Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7101

Search results for: data interpolation

7101 A Novel Interpolation Scheme and Apparatus to Extend DAC Usable Spectrum over Nyquist Frequency

Authors: Wang liguo, Wang zongmin, Kong ying

Abstract:

A novel interpolation scheme to extend usable spectrum and upconvert in high performance D/A converters is addressed in this paper. By adjusting the pulse width of cycle and the production circuit of code, the expansion code is a null code or complementary code that is interpolation process. What the times and codes of interpolation decide DAC works in one of a normal mode or multi-mixer mode so that convert the input digital data signal into normal signal or a mixed analog signal having a mixer frequency that is higher than the data frequency. Simulation results show that the novel scheme and apparatus most extend the usable frequency spectrum into fifth to sixth Nyquist zone beyond conventional DACs.

Keywords: interpolation, upconversion, modulation, switching function, duty cycle.

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7100 Better Perception of Low Resolution Images Using Wavelet Interpolation Techniques

Authors: Tarun Gulati, Kapil Gupta, Dushyant Gupta

Abstract:

High resolution images are always desired as they contain the more information and they can better represent the original data. So, to convert the low resolution image into high resolution interpolation is done. The quality of such high resolution image depends on the interpolation function and is assessed in terms of sharpness of image. This paper focuses on Wavelet based Interpolation Techniques in which an input image is divided into subbands. Each subband is processed separately and finally combined the processed subbandsto get the super resolution image. 

Keywords: SWT, DWTSR, DWTSWT, DWCWT.

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7099 Interpolation of Geofield Parameters

Authors: A. Pashayev, C. Ardil, R. Sadiqov

Abstract:

Various methods of geofield parameters restoration (by algebraic polynoms; filters; rational fractions; interpolation splines; geostatistical methods – kriging; search methods of nearest points – inverse distance, minimum curvature, local – polynomial interpolation; neural networks) have been analyzed and some possible mistakes arising during geofield surface modeling have been presented.

Keywords: interpolation methods, geofield parameters, neural networks.

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7098 Visualization of Sediment Thickness Variation for Sea Bed Logging using Spline Interpolation

Authors: Hanita Daud, Noorhana Yahya, Vijanth Sagayan, Muizuddin Talib

Abstract:

This paper discusses on the use of Spline Interpolation and Mean Square Error (MSE) as tools to process data acquired from the developed simulator that shall replicate sea bed logging environment. Sea bed logging (SBL) is a new technique that uses marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) sounding technique and is proven to be very successful in detecting and characterizing hydrocarbon reservoirs in deep water area by using resistivity contrasts. It uses very low frequency of 0.1Hz to 10 Hz to obtain greater wavelength. In this work the in house built simulator was used and was provided with predefined parameters and the transmitted frequency was varied for sediment thickness of 1000m to 4000m for environment with and without hydrocarbon. From series of simulations, synthetics data were generated. These data were interpolated using Spline interpolation technique (degree of three) and mean square error (MSE) were calculated between original data and interpolated data. Comparisons were made by studying the trends and relationship between frequency and sediment thickness based on the MSE calculated. It was found that the MSE was on increasing trends in the set up that has the presence of hydrocarbon in the setting than the one without. The MSE was also on decreasing trends as sediment thickness was increased and with higher transmitted frequency.

Keywords: Spline Interpolation, Mean Square Error, Sea Bed Logging, Controlled Source Electromagnetic

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7097 Statistical Approach to Basis Function Truncation in Digital Interpolation Filters

Authors: F. Castillo, J. Arellano, S. Sánchez

Abstract:

In this paper an alternative analysis in the time domain is described and the results of the interpolation process are presented by means of functions that are based on the rule of conditional mathematical expectation and the covariance function. A comparison between the interpolation error caused by low order filters and the classic sinc(t) truncated function is also presented. When fewer samples are used, low-order filters have less error. If the number of samples increases, the sinc(t) type functions are a better alternative. Generally speaking there is an optimal filter for each input signal which depends on the filter length and covariance function of the signal. A novel scheme of work for adaptive interpolation filters is also presented.

