Search results for: collocation method
7943 Septic B-Spline Collocation Method for Numerical Solution of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky Equation
Authors: M. Zarebnia, R. Parvaz
In this paper the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation is solved numerically by collocation method. The solution is approximated as a linear combination of septic B-spline functions. Applying the Von-Neumann stability analysis technique, we show that the method is unconditionally stable. The method is applied on some test examples, and the numerical results have been compared with the exact solutions. The global relative error and L∞ in the solutions show the efficiency of the method computationally.
Keywords: Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, Septic B-spline, Collocation method, Finite difference.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1935
7942 Cubic B-spline Collocation Method for Numerical Solution of the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers Equation
Authors: M. Zarebnia, R. Parvaz
In this paper, numerical solutions of the nonlinear Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers (BBMB) equation are obtained by a method based on collocation of cubic B-splines. Applying the Von-Neumann stability analysis, the proposed method is shown to be unconditionally stable. The method is applied on some test examples, and the numerical results have been compared with the exact solutions. The L∞ and L2 in the solutions show the efficiency of the method computationally.
Keywords: Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers equation, Cubic Bspline, Collocation method, Finite difference.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3545
7941 Optimal Control of Volterra Integro-Differential Systems Based On Legendre Wavelets and Collocation Method
Authors: Khosrow Maleknejad, Asyieh Ebrahimzadeh
In this paper, the numerical solution of optimal control problem (OCP) for systems governed by Volterra integro-differential (VID) equation is considered. The method is developed by means of the Legendre wavelet approximation and collocation method. The properties of Legendre wavelet together with Gaussian integration method are utilized to reduce the problem to the solution of nonlinear programming one. Some numerical examples are given to confirm the accuracy and ease of implementation of the method.
Keywords: Collocation method, Legendre wavelet, optimal control, Volterra integro-differential equation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2772
7940 Generalized Chebyshev Collocation Method
Authors: Junghan Kim, Wonkyu Chung, Sunyoung Bu, Philsu Kim
In this paper, we introduce a generalized Chebyshev collocation method (GCCM) based on the generalized Chebyshev polynomials for solving stiff systems. For employing a technique of the embedded Runge-Kutta method used in explicit schemes, the property of the generalized Chebyshev polynomials is used, in which the nodes for the higher degree polynomial are overlapped with those for the lower degree polynomial. The constructed algorithm controls both the error and the time step size simultaneously and further the errors at each integration step are embedded in the algorithm itself, which provides the efficiency of the computational cost. For the assessment of the effectiveness, numerical results obtained by the proposed method and the Radau IIA are presented and compared.
Keywords: Generalized Chebyshev Collocation method, Generalized Chebyshev Polynomial, Initial value problem.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2470
7939 An Application of the Sinc-Collocation Method to a Three-Dimensional Oceanography Model
Authors: Y. Mohseniahouei, K. Abdella, M. Pollanen
Abstract:In this paper, we explore the applicability of the Sinc- Collocation method to a three-dimensional (3D) oceanography model. The model describes a wind-driven current with depth-dependent eddy viscosity in the complex-velocity system. In general, the Sinc-based methods excel over other traditional numerical methods due to their exponentially decaying errors, rapid convergence and handling problems in the presence of singularities in end-points. Together with these advantages, the Sinc-Collocation approach that we utilize exploits first derivative interpolation, whose integration is much less sensitive to numerical errors. We bring up several model problems to prove the accuracy, stability, and computational efficiency of the method. The approximate solutions determined by the Sinc-Collocation technique are compared to exact solutions and those obtained by the Sinc-Galerkin approach in earlier studies. Our findings indicate that the Sinc-Collocation method outperforms other Sinc-based methods in past studies.
Keywords: Boundary Value Problems, Differential Equations, Sinc Numerical Methods, Wind-Driven CurrentsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1730
7938 Septic B-spline Collocation Method for Solving One-dimensional Hyperbolic Telegraph Equation
Authors: Marzieh Dosti, Alireza Nazemi
Recently, it is found that telegraph equation is more suitable than ordinary diffusion equation in modelling reaction diffusion for such branches of sciences. In this paper, a numerical solution for the one-dimensional hyperbolic telegraph equation by using the collocation method using the septic splines is proposed. The scheme works in a similar fashion as finite difference methods. Test problems are used to validate our scheme by calculate L2-norm and L∞-norm. The accuracy of the presented method is demonstrated by two test problems. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with the exact solutions.
