Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 188

Search results for: impedance

188 Design and Realization of an Electronic Load for a PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: Arafet Bouaicha, Hatem Allegui, Amar Rouane, El-Hassane Aglzim, Abdelkader Mami

Abstract:

In order to further understand the behavior of PEM fuel cell and optimize their performance, it is necessary to perform measurements in real time. The internal impedance measurement by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is of great importance. In this work, we present the impedance measurement method of a PEM fuel cell by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method and the realization steps of electronic load for this measuring technique implementation. The theoretical results are obtained from the simulation of software PSPICE® and experimental tests are carried out using the Ballard Nexa™ PEM fuel cell system.

Keywords: Electronic load, MOS transistor, PEM fuel cell, Impedance measurement, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS).

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187 Synthesis, Characterization and Impedance Analysis of Polypyrrole/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites

Authors: M. G. Smitha, M. V. Murugendrappa

Abstract:

Perovskite manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was synthesized by Sol-gel method. Polymerization of pyrrole was carried by in-situ polymerization method. The composite of pyrrole (Py)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 composite in the presence of oxidizing agent ammonium per sulphate to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCM) composite was carried out by the same in-situ polymerization method. The PPy/LCM composites were synthesized with varying compositions like 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% of LCM in Py. The surface morphologies of these composites were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images show that LCM particles are embedded in PPy chain. The impedance measurement of PPy/LCM at different temperature ranges from 30 to 180 °C was studied using impedance analyzer. The study shows that impedance is frequency and temperature dependent and it is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature.

Keywords: Polypyrrole, sol gel, impedance, composites.

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186 Symbolic Analysis of Input Impedance of CMOS Floating Active Inductors with Application in Fully Differential Bandpass Amplifier

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch

Abstract:

This paper proposes a study of input impedance of 2 types of CMOS active inductors. It derives 2 input impedance formulas. The first formula is the input impedance of the grounded active inductor. The second formula is the input impedance of the floating active inductor. After that, these formulas can be used to simulate magnitude and phase response of input impedance as a function of current consumption with MATLAB. Common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of the fully differential bandpass amplifier is derived based on superposition principle. CMRR as a function of input frequency is plotted as a function of current consumption. 

Keywords: Grounded active inductor, floating active inductor, Fully differential bandpass amplifier.

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185 Adaptive Impedance Control for Unknown Non-Flat Environment

Authors: Norsinnira Zainul Azlan, Hiroshi Yamaura

Abstract:

This paper presents a new adaptive impedance control strategy, based on Function Approximation Technique (FAT) to compensate for unknown non-flat environment shape or time-varying environment location. The target impedance in the force controllable direction is modified by incorporating adaptive compensators and the uncertainties are represented by FAT, allowing the update law to be derived easily. The force error feedback is utilized in the estimation and the accurate knowledge of the environment parameters are not required by the algorithm. It is shown mathematically that the stability of the controller is guaranteed based on Lyapunov theory. Simulation results presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed controller.

Keywords: Adaptive impedance control, Function Approximation Technique (FAT), impedance control, unknown environment position.

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184 Using Electrical Impedance Tomography to Control a Robot

Authors: Shayan Rezvanigilkolaei, Shayesteh Vefaghnematollahi

Abstract:

Electrical impedance tomography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique suitable for medical applications. This paper describes an electrical impedance tomography device with the ability to navigate a robotic arm to manipulate a target object. The design of the device includes various hardware and software sections to perform medical imaging and control the robotic arm. In its hardware section an image is formed by 16 electrodes which are located around a container. This image is used to navigate a 3DOF robotic arm to reach the exact location of the target object. The data set to form the impedance imaging is obtained by having repeated current injections and voltage measurements between all electrode pairs. After performing the necessary calculations to obtain the impedance, information is transmitted to the computer. This data is fed and then executed in MATLAB which is interfaced with EIDORS (Electrical Impedance Tomography Reconstruction Software) to reconstruct the image based on the acquired data. In the next step, the coordinates of the center of the target object are calculated by image processing toolbox of MATLAB (IPT). Finally, these coordinates are used to calculate the angles of each joint of the robotic arm. The robotic arm moves to the desired tissue with the user command.

Keywords: Electrical impedance tomography, EIT, Surgeon robot, image processing of Electrical impedance tomography.