Keywords: Interpolation, basis function, over-sampling.

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7096 A Survey on Lossless Compression of Bayer Color Filter Array Images

Authors: Alina Trifan, António J. R. Neves

Abstract:

Although most digital cameras acquire images in a raw format, based on a Color Filter Array that arranges RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors, most image compression techniques do not use the raw data; instead, they use the rgb result of an interpolation algorithm of the raw data. This approach is inefficient and by performing a lossless compression of the raw data, followed by pixel interpolation, digital cameras could be more power efficient and provide images with increased resolution given that the interpolation step could be shifted to an external processing unit. In this paper, we conduct a survey on the use of lossless compression algorithms with raw Bayer images. Moreover, in order to reduce the effect of the transition between colors that increase the entropy of the raw Bayer image, we split the image into three new images corresponding to each channel (red, green and blue) and we study the same compression algorithms applied to each one individually. This simple pre-processing stage allows an improvement of more than 15% in predictive based methods.

Keywords: Bayer images, CFA, losseless compression, image coding standards.

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7095 A Conservative Multi-block Algorithm for Two-dimensional Numerical Model

Authors: Yaoxin Zhang, Yafei Jia, Sam S.Y. Wang

Abstract:

A multi-block algorithm and its implementation in two-dimensional finite element numerical model CCHE2D are presented. In addition to a conventional Lagrangian Interpolation Method (LIM), a novel interpolation method, called Consistent Interpolation Method (CIM), is proposed for more accurate information transfer across the interfaces. The consistent interpolation solves the governing equations over the auxiliary elements constructed around the interpolation nodes using the same numerical scheme used for the internal computational nodes. With the CIM, the momentum conservation can be maintained as well as the mass conservation. An imbalance correction scheme is used to enforce the conservation laws (mass and momentum) across the interfaces. Comparisons of the LIM and the CIM are made using several flow simulation examples. It is shown that the proposed CIM is physically more accurate and produces satisfactory results efficiently.

Keywords: Multi-block algorithm, conservation, interpolation, numerical model, flow simulation.

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7094 Generating Arabic Fonts Using Rational Cubic Ball Functions

Authors: Fakharuddin Ibrahim, Jamaludin Md. Ali, Ahmad Ramli

Abstract:

In this paper, we will discuss about the data interpolation by using the rational cubic Ball curve. To generate a curve with a better and satisfactory smoothness, the curve segments must be connected with a certain amount of continuity. The continuity that we will consider is of type G1 continuity. The conditions considered are known as the G1 Hermite condition. A simple application of the proposed method is to generate an Arabic font satisfying the required continuity.

Keywords: Continuity, data interpolation, Hermite condition, rational Ball curve.

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7093 A Localized Interpolation Method Using Radial Basis Functions

Authors: Mehdi Tatari

Abstract:

Finding the interpolation function of a given set of nodes is an important problem in scientific computing. In this work a kind of localization is introduced using the radial basis functions which finds a sufficiently smooth solution without consuming large amount of time and computer memory. Some examples will be presented to show the efficiency of the new method.

Keywords: Radial basis functions, local interpolation method, closed form solution.

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7092 Image Magnification Using Adaptive Interpolationby Pixel Level Data-Dependent Geometrical Shapes

Authors: Muhammad Sajjad, Naveed Khattak, Noman Jafri

Abstract:

World has entered in 21st century. The technology of computer graphics and digital cameras is prevalent. High resolution display and printer are available. Therefore high resolution images are needed in order to produce high quality display images and high quality prints. However, since high resolution images are not usually provided, there is a need to magnify the original images. One common difficulty in the previous magnification techniques is that of preserving details, i.e. edges and at the same time smoothing the data for not introducing the spurious artefacts. A definitive solution to this is still an open issue. In this paper an image magnification using adaptive interpolation by pixel level data-dependent geometrical shapes is proposed that tries to take into account information about the edges (sharp luminance variations) and smoothness of the image. It calculate threshold, classify interpolation region in the form of geometrical shapes and then assign suitable values inside interpolation region to the undefined pixels while preserving the sharp luminance variations and smoothness at the same time. The results of proposed technique has been compared qualitatively and quantitatively with five other techniques. In which the qualitative results show that the proposed method beats completely the Nearest Neighbouring (NN), bilinear(BL) and bicubic(BC) interpolation. The quantitative results are competitive and consistent with NN, BL, BC and others.