Keywords: B-spline, collocation method, second-order hyperbolic telegraph equation, difference schemes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1663
7937 Solution of First kind Fredholm Integral Equation by Sinc Function
Authors: Khosrow Maleknejad, Reza Mollapourasl, Parvin Torabi, Mahdiyeh Alizadeh,
Abstract:Sinc-collocation scheme is one of the new techniques used in solving numerical problems involving integral equations. This method has been shown to be a powerful numerical tool for finding fast and accurate solutions. So, in this paper, some properties of the Sinc-collocation method required for our subsequent development are given and are utilized to reduce integral equation of the first kind to some algebraic equations. Then convergence with exponential rate is proved by a theorem to guarantee applicability of numerical technique. Finally, numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the technique.
Keywords: Integral equation, Fredholm type, Collocation method, Sinc approximation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2635
7936 An Efficient Collocation Method for Solving the Variable-Order Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations Arising from the Physical Phenomenon
Authors: Haniye Dehestani, Yadollah Ordokhani
Abstract:In this work, we present an efficient approach for solving variable-order time-fractional partial differential equations, which are based on Legendre and Laguerre polynomials. First, we introduced the pseudo-operational matrices of integer and variable fractional order of integration by use of some properties of Riemann-Liouville fractional integral. Then, applied together with collocation method and Legendre-Laguerre functions for solving variable-order time-fractional partial differential equations. Also, an estimation of the error is presented. At last, we investigate numerical examples which arise in physics to demonstrate the accuracy of the present method. In comparison results obtained by the present method with the exact solution and the other methods reveals that the method is very effective.
Keywords: Collocation method, fractional partial differential equations, Legendre-Laguerre functions, pseudo-operational matrix of integration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 883
7935 Grid Computing for the Bi-CGSTAB Applied to the Solution of the Modified Helmholtz Equation
Authors: E. N. Mathioudakis, E. P. Papadopoulou
The problem addressed herein is the efficient management of the Grid/Cluster intense computation involved, when the preconditioned Bi-CGSTAB Krylov method is employed for the iterative solution of the large and sparse linear system arising from the discretization of the Modified Helmholtz-Dirichlet problem by the Hermite Collocation method. Taking advantage of the Collocation ma-trix's red-black ordered structure we organize efficiently the whole computation and map it on a pipeline architecture with master-slave communication. Implementation, through MPI programming tools, is realized on a SUN V240 cluster, inter-connected through a 100Mbps and 1Gbps ethernet network,and its performance is presented by speedup measurements included.
Keywords: Collocation, Preconditioned Bi-CGSTAB, MPI, Grid and DSM Systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1580
7934 Collocation Assessment between GEO and GSO Satellites
Authors: A. E. Emam, M. Abd Elghany
Abstract:The change in orbit evolution between collocated satellites (X, Y) inside +/-0.09° E/W and +/- 0.07° N/S cluster, after one of these satellites is placed in an inclined orbit (satellite X) and the effect of this change in the collocation safety inside the cluster window has been studied and evaluated. Several collocation scenarios had been studied in order to adjust the location of both satellites inside their cluster to maximize the separation between them and safe the mission.
Keywords: Satellite, GEO, collocation, risk assessment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2078
7933 Constant Order Predictor Corrector Method for the Solution of Modeled Problems of First Order IVPs of ODEs
Authors: A. A. James, A. O. Adesanya, M. R. Odekunle, D. G. Yakubu
This paper examines the development of one step, five hybrid point method for the solution of first order initial value problems. We adopted the method of collocation and interpolation of power series approximate solution to generate a continuous linear multistep method. The continuous linear multistep method was evaluated at selected grid points to give the discrete linear multistep method. The method was implemented using a constant order predictor of order seven over an overlapping interval. The basic properties of the derived corrector was investigated and found to be zero stable, consistent and convergent. The region of absolute stability was also investigated. The method was tested on some numerical experiments and found to compete favorably with the existing methods.
