling approach explained in this article. Namely societal security organizational challenges ask implementation of international standards BS 25999-2 & global ISO 22300 which is a family of standards for business continuity management system. Efficient global organization system is distinguished of high entity´s complexity, connectivity & interoperability, having not only cooperative relations in a fact. Competing business have numerous participating ´enemies´, which are in apparent or hidden opponent and antagonistic roles with prosperous organization system, resulting to a crisis scene or even to a battle theatre. Organization business continuity scenarios are necessary for such ´a play´ preparedness, planning, management & overmastering in real environments.

Keywords: Business Continuity, Societal Security Crisis Scenarios Cycles.

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135 Usage of Military Continuity Management System for Flooding Solution

Authors: J. Palecek, R. Hajkova, A. Oulehlova, H. Malachova

Abstract:

Increase of emergency incidents and crisis situations requires proactive crisis management of authorities and for its solution. Application Business Continuity Management helps the crisis management authorities to quickly and responsibly respond to threats. It also helps effectively and efficiently planning powers and resources. The main goal of this article is describing Military Continuity Management System (MCMS) based on the principles of Business Continuity Management System (BCMS) for dealing with floods in the territory of the selected municipalities. There are explained steps of loading, running and evaluating activities in the software application MCMS. Software MCMS provides complete control over the tasks, contribute a comprehensive and responsible approach solutions to solution floods in the municipality.

Keywords: Business Continuity Management, Floods Plan, Flood Activity, Level of Flood Activity.

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134 Research on Applying the Continuity Care Document to Generate a Medical Record with Entry Level

Authors: Hsing-Yi Kao, Der-Ming Liou

Abstract:

Transferring patient information between medical care sites is necessary to deliver better patient care and to reduce medical cost. So developing of electronic medical records is an important trend for the world.The Continuity of Care Document (CCD) is product of collaboration between CDA and CCR standards. In this study, we will develop a system to generate medical records with entry level based on CCD template module.

Keywords: Continuity Care Document, medical record, entrylevel

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133 Role of Personnel Planning in Business Continuity Management

Authors: M. Königová, J. Fejfar

Abstract:

Business continuity management (BCM) identifies potential external and internal threats to an organization and their impacts to business operations. The goal of the article is to identify, based on the analysis of employee turnover in organizations in the Czech Republic, the role of personnel planning in BCM. The article is organized as follows. The first part of the article concentrates on the theoretical background of the topic. The second part of the article is dedicated to the evaluation of the outcomes of the survey conducted (questionnaire survey), focusing on the analysis of employee turnover in organizations in the Czech Republic. The final part of the article underlines the role of personnel planning in BCM, since poor planning of staff needs in an organization can represent a future threat for business continuity ensuring.

Keywords: Business continuity management, key employees, personnel planning, turnover.

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132 An Introduction to the Concept of University – Community Business Continuity Management for Disaster Resilient City

Authors: Siyanee Hirunsalee, Paola Rizziand Hidehiko Kanegae

Abstract:

The fundamental objective of the university is to genuinely provide a higher education to mankind and society. Higher education institutions earn billions of dollars in research funds, granted by national government or related institutions, which literally came from taxpayers. Everyday universities consume those grants; in return, provide society with a human resource and research developments. However, not all taxpayers have their major concerns on those researches, other than that they are more curiously to see the project being build tangibly and evidently to certify what they pay for. This paper introduces the concept of University – Community Business Continuity Management for Disaster – Resilient City, which modified the concept of Business Continuity Management (BCM) toward university community to create advancing collaboration leading to the disaster – resilient community and city. This paper focuses on describing in details the backgrounds and principles of the concept and discussing the advantages and limitations of the concept.

Keywords: Business Continuity Management, Disaster ResilientCity, Disaster Management, University – Community Collaboration.

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131 Evaluation of Service Continuity in a Self-organizing IMS

Authors: Satoshi Komorita, Tsunehiko Chiba, Hidetoshi Yokota, Ashutosh Dutta, Christian Makaya, Subir Das, Dana Chee, F. Joe Lin, Henning Schulzrinne

Abstract:

The NGN (Next Generation Network), which can provide advanced multimedia services over an all-IP based network, has been the subject of much attention for years. While there have been tremendous efforts to develop its architecture and protocols, especially for IMS, which is a key technology of the NGN, it is far from being widely deployed. However, efforts to create an advanced signaling infrastructure realizing many requirements have resulted in a large number of functional components and interactions between those components. Thus, the carriers are trying to explore effective ways to deploy IMS while offering value-added services. As one such approach, we have proposed a self-organizing IMS. A self-organizing IMS enables IMS functional components and corresponding physical nodes to adapt dynamically and automatically based on situation such as network load and available system resources while continuing IMS operation. To realize this, service continuity for users is an important requirement when a reconfiguration occurs during operation. In this paper, we propose a mechanism that will provide service continuity to users and focus on the implementation and describe performance evaluation in terms of number of control signaling and processing time during reconfiguration

Keywords: IMS, SIP, Service Continuity, Self-organizing, and Performance.