Keywords: Adaptive, digital image processing, imagemagnification, interpolation, geometrical shapes, qualitative &quantitative analysis.

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7091 Enhance Image Transmission Based on DWT with Pixel Interleaver

Authors: Muhanned Alfarras

Abstract:

The recent growth of using multimedia transmission over wireless communication systems, have challenges to protect the data from lost due to wireless channel effect. Images are corrupted due to the noise and fading when transmitted over wireless channel, in wireless channel the image is transmitted block by block, Due to severe fading, entire image blocks can be damaged. The aim of this paper comes out from need to enhance the digital images at the wireless receiver side. Proposed Boundary Interpolation (BI) Algorithm using wavelet, have been adapted here used to reconstruction the lost block in the image at the receiver depend on the correlation between the lost block and its neighbors. New Proposed technique by using Boundary Interpolation (BI) Algorithm using wavelet with Pixel interleaver has been implemented. Pixel interleaver work on distribute the pixel to new pixel position of original image before transmitting the image. The block lost through wireless channel is only effects individual pixel. The lost pixels at the receiver side can be recovered by using Boundary Interpolation (BI) Algorithm using wavelet. The results showed that the New proposed algorithm boundary interpolation (BI) using wavelet with pixel interleaver is better in term of MSE and PSNR.

Keywords: Image Transmission, Wavelet, Pixel Interleaver, Boundary Interpolation Algorithm

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7090 A New Quadrature Rule Derived from Spline Interpolation with Error Analysis

Authors: Hadi Taghvafard

Abstract:

We present a new quadrature rule based on the spline interpolation along with the error analysis. Moreover, some error estimates for the reminder when the integrand is either a Lipschitzian function, a function of bounded variation or a function whose derivative belongs to Lp are given. We also give some examples to show that, practically, the spline rule is better than the trapezoidal rule.

Keywords: Quadrature, Spline interpolation, Trapezoidal rule, Numericalintegration, Error analysis.

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7089 Solving One-dimensional Hyperbolic Telegraph Equation Using Cubic B-spline Quasi-interpolation

Authors: Marzieh Dosti, Alireza Nazemi

Abstract:

In this paper, the telegraph equation is solved numerically by cubic B-spline quasi-interpolation .We obtain the numerical scheme, by using the derivative of the quasi-interpolation to approximate the spatial derivative of the dependent variable and a low order forward difference to approximate the temporal derivative of the dependent variable. The advantage of the resulting scheme is that the algorithm is very simple so it is very easy to implement. The results of numerical experiments are presented, and are compared with analytical solutions by calculating errors L2 and L∞ norms to confirm the good accuracy of the presented scheme.

Keywords: Cubic B-spline, quasi-interpolation, collocation method, second-order hyperbolic telegraph equation.

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7088 CT Reconstruction from a Limited Number of X-Ray Projections

Authors: Tao Quang Bang, Insu Jeon

Abstract:

Most CT reconstruction system x-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well established visualization technique in medicine and nondestructive testing. However, since CT scanning requires sampling of radiographic projections from different viewing angles, common CT systems with mechanically moving parts are too slow for dynamic imaging, for instance of multiphase flows or live animals. A large number of X-ray projections are needed to reconstruct CT images, so the collection and calculation of the projection data consume too much time and harmful for patient. For the purpose of solving the problem, in this study, we proposed a method for tomographic reconstruction of a sample from a limited number of x-ray projections by using linear interpolation method. In simulation, we presented reconstruction from an experimental x-ray CT scan of a Aluminum phantom that follows to two steps: X-ray projections will be interpolated using linear interpolation method and using it for CT reconstruction based upon Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method.