Keywords: Interpolation, Approximate Solution, Collocation, Differential system, Half step, Converges, Block method, Efficiency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2203
7932 Using Hermite Function for Solving Thomas-Fermi Equation
Authors: F. Bayatbabolghani, K. Parand
In this paper, we propose Hermite collocation method for solving Thomas-Fermi equation that is nonlinear ordinary differential equation on semi-infinite interval. This method reduces the solution of this problem to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. We also present the comparison of this work with solution of other methods that shows the present solution is more accurate and faster convergence in this problem.
Keywords: Collocation method, Hermite function, Semi-infinite, Thomas-Fermi equation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2032
7931 A Comparison of Some Splines-Based Methods for the One-dimensional Heat Equation
Authors: Joan Goh, Ahmad Abd. Majid, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail
Abstract:In this paper, collocation based cubic B-spline and extended cubic uniform B-spline method are considered for solving one-dimensional heat equation with a nonlocal initial condition. Finite difference and θ-weighted scheme is used for time and space discretization respectively. The stability of the method is analyzed by the Von Neumann method. Accuracy of the methods is illustrated with an example. The numerical results are obtained and compared with the analytical solutions.
Keywords: Heat equation, Collocation based, Cubic Bspline, Extended cubic uniform B-spline.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1742
7930 Comparing the Efficiency of Simpson’s 1/3 and 3/8 Rules for the Numerical Solution of First Order Volterra Integro-Differential Equations
Authors: N. M. Kamoh, D. G. Gyemang, M. C. Soomiyol
This paper compared the efficiency of Simpson’s 1/3 and 3/8 rules for the numerical solution of first order Volterra integro-differential equations. In developing the solution, collocation approximation method was adopted using the shifted Legendre polynomial as basis function. A block method approach is preferred to the predictor corrector method for being self-starting. Experimental results confirmed that the Simpson’s 3/8 rule is more efficient than the Simpson’s 1/3 rule.
Keywords: Collocation shifted Legendre polynomials, Simpson’s rule and Volterra integro-differential equations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 802
7929 Spline Collocation for Solving System of Fredholm and Volterra Integral Equations
Authors: N. Ebrahimi, J. Rashidinia
In this paper, numerical solution of system of Fredholm and Volterra integral equations by means of the Spline collocation method is considered. This approximation reduces the system of integral equations to an explicit system of algebraic equations. The solution is collocated by cubic B-spline and the integrand is approximated by the Newton-Cotes formula. The error analysis of proposed numerical method is studied theoretically. The results are compared with the results obtained by other methods to illustrate the accuracy and the implementation of our method.
Keywords: Convergence analysis, Cubic B-spline, Newton- Cotes formula, System of Fredholm and Volterra integral equations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2062
7928 A Comparison of Recent Methods for Solving a Model 1D Convection Diffusion Equation
Authors: Ashvin Gopaul, Jayrani Cheeneebash, Kamleshsing Baurhoo
In this paper we study some numerical methods to solve a model one-dimensional convection–diffusion equation. The semi-discretisation of the space variable results into a system of ordinary differential equations and the solution of the latter involves the evaluation of a matrix exponent. Since the calculation of this term is computationally expensive, we study some methods based on Krylov subspace and on Restrictive Taylor series approximation respectively. We also consider the Chebyshev Pseudospectral collocation method to do the spatial discretisation and we present the numerical solution obtained by these methods.
Keywords: Chebyshev Pseudospectral collocation method, convection-diffusion equation, restrictive Taylor approximation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1570
7927 Numerical Solution of a Laminar Viscous Flow Boundary Layer Equation Using Uniform Haar Wavelet Quasi-linearization Method
Authors: Harpreet Kaur, Vinod Mishra, R. C. Mittal
In this paper, we have proposed a Haar wavelet quasilinearization method to solve the well known Blasius equation. The method is based on the uniform Haar wavelet operational matrix defined over the interval [0, 1]. In this method, we have proposed the transformation for converting the problem on a fixed computational domain. The Blasius equation arises in the various boundary layer problems of hydrodynamics and in fluid mechanics of laminar viscous flows. Quasi-linearization is iterative process but our proposed technique gives excellent numerical results with quasilinearization for solving nonlinear differential equations without any iteration on selecting collocation points by Haar wavelets. We have solved Blasius equation for 1≤α ≤ 2 and the numerical results are compared with the available results in literature. Finally, we conclude that proposed method is a promising tool for solving the well known nonlinear Blasius equation.