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130 Modeling of PZ in Haunch Connections Systems

Authors: Peyman Shadman Heidari, Roohollah Ahmady Jazany, Mahmood Reza Mehran, Pouya Shadman Heidari, Mohammad khorasani

Abstract:

Modeling of Panel Zone (PZ) seismic behavior, because of its role in overall ductility and lateral stiffness of steel moment frames, has been considered a challenge for years. There are some studies regarding the effects of different doubler plates thicknesses and geometric properties of PZ on its seismic behavior. However, there is not much investigation on the effects of number of provided continuity plates in case of presence of one triangular haunch, two triangular haunches and rectangular haunch (T shape haunches) for exterior columns. In this research first detailed finite element models of 12tested connection of SAC joint venture were created and analyzed then obtained cyclic behavior backbone curves of these models besides other FE models for similar tests were used for neural network training. Then seismic behavior of these data is categorized according to continuity plate-s arrangements and differences in type of haunches. PZ with one-sided haunches have little plastic rotation. As the number of continuity plates increases due to presence of two triangular haunches (four continuity plate), there will be no plastic rotation, in other words PZ behaves in its elastic range. In the case of rectangular haunch, PZ show more plastic rotation in comparison with one-sided triangular haunch and especially double-sided triangular haunches. Moreover, the models that will be presented in case of triangular one-sided and double- sided haunches and rectangular haunches as a result of this study seem to have a proper estimation of PZ seismic behavior.

Keywords: Continuity plate, FE models, Neural network, Panel zone, Plastic rotation, Rectangular haunch, Seismic behavior

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129 CSOLAP (Continuous Spatial On-Line Analytical Processing)

Authors: Taher Omran Ahmed, Abdullatif Mihdi Buras

Abstract:

Decision support systems are usually based on multidimensional structures which use the concept of hypercube. Dimensions are the axes on which facts are analyzed and form a space where a fact is located by a set of coordinates at the intersections of members of dimensions. Conventional multidimensional structures deal with discrete facts linked to discrete dimensions. However, when dealing with natural continuous phenomena the discrete representation is not adequate. There is a need to integrate spatiotemporal continuity within multidimensional structures to enable analysis and exploration of continuous field data. Research issues that lead to the integration of spatiotemporal continuity in multidimensional structures are numerous. In this paper, we discuss research issues related to the integration of continuity in multidimensional structures, present briefly a multidimensional model for continuous field data. We also define new aggregation operations. The model and the associated operations and measures are validated by a prototype.

Keywords: Continuous Data, Data warehousing, DecisionSupport, SOLAP

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128 Continuity Planning in Supply Chain Networks: Degrees of Freedom and Application in the Risk Management Process

Authors: Marco Bötel, Tobias Gelau, Wendelin Gross

Abstract:

Supply chain networks are frequently hit by unplanned events which lead to disruptions and cause operational and financial consequences. It is neither possible to avoid disruption risk entirely, nor are network members able to prepare for every possible disruptive event. Therefore a continuity planning should be set up which supports effective operational responses in supply chain networks in times of emergencies. In this research network related degrees of freedom which determine the options for responsive actions are derived from interview data. The findings are further embedded into a common risk management process. The paper provides support for researchers and practitioners to identify the network related options for responsive actions and to determine the need for improving the reaction capabilities.

Keywords: Supply Chain Risk Management, Business Continuity Planning, Degrees of Freedom, Risk Management Process, Mitigation Measures.

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127 Continuity of Defuzzification and Its Application to Fuzzy Control

Authors: Takashi Mitsuishi, Kiyoshi Sawada, Yasunari Shidama

Abstract:

The mathematical framework for studying of a fuzzy approximate reasoning is presented in this paper. Two important defuzzification methods (Area defuzzification and Height defuzzification) besides the center of gravity method which is the best well known defuzzification method are described. The continuity of the defuzzification methods and its application to a fuzzy feedback control are discussed.

Keywords: Fuzzy approximate reasoning, defuzzification, area method, height method.