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183 Study of the Transport of Multivalent Metal Cations through Cation-Exchange Membranes by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: V. Pérez-Herranz, M. Pinel, E. M. Ortega, M. García-Gabaldón

Abstract:

In the present work, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrocopy (EIS) is applied to study the transport of different metal cations through a cation-exchange membrane. This technique enables the identification of the ionic-transport characteristics and to distinguish between different transport mechanisms occurring at different current density ranges. The impedance spectra are dependent on the applied dc current density, on the type of cation and on the concentration. When the applied dc current density increases, the diameter of the impedance spectra loops increases because all the components of membrane system resistance increase. The diameter of the impedance plots decreases in the order of Na(I), Ni(II) and Cr(III) due to the increased interactions between the negatively charged sulfonic groups of the membrane and the cations with greater charge. Nyquist plots are shifted towards lower values of the real impedance, and its diameter decreases with the increase of concentration due to the decrease of the solution resistance.

Keywords: Ion-exchange Membranes, Electrochemical Impedance Espectroscopy, Multivalent Metal Cations.

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182 FAT based Adaptive Impedance Control for Unknown Environment Position

Authors: N. Z. Azlan, H. Yamaura

Abstract:

This paper presents the Function Approximation Technique (FAT) based adaptive impedance control for a robotic finger. The force based impedance control is developed so that the robotic finger tracks the desired force while following the reference position trajectory, under unknown environment position and uncertainties in finger parameters. The control strategy is divided into two phases, which are the free and contact phases. Force error feedback is utilized in updating the uncertain environment position during contact phase. Computer simulations results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Adaptive impedance control, force based impedance control, force control, Function Approximation Technique (FAT), unknown environment position.

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181 The System for Root Canal Length Measurement Based on Multifrequency Impedance Method

Authors: Zheng Zhang, Xin Chen, Guoqing Ding

Abstract:

Electronic apex locators (EAL) has been widely used clinically for measuring root canal working length with high accuracy, which is crucial for successful endodontic treatment. In order to maintain high accuracy in different measurement environments, this study presented a system for root canal length measurement based on multifrequency impedance method. This measuring system can generate a sweep current with frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz through a direct digital synthesizer. Multiple impedance ratios with different combinations of frequencies were obtained and transmitted by an analog-to-digital converter and several of them with representatives will be selected after data process. The system analyzed the functional relationship between these impedance ratios and the distance between the file and the apex with statistics by measuring plenty of teeth. The position of the apical foramen can be determined by the statistical model using these impedance ratios. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy of the system based on multifrequency impedance ratios method to determine the position of the apical foramen was higher than the dual-frequency impedance ratio method. Besides that, for more complex measurement environments, the performance of the system was more stable.

Keywords: Root canal length, apex locator, multifrequency impedance, sweep frequency.

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180 High Impedance Fault Detection using LVQ Neural Networks

Authors: Abhishek Bansal, G. N. Pillai

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method to detect high impedance faults in radial distribution systems. Magnitudes of third and fifth harmonic components of voltages and currents are used as a feature vector for fault discrimination. The proposed methodology uses a learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network as a classifier for identifying high impedance arc-type faults. The network learns from the data obtained from simulation of a simple radial system under different fault and system conditions. Compared to a feed-forward neural network, a properly tuned LVQ network gives quicker response.

Keywords: Fault identification, distribution networks, high impedance arc-faults, feature vector, LVQ networks.

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179 Impedance Matching of Axial Mode Helical Antennas

Authors: Hossein Mardani, Neil Buchanan, Robert Cahill, Vincent Fusco

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas to find an effective way for matching it to 50 Ω. The study is done on the important matching parameters such as like wire diameter and helix to the ground plane gap. It is intended that these parameters control the matching without detrimentally affecting the radiation pattern. Using transmission line theory, a simple broadband technique is proposed, which is applicable for perfect matching of antennas with similar design parameters. We provide design curves to help to choose the proper dimensions of the matching section based on the antenna’s unmatched input impedance. Finally, using the proposed technique, a 4-turn axial mode helix is designed at 2.5 GHz center frequency and the measurement results of the manufactured antenna will be included. This parametric study gives a good insight into the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas and the proposed impedance matching approach provides a simple, useful method for matching these types of antennas.

Keywords: Antenna, helix, helical, axial mode, wireless power transfer, impedance matching.

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178 A Novel Solution to Restricted Earth Fault Low Impedance Relay Maloperation

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, R. Ramaprabha, V. Rajini, V. Nagarajan

Abstract:

In this paper, various methods of providing restricted earth fault protection are discussed. The proper operation of high and low impedance Restricted Earth Fault (REF) protection for various applications has been discussed. The maloperation of a relay due to improper placement of CTs has been identified and a simple/unique solution has been proposed in this work with a case study. Moreover, it is found that the proper placement of CT in high impedance method will provide the same result with reduced CT. This methodology has been successfully implemented in Al Takreer refinery for a 2000 KVA transformer. The outcome of the paper may be included in IEEEC37.91 standard to give the proper guidance for protection engineers to sort out the issues related to mal functioning of REF relays.