Keywords: Boundary layer Blasius equation, collocation points, quasi-linearization process, uniform haar wavelets.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3148
7926 On the Efficiency of Five Step Approximation Method for the Solution of General Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations
Authors: N. M. Kamoh, M. C. Soomiyol
In this work, a five step continuous method for the solution of third order ordinary differential equations was developed in block form using collocation and interpolation techniques of the shifted Legendre polynomial basis function. The method was found to be zero-stable, consistent and convergent. The application of the method in solving third order initial value problem of ordinary differential equations revealed that the method compared favorably with existing methods.
Keywords: Shifted Legendre polynomials, third order block method, discrete method, convergent.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 514
7925 Spectral Investigation for Boundary Layer Flow over a Permeable Wall in the Presence of Transverse Magnetic Field
Authors: Saeed Sarabadan, Mehran Nikarya, Kouroah Parand
Abstract:The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Falkner-Skan equations appear in study of laminar boundary layers flow over a wedge in presence of a transverse magnetic field. The partial differential equations of boundary layer problems in presence of a transverse magnetic field are reduced to MHD Falkner-Skan equation by similarity solution methods. This is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In this paper, we solve this equation via spectral collocation method based on Bessel functions of the first kind. In this approach, we reduce the solution of the nonlinear MHD Falkner-Skan equation to a solution of a nonlinear algebraic equations system. Then, the resulting system is solved by Newton method. We discuss obtained solution by studying the behavior of boundary layer flow in terms of skin friction, velocity, various amounts of magnetic field and angle of wedge. Finally, the results are compared with other methods mentioned in literature. We can conclude that the presented method has better accuracy than others.
Keywords: MHD Falkner-Skan, nonlinear ODE, spectral collocation method, Bessel functions, skin friction, velocity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 932
7924 Implicit Two Step Continuous Hybrid Block Methods with Four Off-Steps Points for Solving Stiff Ordinary Differential Equation
Authors: O. A. Akinfenwa, N.M. Yao, S. N. Jator
Abstract:In this paper, a self starting two step continuous block hybrid formulae (CBHF) with four Off-step points is developed using collocation and interpolation procedures. The CBHF is then used to produce multiple numerical integrators which are of uniform order and are assembled into a single block matrix equation. These equations are simultaneously applied to provide the approximate solution for the stiff ordinary differential equations. The order of accuracy and stability of the block method is discussed and its accuracy is established numerically.
Keywords: Collocation and Interpolation, Continuous HybridBlock Formulae, Off-Step Points, Stability, Stiff ODEs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1966
7923 Numerical Study of Iterative Methods for the Solution of the Dirichlet-Neumann Map for Linear Elliptic PDEs on Regular Polygon Domains
Authors: A. G. Sifalakis, E. P. Papadopoulou, Y. G. Saridakis
Abstract:A generalized Dirichlet to Neumann map is one of the main aspects characterizing a recently introduced method for analyzing linear elliptic PDEs, through which it became possible to couple known and unknown components of the solution on the boundary of the domain without solving on its interior. For its numerical solution, a well conditioned quadratically convergent sine-Collocation method was developed, which yielded a linear system of equations with the diagonal blocks of its associated coefficient matrix being point diagonal. This structural property, among others, initiated interest for the employment of iterative methods for its solution. In this work we present a conclusive numerical study for the behavior of classical (Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel) and Krylov subspace (GMRES and Bi-CGSTAB) iterative methods when they are applied for the solution of the Dirichlet to Neumann map associated with the Laplace-s equation on regular polygons with the same boundary conditions on all edges.