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126 Semilocal Convergence of a Three Step Fifth Order Iterative Method under Höolder Continuity Condition in Banach Spaces

Authors: Ramandeep Behl, Prashanth Maroju, S. S. Motsa

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the semilocal convergence of a fifth order iterative method using recurrence relation under the assumption that first order Fréchet derivative satisfies the Hölder condition. Also, we calculate the R-order of convergence and provide some a priori error bounds. Based on this, we give existence and uniqueness region of the solution for a nonlinear Hammerstein integral equation of the second kind.

Keywords: Hölder continuity condition, Fréchet derivative, fifth order convergence, recurrence relations.

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125 Spherical Spectrum Properties of Quaternionic Operators

Authors: Yiwan Guo, Fahui Zhai

Abstract:

In this paper, the similarity invariant and the upper semi-continuity of spherical spectrum, and the spherical spectrum properties for infinite direct sums of quaternionic operators are characterized, respectively. As an application of some results established, a concrete example about the computation of the spherical spectrum of a compact quaternionic operator with form of infinite direct sums of quaternionic matrices is also given.

Keywords: Spherical spectrum, Quaternionic operator, Upper semi-continuity, Direct sum of operators.

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124 The Same or Not the Same - On the Variety of Mechanisms of Path Dependence

Authors: Jürgen Beyer

Abstract:

In association with path dependence, researchers often talk of institutional “lock-in", thereby indicating that far-reaching path deviation or path departure are to be regarded as exceptional cases. This article submits the alleged general inclination for stability of path-dependent processes to a critical review. The different reasons for path dependence found in the literature indicate that different continuity-ensuring mechanisms are at work when people talk about path dependence (“increasing returns", complementarity, sequences etc.). As these mechanisms are susceptible to fundamental change in different ways and to different degrees, the path dependence concept alone is of only limited explanatory value. It is therefore indispensable to identify the underlying continuity-ensuring mechanism as well if a statement-s empirical value is to go beyond the trivial, always true “history matters".

Keywords: path dependence, increasing returns, historicalinstitutionalism, lock-in.

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123 Characterization of the In0.53Ga0.47As n+nn+ Photodetectors

Authors: Fatima Zohra Mahi, Luca Varani

Abstract:

We present an analytical model for the calculation of the sensitivity, the spectral current noise and the detective parameter for an optically illuminated In0.53Ga0.47As n+nn+ diode. The photocurrent due to the excess carrier is obtained by solving the continuity equation. Moreover, the current noise level is evaluated at room temperature and under a constant voltage applied between the diode terminals. The analytical calculation of the current noise in the n+nn+ structure is developed by considering the free carries fluctuations. The responsivity and the detection parameter are discussed as functions of the doping concentrations and the emitter layer thickness in one-dimensional homogeneous n+nn+ structure.

Keywords: Responsivity, detection parameter, photo-detectors, continuity equation, current noise.

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122 Design of Buffer Management for Industry to Avoid Sensor Data- Conflicts

Authors: Dae-ho Won, Jong-wook Hong, Yeon-Mo Yang, Jinung An

Abstract:

To reduce accidents in the industry, WSNs(Wireless Sensor networks)- sensor data is used. WSNs- sensor data has the persistence and continuity. therefore, we design and exploit the buffer management system that has the persistence and continuity to avoid and delivery data conflicts. To develop modules, we use the multi buffers and design the buffer management modules that transfer sensor data through the context-aware methods.

Keywords: safe management system, buffer management, context-aware, input data stream

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121 Corporate Knowledge Communication and Knowledge Communication Difficulties

Authors: H. Buluthan Cetintas, M. Nejat Ozupek

Abstract:

Communication is an important factor and a prop in directing corporate activities efficiently, in ensuring the flow of knowledge which is necessary for the continuity of the institution, in creating a common language in the institution, in transferring corporate culture and ultimately in corporate success. The idea of transmitting the knowledge among the workers in a healthy manner has revived knowledge communication. Knowledge communication can be defined as the act of mutual creation and communication of intuitions, assessments, experiences and capabilities, as long as maintained effectively, can provide advantages such as corporate continuity, access to corporate objectives and making true administrative decisions. Although the benefits of the knowledge communication to corporations are known, and the necessary worth and care is given, some hardships may arise which makes it difficult or even block it. In this article, difficulties that prevent knowledge communication will be discussed and solutions will be proposed.