Keywords: Relay maloperation, transformer, low impedance REF, MatLab, 64R, IEEE C37.91.

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177 Electrical Characteristics of Biomodified Electrodes using Nonfaradaic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: Yusmeeraz Yusof, Yoshiyuki Yanagimoto, Shigeyasu Uno, Kazuo Nakazato

Abstract:

We demonstrate a nonfaradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement of biochemically modified gold plated electrodes using a two-electrode system. The absence of any redox indicator in the impedance measurements provide more precise and accurate characterization of the measured bioanalyte at molecular resolution. An equivalent electrical circuit of the electrodeelectrolyte interface was deduced from the observed impedance data of saline solution at low and high concentrations. The detection of biomolecular interactions was fundamentally correlated to electrical double-layer variation at modified interface. The investigations were done using 20mer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands without any label. Surface modification was performed by creating mixed monolayer of the thiol-modified single-stranded DNA and a spacer thiol (mercaptohexanol) by a two-step self-assembly method. The results clearly distinguish between the noncomplementary and complementary hybridization of DNA, at low frequency region below several hundreds Hertz.

Keywords: Biosensor, electrical double-layer, impedance spectroscopy, label free DNA.

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176 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari

Abstract:

Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: Density, P-impedance, S-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion.

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175 Performance Evaluation of Complex Electrical Bio-impedance from V/I Four-electrode Measurements

Authors: Towfeeq Fairooz, Salim Istyaq

Abstract:

The passive electrical properties of a tissue depends on the intrinsic constituents and its structure, therefore by measuring the complex electrical impedance of the tissue it might be possible to obtain indicators of the tissue state or physiological activity [1]. Complete bio-impedance information relative to physiology and pathology of a human body and functional states of the body tissue or organs can be extracted by using a technique containing a fourelectrode measurement setup. This work presents the estimation measurement setup based on the four-electrode technique. First, the complex impedance is estimated by three different estimation techniques: Fourier, Sine Correlation and Digital De-convolution and then estimation errors for the magnitude, phase, reactance and resistance are calculated and analyzed for different levels of disturbances in the observations. The absolute values of relative errors are plotted and the graphical performance of each technique is compared.

Keywords: Electrical Impedance, Fast Fourier Transform, Additive White Gaussian Noise, Total Least Square, Digital De-Convolution, Sine-Correlation.

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174 Symbolic Analysis of Power Spectrum of CMOS Cross Couple Oscillator

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch

Abstract:

This paper proposes for the first time symbolic formula of the power spectrum of CMOS Cross Couple Oscillator and its modified circuit. Many principles existed to derived power spectrum in microwave textbook such as impedance, admittance parameters, ABCD, H parameters, etc. It can be compared by graph of power spectrum which methodology is the best from the point of view of practical measurement setup such as condition of impedance parameter which used superposition of current to derived (its current injection at the other port of the circuit is zero, which is impossible in reality). Four graphs of impedance parameters of cross couple oscillator are proposed. After that four graphs of scattering parameters of CMOS cross coupled oscillator will be shown.

Keywords: Optimization, power spectrum, impedance parameter, scattering parameter.

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173 A New Microstrip Diplexer Using Coupled Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: A. Chinig, J. Zbitou, A. Errkik, L. Elabdellaoui, A. Tajmouati, A. Tribak, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents a new structure of microstrip band pass filter (BPF) based on coupled stepped impedance resonators. Each filter consists of two coupled stepped impedance resonators connected to microstrip feed lines. The coupled junction is utilized to connect the two BPFs to the antenna. This two band pass filters are designed and simulated to operate for the digital communication system (DCS) and Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands at 1.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz respectively. The proposed circuit presents good performances with an insertion loss lower than 2.3 dB and isolation between the two channels greater than 21 dB. The prototype of the optimized diplexer have been investigated numerically by using ADS Agilent and verified with CST microwave software.

Keywords: Band Pass Filter, coupled junction, coupled stepped impedance resonators, diplexer, insertion loss, isolation.

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172 An Approach in the Improvement of the Reliability of Impedance Relay

Authors: D. Ouahdi, R. Ladjeroud, I. Habi

Abstract:

The distance protection mainly the impedance relay which is considered as the main protection for transmission lines can be subjected to impedance measurement error which is, mainly, due to the fault resistance and to the power fluctuation. Thus, the impedance relay may not operate for a short circuit at the far end of the protected line (case of the under reach) or operates for a fault beyond its protected zone (case of overreach). In this paper, an approach to fault detection by a distance protection, which distinguishes between the faulty conditions and the effect of overload operation mode, has been developed. This approach is based on the symmetrical components; mainly the negative sequence, and it is taking into account both the effect of fault resistance and the overload situation which both have an effect upon the reliability of the protection in terms of dependability for the former and security for the latter.