Keywords: Elliptic PDEs, Dirichlet to Neumann Map, Global Relation, Collocation, Iterative Methods, Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, GMRES, Bi-CGSTAB.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1601
7922 The Importance of Raising Awareness of Collocational Knowledge in ESL/EFL Classrooms
Authors: Mohammad ALAmro
The most crucial aspect that is closely related to vocabulary and the one that needs to be emphasized and investigated more than it has been up until now, is the ability to combine words that co-occur frequently in the language. Pedagogically, collocation is one of the error-provoking aspects in foreign language learning. This is indicative of the dire need to provide L2 learners with tools to help them improve their collocational knowledge. This paper pinpoints the role that collocations play in the English language. Furthermore, it presents pedagogical implications for ESL/EFL learners.
Keywords: Collocation, pedagogy, vocabulary knowledge.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2104
7921 Seven step Adams Type Block Method With Continuous Coefficient For Periodic Ordinary Differential Equation
Authors: Olusheye Akinfenwa
Abstract:We consider the development of an eight order Adam-s type method, with A-stability property discussed by expressing them as a one-step method in higher dimension. This makes it suitable for solving variety of initial-value problems. The main method and additional methods are obtained from the same continuous scheme derived via interpolation and collocation procedures. The methods are then applied in block form as simultaneous numerical integrators over non-overlapping intervals. Numerical results obtained using the proposed block form reveals that it is highly competitive with existing methods in the literature.
Keywords: Block Adam's type Method; Periodic Ordinary Differential Equation; Stability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1480
7920 Nonlinear Control of a Continuous Bioreactor Based on Cell Population Model
Authors: Mahdi Sharifian, Mohammad Ali Fanaei
Abstract:Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker-s yeast) can exhibit sustained oscillations during the operation in a continuous bioreactor that adversely affects its stability and productivity. Because of heterogeneous nature of cell populations, the cell population balance models can be used to capture the dynamic behavior of such cultures. In this paper an unstructured, segregated model is used which is based on population balance equation(PBE) and then in order to simulation, the 4th order Rung-Kutta is used for time dimension and three methods, finite difference, orthogonal collocation on finite elements and Galerkin finite element are used for discretization of the cell mass domain. The results indicate that the orthogonal collocation on finite element not only is able to predict the oscillating behavior of the cell culture but also needs much little time for calculations. Therefore this method is preferred in comparison with other methods. In the next step two controllers, a globally linearizing control (GLC) and a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller are designed for controlling the total cell mass per unit volume, and performances of these controllers are compared through simulation. The results show that although the PI controller has simpler structure, the GLC has better performance.
Keywords: Bioreactor, cell population balance, finite difference, orthogonal collocation on finite elements, Galerkin finite element, feedback linearization, PI controller.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1766
7919 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations
Authors: A. M. Sagir
Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order initial value problems (IVPs) in ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.
Keywords: Block Method, First Order Ordinary Differential Equations, Hybrid, Self starting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2657
7918 Estimating Word Translation Probabilities for Thai – English Machine Translation using EM Algorithm
Authors: Chutchada Nusai, Yoshimi Suzuki, Haruaki Yamazaki
Abstract:Selecting the word translation from a set of target language words, one that conveys the correct sense of source word and makes more fluent target language output, is one of core problems in machine translation. In this paper we compare the 3 methods of estimating word translation probabilities for selecting the translation word in Thai – English Machine Translation. The 3 methods are (1) Method based on frequency of word translation, (2) Method based on collocation of word translation, and (3) Method based on Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. For evaluation we used Thai – English parallel sentences generated by NECTEC. The method based on EM algorithm is the best method in comparison to the other methods and gives the satisfying results.
Keywords: Machine translation, EM algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1575
7917 Cubic Trigonometric B-spline Approach to Numerical Solution of Wave Equation
Authors: Shazalina Mat Zin, Ahmad Abd. Majid, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail, Muhammad Abbas
The generalized wave equation models various problems in sciences and engineering. In this paper, a new three-time level implicit approach based on cubic trigonometric B-spline for the approximate solution of wave equation is developed. The usual finite difference approach is used to discretize the time derivative while cubic trigonometric B-spline is applied as an interpolating function in the space dimension. Von Neumann stability analysis is used to analyze the proposed method. Two problems are discussed to exhibit the feasibility and capability of the method. The absolute errors and maximum error are computed to assess the performance of the proposed method. The results were found to be in good agreement with known solutions and with existing schemes in literature.