Keywords: Corporate knowledge communication, knowledge communication, knowledge communication barriers

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120 A Study on Applying 3D Reconstruction to 3D Last Morphing

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Rong-Qi Chen, Chien-Yu Lin

Abstract:

When it comes to last, it is regarded as the critical foundation of shoe design and development. A computer aided methodology for various last form designs is proposed in this study. The reverse engineering is mainly applied to the process of scanning for the last form. Then with the minimum energy for revision of surface continuity, the surface reconstruction of last is rebuilt by the feature curves of the scanned last. When the surface reconstruction of last is completed, the weighted arithmetic mean method is applied to the computation on the shape morphing for the control mesh of last, thus 3D last form of different sizes is generated from its original form feature with functions remained. In the end, the result of this study is applied to an application for 3D last reconstruction system. The practicability of the proposed methodology is verified through later case studies.

Keywords: Reverse engineering, Surface reconstruction, Surface continuity, Shape morphing.

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119 Managing, Sustaining, and Future Proofing the Business of Educational Provision Following Large-Scale Disaster and Disruption

Authors: Judy Yarwood, Lesley Seaton, Philippa Seaton

Abstract:

A catastrophic earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the Christchurch, New Zealand Central Business District on February 22, 2012, abruptly disrupting the business of teaching and learning at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology. This paper presents the findings from a study undertaken about the complexity of delivering an educational programme in the face of this traumatic natural event. Nine interconnected themes emerged from this multiple method study: communication, decision making, leader- and follower-ship, balancing personal and professional responsibilities, taking action, preparedness and thinking ahead, all within a disruptive and uncertain context. Sustainable responses that maximise business continuity, and provide solutions to practical challenges, are among the study-s recommendations.

Keywords: Business continuity, earthquake, education, sustainability

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118 Trustworthy Link Failure Recovery Algorithm for Highly Dynamic Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram

Abstract:

The Trustworthy link failure recovery algorithm is introduced in this paper, to provide the forwarding continuity even with compound link failures. The ephemeral failures are common in IP networks and it also has some proposals based on local rerouting. To ensure forwarding continuity, we are introducing the compound link failure recovery algorithm, even with compound link failures. For forwarding the information, each packet carries a blacklist, which is a min set of failed links encountered along its path, and the next hop is chosen by excluding the blacklisted links. Our proposed method describes how it can be applied to ensure forwarding to all reachable destinations in case of any two or more link or node failures in the network. After simulating with NS2 contains lot of samples proved that the proposed protocol achieves exceptional concert even under elevated node mobility using Trustworthy link Failure Recovery Algorithm.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Predistribution Scheme, Cryptographic Techniques.

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117 Parametric Transition as a Spiral Curve and Its Application in Spur Gear Tooth with FEA

Authors: S. H. Yahaya, J. M. Ali, T.A. Abdullah

Abstract:

The exploration of this paper will focus on the Cshaped transition curve. This curve is designed by using the concept of circle to circle where one circle lies inside other. The degree of smoothness employed is curvature continuity. The function used in designing the C-curve is Bézier-like cubic function. This function has a low degree, flexible for the interactive design of curves and surfaces and has a shape parameter. The shape parameter is used to control the C-shape curve. Once the C-shaped curve design is completed, this curve will be applied to design spur gear tooth. After the tooth design procedure is finished, the design will be analyzed by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This analysis is used to find out the applicability of the tooth design and the gear material that chosen. In this research, Cast Iron 4.5 % Carbon, ASTM A-48 is selected as a gear material.

Keywords: Bézier-like cubic function, Curvature continuity, Cshapedtransition curve, Spur gear tooth.

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116 An Exact Solution of Axi-symmetric Conductive Heat Transfer in Cylindrical Composite Laminate under the General Boundary Condition

Authors: M.kayhani, M.Nourouzi, A. Amiri Delooei

Abstract:

This study presents an exact general solution for steady-state conductive heat transfer in cylindrical composite laminates. Appropriate Fourier transformation has been obtained using Sturm-Liouville theorem. Series coefficients are achieved by solving a set of equations that related to thermal boundary conditions at inner and outer of the cylinder, also related to temperature continuity and heat flux continuity between each layer. The solution of this set of equations are obtained using Thomas algorithm. In this paper, the effect of fibers- angle on temperature distribution of composite laminate is investigated under general boundary conditions. Here, we show that the temperature distribution for any composite laminates is between temperature distribution for laminates with θ = 0° and θ = 90° .

Keywords: exact solution, composite laminate, heat conduction, cylinder, Fourier transformation.