Keywords: CT reconstruction, X-ray projections, Interpolation technique, OSEM

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7087 Design of Nonlinear Observer by Using Chebyshev Interpolation based on Formal Linearization

Authors: Kazuo Komatsu, Hitoshi Takata

Abstract:

This paper discusses a design of nonlinear observer by a formal linearization method using an application of Chebyshev Interpolation in order to facilitate processes for synthesizing a nonlinear observer and to improve the precision of linearization. A dynamic nonlinear system is linearized with respect to a linearization function, and a measurement equation is transformed into an augmented linear one by the formal linearization method which is based on Chebyshev interpolation. To the linearized system, a linear estimation theory is applied and a nonlinear observer is derived. To show effectiveness of the observer design, numerical experiments are illustrated and they indicate that the design shows remarkable performances for nonlinear systems.

Keywords: nonlinear system, nonlinear observer, formal linearization, Chebyshev interpolation.

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7086 Adaptive Bidirectional Flow for Image Interpolation and Enhancement

Authors: Shujun Fu, Qiuqi Ruan, Wenqia Wang

Abstract:

Image interpolation is a common problem in imaging applications. However, most interpolation algorithms in existence suffer visually the effects of blurred edges and jagged artifacts in the image to some extent. This paper presents an adaptive feature preserving bidirectional flow process, where an inverse diffusion is performed to sharpen edges along the normal directions to the isophote lines (edges), while a normal diffusion is done to remove artifacts (“jaggies") along the tangent directions. In order to preserve image features such as edges, corners and textures, the nonlinear diffusion coefficients are locally adjusted according to the directional derivatives of the image. Experimental results on synthetic images and nature images demonstrate that our interpolation algorithm substantially improves the subjective quality of the interpolated images over conventional interpolations.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, bidirectional flow, directional derivatives, edge enhancement, image interpolation, inverse flow, shock filter.

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7085 An Efficient 3D Animation Data Reduction Using Frame Removal

Authors: Jinsuk Yang, Choongjae Joo, Kyoungsu Oh

Abstract:

Existing methods in which the animation data of all frames are stored and reproduced as with vertex animation cannot be used in mobile device environments because these methods use large amounts of the memory. So 3D animation data reduction methods aimed at solving this problem have been extensively studied thus far and we propose a new method as follows. First, we find and remove frames in which motion changes are small out of all animation frames and store only the animation data of remaining frames (involving large motion changes). When playing the animation, the removed frame areas are reconstructed using the interpolation of the remaining frames. Our key contribution is to calculate the accelerations of the joints of individual frames and the standard deviations of the accelerations using the information of joint locations in the relevant 3D model in order to find and delete frames in which motion changes are small. Our methods can reduce data sizes by approximately 50% or more while providing quality which is not much lower compared to original animations. Therefore, our method is expected to be usefully used in mobile device environments or other environments in which memory sizes are limited.

Keywords: Data Reduction, Interpolation, Vertex Animation, 3D Animation.

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7084 Complex Wavelet Transform Based Image Denoising and Zooming Under the LMMSE Framework

Authors: T. P. Athira, Gibin Chacko George

Abstract:

This paper proposes a dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) based directional interpolation scheme for noisy images. The problems of denoising and interpolation are modelled as to estimate the noiseless and missing samples under the same framework of optimal estimation. Initially, DT-CWT is used to decompose an input low-resolution noisy image into low and high frequency subbands. The high-frequency subband images are interpolated by linear minimum mean square estimation (LMMSE) based interpolation, which preserves the edges of the interpolated images. For each noisy LR image sample, we compute multiple estimates of it along different directions and then fuse those directional estimates for a more accurate denoised LR image. The estimation parameters calculated in the denoising processing can be readily used to interpolate the missing samples. The inverse DT-CWT is applied on the denoised input and interpolated high frequency subband images to obtain the high resolution image. Compared with the conventional schemes that perform denoising and interpolation in tandem, the proposed DT-CWT based noisy image interpolation method can reduce many noise-caused interpolation artifacts and preserve well the image edge structures. The visual and quantitative results show that the proposed technique outperforms many of the existing denoising and interpolation methods.