Keywords: Collocation method, Cubic trigonometric B-spline, Finite difference, Wave equation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2478
7916 Collocation Errors in English as Second Language (ESL) Essay Writing
Authors: Fatima Muhammad Shitu
In language learning, second language learners as well as Native speakers commit errors in their attempt to achieve competence in the target language. The realm of collocation has to do with meaning relation between lexical items. In all human language, there is a kind of ‘natural order’ in which words are arranged or relate to one another in sentences so much so that when a word occurs in a given context, the related or naturally co-occurring word will automatically come to the mind. It becomes an error, therefore, if students inappropriately pair or arrange such ‘naturally’ co–occurring lexical items in a text. It has been observed that most of the second language learners in this research group commit collocation errors. A study of this kind is very significant as it gives insight into the kinds of errors committed by learners. This will help the language teacher to be able to identify the sources and causes of such errors as well as correct them thereby guiding, helping and leading the learners towards achieving some level of competence in the language. The aim of the study is to understand the nature of these errors as stumbling blocks to effective essay writing. The objective of the study is to identify the errors, analyze their structural compositions so as to determine whether there are similarities between students in this regard and to find out whether there are patterns to these kinds of errors which will enable the researcher to understand their sources and causes. As a descriptive research, the researcher samples some nine hundred essays collected from three hundred undergraduate learners of English as a second language in the Federal College of Education, Kano, North- West Nigeria, i.e. three essays per each student. The essays which were given on three different lecture times were of similar thematic preoccupations (i.e. same topics) and length (i.e. same number of words). The essays were written during the lecture hour at three different lecture occasions. The errors were identified in a systematic manner whereby errors so identified were recorded only once even if they occur severally in students’ essays. The data was collated using percentages in which the identified numbers of occurrences were converted accordingly in percentages. The findings from the study indicate that there are similarities as well as regular and repeated errors which provided a pattern. Based on the pattern identified, the conclusion is that students’ collocation errors are attributable to poor teaching and learning which resulted in wrong generalization of rules.
Keywords: Collocations, errors, collocation errors, second language learning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 7338
7915 Accurate Visualization of Graphs of Functions of Two Real Variables
Authors: Zeitoun D. G., Thierry Dana-Picard
The study of a real function of two real variables can be supported by visualization using a Computer Algebra System (CAS). One type of constraints of the system is due to the algorithms implemented, yielding continuous approximations of the given function by interpolation. This often masks discontinuities of the function and can provide strange plots, not compatible with the mathematics. In recent years, point based geometry has gained increasing attention as an alternative surface representation, both for efficient rendering and for flexible geometry processing of complex surfaces. In this paper we present different artifacts created by mesh surfaces near discontinuities and propose a point based method that controls and reduces these artifacts. A least squares penalty method for an automatic generation of the mesh that controls the behavior of the chosen function is presented. The special feature of this method is the ability to improve the accuracy of the surface visualization near a set of interior points where the function may be discontinuous. The present method is formulated as a minimax problem and the non uniform mesh is generated using an iterative algorithm. Results show that for large poorly conditioned matrices, the new algorithm gives more accurate results than the classical preconditioned conjugate algorithm.
Keywords: Function singularities, mesh generation, point allocation, visualization, collocation least squares method, Augmented Lagrangian method, Uzawa's Algorithm, Preconditioned Conjugate GradienProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1595
7914 A Source Point Distribution Scheme for Wave-Body Interaction Problem
Authors: Aichun Feng, Zhi-Min Chen, Jing Tang Xing
A two-dimensional linear wave-body interaction problem can be solved using a desingularized integral method by placing free surface Rankine sources over calm water surface and satisfying boundary conditions at prescribed collocation points on the calm water surface. A new free-surface Rankine source distribution scheme, determined by the intersection points of free surface and body surface, is developed to reduce numerical computation cost. Associated with this, a new treatment is given to the intersection point. The present scheme results are in good agreement with traditional numerical results and measurements.
Keywords: Source point distribution, panel method, Rankine source, desingularized algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1682