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115 Line Heating Forming: Methodology and Application Using Kriging and Fifth Order Spline Formulations

Authors: Henri Champliaud, Zhengkun Feng, Ngan Van Lê, Javad Gholipour

Abstract:

In this article, a method is presented to effectively estimate the deformed shape of a thick plate due to line heating. The method uses a fifth order spline interpolation, with up to C3 continuity at specific points to compute the shape of the deformed geometry. First and second order derivatives over a surface are the resulting parameters of a given heating line on a plate. These parameters are determined through experiments and/or finite element simulations. Very accurate kriging models are fitted to real or virtual surfaces to build-up a database of maps. Maps of first and second order derivatives are then applied on numerical plate models to evaluate their evolving shapes through a sequence of heating lines. Adding an optimization process to this approach would allow determining the trajectories of heating lines needed to shape complex geometries, such as Francis turbine blades.

Keywords: Deformation, kriging, fifth order spline interpolation, first, second and third order derivatives, C3 continuity, line heating, plate forming, thermal forming.

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114 Computational Assistance of the Research, Using Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes for Critical Infrastructure Subjects Continuity

Authors: J. Urbánek Jiří, Krahulec Josef, Johanidesová Jitka, F. Urbánek Jiří

Abstract:

This paper deals with using of prevailing operation system MS Office (SmartArt...) for mathematical models, using DYVELOP (Dynamic Vector Logistics of Processes) method. It serves for crisis situations investigation and modelling within the organizations of critical infrastructure. In first part of paper, it will be introduced entities, operators, and actors of DYVELOP method. It uses just three operators of Boolean algebra and four types of the entities: the Environments, the Process Systems, the Cases, and the Controlling. The Process Systems (PrS) have five “brothers”: Management PrS, Transformation PrS, Logistic PrS, Event PrS and Operation PrS. The Cases have three “sisters”: Process Cell Case, Use Case, and Activity Case. They all need for the controlling of their functions special Ctrl actors, except ENV – it can do without Ctrl. Model´s maps are named the Blazons and they are able mathematically - graphically express the relationships among entities, actors and processes. In second part of this paper, the rich blazons of DYVELOP method will be used for the discovering and modelling of the cycling cases and their phases. The blazons need live PowerPoint presentation for better comprehension of this paper mission. The crisis management of energetic crisis infrastructure organization is obliged to use the cycles for successful coping of crisis situations. Several times cycling of these cases is necessary condition for the encompassment for both emergency events and the mitigation of organization´s damages. Uninterrupted and continuous cycling process brings for crisis management fruitfulness and it is good indicator and controlling actor of organizational continuity and its sustainable development advanced possibilities. The research reliable rules are derived for the safety and reliable continuity of energetic critical infrastructure organization in the crisis situation.

Keywords: Blazons, computational assistance, DYVELOP method, critical infrastructure.

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113 Behavioural-Orientation and Continuity of Informality in Ghana

Authors: Yvonne Ayerki Lamptey

Abstract:

The expanding informal sector in developing countries and in Ghana in particular from the 1980s has now been aggravated by the growing population and downsizing in both the public and private sectors, with displaced workers finding alternative livelihoods in the informal sector. Youth and graduate unemployment also swell the numbers and further promote the continuity of the sector. Formal workers and institutions facilitate the growth and complicate demarcations between informality within the formal and informal sectors. In spite of its growth and increasing importance, the informal economy does not feature in policy debates and has often been neglected by the Ghana government. The phenomenon has evolved with modernity into myriad unimaginable forms. Indeed, actors within the sector often clash with the interventions provided by policy makers - because neither the operatives nor the activities they perform can be clearly defined. This study uses in-depth interviews to explore the behavioural nature of the informal workers in Ghana to understand how the operatives describe and perceive the sector, and to identify the factors that influence their drive to stay within the sector. This paper concludes that the operatives clearly distinguish between the formal and informal sectors and identify the characteristics and conditions that constitute the informal sector. Other workers are trapped between formality and informality. The findings also enumerate the push and pull factors contributing to the growth of the sector.

Keywords: Informal work, informal sector, operatives, Sub-Saharan Africa, unemployment.

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112 Protection Plan of Medium Voltage Distribution Network in Tunisia

Authors: S. Chebbi, A. Meddeb

Abstract:

The distribution networks are often exposed to harmful incidents which can halt the electricity supply of the customer. In this context, we studied a real case of a critical zone of the Tunisian network which is currently characterized by the dysfunction of its plan of protection. In this paper, we were interested in the harmonization of the protection plan settings in order to ensure a perfect selectivity and a better continuity of service on the whole of the network.

Keywords: Distribution network Gabes-Tunisia, NEPLAN©DACH, protection plan settings, selectivity.

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