Keywords: Dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT), denoising, interpolation, optimal estimation, super resolution.

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7083 Feature Preserving Image Interpolation and Enhancement Using Adaptive Bidirectional Flow

Authors: Shujun Fu, Qiuqi Ruan, Wenqia Wang

Abstract:

Image interpolation is a common problem in imaging applications. However, most interpolation algorithms in existence suffer visually to some extent the effects of blurred edges and jagged artifacts in the image. This paper presents an adaptive feature preserving bidirectional flow process, where an inverse diffusion is performed to enhance edges along the normal directions to the isophote lines (edges), while a normal diffusion is done to remove artifacts (''jaggies'') along the tangent directions. In order to preserve image features such as edges, angles and textures, the nonlinear diffusion coefficients are locally adjusted according to the first and second order directional derivatives of the image. Experimental results on synthetic images and nature images demonstrate that our interpolation algorithm substantially improves the subjective quality of the interpolated images over conventional interpolations.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, bidirectional flow, directionalderivatives, edge enhancement, image interpolation, inverse flow, shock filter.

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7082 Tidal Data Analysis using ANN

Authors: Ritu Vijay, Rekha Govil

Abstract:

The design of a complete expansion that allows for compact representation of certain relevant classes of signals is a central problem in signal processing applications. Achieving such a representation means knowing the signal features for the purpose of denoising, classification, interpolation and forecasting. Multilayer Neural Networks are relatively a new class of techniques that are mathematically proven to approximate any continuous function arbitrarily well. Radial Basis Function Networks, which make use of Gaussian activation function, are also shown to be a universal approximator. In this age of ever-increasing digitization in the storage, processing, analysis and communication of information, there are numerous examples of applications where one needs to construct a continuously defined function or numerical algorithm to approximate, represent and reconstruct the given discrete data of a signal. Many a times one wishes to manipulate the data in a way that requires information not included explicitly in the data, which is done through interpolation and/or extrapolation. Tidal data are a very perfect example of time series and many statistical techniques have been applied for tidal data analysis and representation. ANN is recent addition to such techniques. In the present paper we describe the time series representation capabilities of a special type of ANN- Radial Basis Function networks and present the results of tidal data representation using RBF. Tidal data analysis & representation is one of the important requirements in marine science for forecasting.

Keywords: ANN, RBF, Tidal Data.

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7081 Extended Cubic B-spline Interpolation Method Applied to Linear Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

Authors: Nur Nadiah Abd Hamid, Ahmad Abd. Majid, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail

Abstract:

Linear two-point boundary value problem of order two is solved using extended cubic B-spline interpolation method. There is one free parameters, λ, that control the tension of the solution curve. For some λ, this method produced better results than cubic B-spline interpolation method.

Keywords: two-point boundary value problem, B-spline, extendedcubic B-spline.

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7080 Simulation of Organic Matter Variability on a Sugarbeet Field Using the Computer Based Geostatistical Methods

Authors: M. Rüstü Karaman, Tekin Susam, Fatih Er, Servet Yaprak, Osman Karkacıer

Abstract:

Computer based geostatistical methods can offer effective data analysis possibilities for agricultural areas by using vectorial data and their objective informations. These methods will help to detect the spatial changes on different locations of the large agricultural lands, which will lead to effective fertilization for optimal yield with reduced environmental pollution. In this study, topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) samples were taken from a sugar beet field by 20 x 20 m grids. Plant samples were also collected from the same plots. Some physical and chemical analyses for these samples were made by routine methods. According to derived variation coefficients, topsoil organic matter (OM) distribution was more than subsoil OM distribution. The highest C.V. value of 17.79% was found for topsoil OM. The data were analyzed comparatively according to kriging methods which are also used widely in geostatistic. Several interpolation methods (Ordinary,Simple and Universal) and semivariogram models (Spherical, Exponential and Gaussian) were tested in order to choose the suitable methods. Average standard deviations of values estimated by simple kriging interpolation method were less than average standard deviations (topsoil OM ± 0.48, N ± 0.37, subsoil OM ± 0.18) of measured values. The most suitable interpolation method was simple kriging method and exponantial semivariogram model for topsoil, whereas the best optimal interpolation method was simple kriging method and spherical semivariogram model for subsoil. The results also showed that these computer based geostatistical methods should be tested and calibrated for different experimental conditions and semivariogram models.

Keywords: Geostatistic, kriging, organic matter, sugarbeet.

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7079 The Mass Attenuation Coefficients, Effective Atomic Cross Sections, Effective Atomic Numbers and Electron Densities of Some Halides

Authors: Shivalinge Gowda

Abstract:

The total mass attenuation coefficients m/r, of some halides such as, NaCl, KCl, CuCl, NaBr, KBr, RbCl, AgCl, NaI, KI, AgBr, CsI, HgCl2, CdI2 and HgI2 were determined at photon energies 279.2, 320.07, 514.0, 661.6, 1115.5, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV in a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up using a high resolution, hyper pure germanium detector. The mass attenuation coefficients and the effective atomic cross sections are found to be in good agreement with the XCOM values. From these mass attenuation coefficients, the effective atomic cross sections sa, of the compounds were determined. These effective atomic cross section sa data so obtained are then used to compute the effective atomic numbers Zeff. For this, the interpolation of total attenuation cross-sections of photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed by using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier for the above said energies along with XCOM data for standard energies. The best-fit coefficients in the photon energy range of 250 to 350 keV, 350 to 500 keV, 500 to 700 keV, 700 to 1000 keV and 1000 to 1500 keV by a piecewise interpolation method were then used to find the Zeff of the compounds with respect to the effective atomic cross section sa from the relation obtained by piece wise interpolation method. Using these Zeff values, the electron densities Nel of halides were also determined. The present Zeff and Nel values of halides are found to be in good agreement with the values calculated from XCOM data and other available published values.

Keywords: Mass attenuation coefficient, atomic cross-section, effective atomic number, electron density.

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7078 Evaluating Sinusoidal Functions by a Low Complexity Cubic Spline Interpolator with Error Optimization

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Harpreet Singh Dhillon

Abstract:

We present a novel scheme to evaluate sinusoidal functions with low complexity and high precision using cubic spline interpolation. To this end, two different approaches are proposed to find the interpolating polynomial of sin(x) within the range [- π , π]. The first one deals with only a single data point while the other with two to keep the realization cost as low as possible. An approximation error optimization technique for cubic spline interpolation is introduced next and is shown to increase the interpolator accuracy without increasing complexity of the associated hardware. The architectures for the proposed approaches are also developed, which exhibit flexibility of implementation with low power requirement.

Keywords: Arithmetic, spline interpolator, hardware design, erroranalysis, optimization methods.

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7077 Generalized Morphological 3D Shape Decomposition Grayscale Interframe Interpolation Method

Authors: Dragos Nicolae VIZIREANU

Abstract:

One of the main image representations in Mathematical Morphology is the 3D Shape Decomposition Representation, useful for Image Compression and Representation,and Pattern Recognition. The 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representation can be generalized a number of times,to extend the scope of its algebraic characteristics as much as possible. With these generalizations, the Morphological Shape Decomposition 's role to serve as an efficient image decomposition tool is extended to grayscale images.This work follows the above line, and further develops it. Anew evolutionary branch is added to the 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition's development, by the introduction of a 3D Multi Structuring Element Morphological Shape Decomposition, which permits 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition of 3D binary images (grayscale images) into "multiparameter" families of elements. At the beginning, 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representations are based only on "1 parameter" families of elements for image decomposition.This paper addresses the gray scale inter frame interpolation by means of mathematical morphology. The new interframe interpolation method is based on generalized morphological 3D Shape Decomposition. This article will present the theoretical background of the morphological interframe interpolation, deduce the new representation and show some application examples.Computer simulations could illustrate results.

Keywords: 3D shape decomposition representation, mathematical morphology, gray scale interframe interpolation

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7076 Cubic Trigonometric B-Spline Applied to Linear Two-Point Boundary Value Problems of Order Two

Authors: Nur Nadiah Abd Hamid , Ahmad Abd. Majid, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail

Abstract:

Linear two-point boundary value problems of order two are solved using cubic trigonometric B-spline interpolation method (CTBIM). Cubic trigonometric B-spline is a piecewise function consisting of trigonometric equations. This method is tested on some problems and the results are compared with cubic B-spline interpolation method (CBIM) from the literature. CTBIM is found to approximate the solution slightly more accurately than CBIM if the problems are trigonometric.

Keywords: trigonometric B-spline, two-point boundary valueproblem, spline interpolation, cubic spline

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7075 An Improved Quality Adaptive Rate Filtering Technique Based on the Level Crossing Sampling

Authors: Saeed Mian Qaisar, Laurent Fesquet, Marc Renaudin

Abstract:

Mostly the systems are dealing with time varying signals. The Power efficiency can be achieved by adapting the system activity according to the input signal variations. In this context an adaptive rate filtering technique, based on the level crossing sampling is devised. It adapts the sampling frequency and the filter order by following the input signal local variations. Thus, it correlates the processing activity with the signal variations. Interpolation is required in the proposed technique. A drastic reduction in the interpolation error is achieved by employing the symmetry during the interpolation process. Processing error of the proposed technique is calculated. The computational complexity of the proposed filtering technique is deduced and compared to the classical one. Results promise a significant gain of the computational efficiency and hence of the power consumption.

Keywords: Level Crossing Sampling, Activity Selection, Rate Filtering, Computational Complexity, Interpolation Error.

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7074 Comparison of Imputation Techniques for Efficient Prediction of Software Fault Proneness in Classes

Authors: Geeta Sikka, Arvinder Kaur Takkar, Moin Uddin

Abstract:

Missing data is a persistent problem in almost all areas of empirical research. The missing data must be treated very carefully, as data plays a fundamental role in every analysis. Improper treatment can distort the analysis or generate biased results. In this paper, we compare and contrast various imputation techniques on missing data sets and make an empirical evaluation of these methods so as to construct quality software models. Our empirical study is based on NASA-s two public dataset. KC4 and KC1. The actual data sets of 125 cases and 2107 cases respectively, without any missing values were considered. The data set is used to create Missing at Random (MAR) data Listwise Deletion(LD), Mean Substitution(MS), Interpolation, Regression with an error term and Expectation-Maximization (EM) approaches were used to compare the effects of the various techniques.

Keywords: Missing data, Imputation, Missing Data Techniques.

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7073 Monotone Rational Trigonometric Interpolation

Authors: Uzma Bashir, Jamaludin Md. Ali

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the visualization of monotone data using a piecewise C1 rational trigonometric interpolating scheme. Four positive shape parameters are incorporated in the structure of rational trigonometric spline. Conditions on two of these parameters are derived to attain the monotonicity of monotone data and othertwo are leftfree. Figures are used widely to exhibit that the proposed scheme produces graphically smooth monotone curves.

Keywords: Trigonometric splines, Monotone data, Shape preserving, C1 monotone interpolant.

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7072 Enhancing Multi-Frame Images Using Self-Delaying Dynamic Networks

Authors: Lewis E. Hibell, Honghai Liu, David J. Brown

Abstract:

This paper presents the use of a newly created network structure known as a Self-Delaying Dynamic Network (SDN) to create a high resolution image from a set of time stepped input frames. These SDNs are non-recurrent temporal neural networks which can process time sampled data. SDNs can store input data for a lifecycle and feature dynamic logic based connections between layers. Several low resolution images and one high resolution image of a scene were presented to the SDN during training by a Genetic Algorithm. The SDN was trained to process the input frames in order to recreate the high resolution image. The trained SDN was then used to enhance a number of unseen noisy image sets. The quality of high resolution images produced by the SDN is compared to that of high resolution images generated using Bi-Cubic interpolation. The SDN produced images are superior in several ways to the images produced using Bi-Cubic interpolation.

Keywords: Image Enhancement, Neural Networks, Multi-Frame.

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