Keywords: Distance Protection, Fault Detection, negative sequence, overload, Transmission line.

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171 Implicit Force Control of a Position Controlled Robot – A Comparison with Explicit Algorithms

Authors: Alexander Winkler, Jozef Suchý

Abstract:

This paper investigates simple implicit force control algorithms realizable with industrial robots. A lot of approaches already published are difficult to implement in commercial robot controllers, because the access to the robot joint torques is necessary or the complete dynamic model of the manipulator is used. In the past we already deal with explicit force control of a position controlled robot. Well known schemes of implicit force control are stiffness control, damping control and impedance control. Using such algorithms the contact force cannot be set directly. It is further the result of controller impedance, environment impedance and the commanded robot motion/position. The relationships of these properties are worked out in this paper in detail for the chosen implicit approaches. They have been adapted to be implementable on a position controlled robot. The behaviors of stiffness control and damping control are verified by practical experiments. For this purpose a suitable test bed was configured. Using the full mechanical impedance within the controller structure will not be practical in the case when the robot is in physical contact with the environment. This fact will be verified by simulation.

Keywords: Damping control, impedance control, robot force control, stability, stiffness control.

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170 Seismic Inversion to Improve the Reservoir Characterization: Case Study in Central Blue Nile Basin - Sudan

Authors: S. E. Musa, N. E. Mohamed, N. A. Ahmed

Abstract:

In this study, several crossplots of the P-impedance with the lithology logs (gamma ray, neutron porosity, deep resistivity, water saturation and Vp/Vs curves) were made in three available wells, which were drilled in central part of the Blue Nile basin in depths varies from 1460m to 1600m. These crossplots were successful to discriminate between sand and shale when using PImpedance values, and between the wet sand and the pay sand when using both P-impedance and Vp/Vs together. Also some impedance sections were converted to porosity sections using linear formula to characterize the reservoir in terms of porosity. The used crossplots were created on log resolution, while the seismic resolution can identify only the reservoir, unless a 3D seismic angle stacks were available; then it would be easier to identify the pay sand with great confidence; through high resolution seismic inversion and geostatistical approach when using P-impedance and Vp/Vs volumes.

Keywords: Basin, Blue Nile, Inversion, Seismic.

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169 Broadband Baseband Impedance Control for Linearity Enhancement in Microwave Devices

Authors: Muhammad Akmal Chaudhary

Abstract:

The out-of-band impedance environment is considered to be of paramount importance in engineering the in-band impedance environment. Presenting the frequency independent and constant outof- band impedances across the wide modulation bandwidth is extremely important for reliable device characterization for future wireless systems. This paper presents an out-of-band impedance optimization scheme based on simultaneous engineering of significant baseband components IF1 (twice the modulation frequency) and IF2 (four times the modulation frequency) and higher baseband components such as IF3 (six times the modulation frequency) and IF4 (eight times the modulation frequency) to engineer the in-band impedance environment. The investigations were carried out on a 10W GaN HEMT device driven to deliver a peak envelope power of approximately 40.5dBm under modulated excitation. The presentation of frequency independent baseband impedances to all the significant baseband components whilst maintaining the optimum termination for fundamental tones as well as reactive termination for 2nd harmonic under class-J mode of operation has outlined separate optimum impedances for best intermodulation (IM) linearity.

Keywords: Active load-pull, baseband, device characterisation, waveform measurements.

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168 An Electrically Small Silver Ink Printed FR4 Antenna for RF Transceiver Chip CC1101

Authors: F. Majeed, D. V. Thiel, M. Shahpari

Abstract:

An electrically small meander line antenna is designed for impedance matching with RF transceiver chip CC1101. The design provides the flexibility of tuning the reactance of the antenna over a wide range of values: highly capacitive to highly inductive. The antenna was printed with silver ink on FR4 substrate using the screen printing design process. The antenna impedance was perfectly matched to CC1101 at 433 MHz. The measured radiation efficiency of the antenna was 81.3% at resonance. The 3 dB and 10 dB fractional bandwidth of the antenna was 14.5% and 4.78%, respectively. The read range of the antenna was compared with a copper wire monopole antenna over a distance of five meters. The antenna, with a perfect impedance match with RF transceiver chip CC1101, shows improvement in the read range compared to a monopole antenna over the specified distance.

Keywords: Meander line antenna, RFID, Silver ink printing, Impedance matching.

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167 Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Samarium and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate at Room Temperature

Authors: Sukhleen Bindra Narang, Dalveer Kaur, Kunal Pubby

Abstract:

Dielectric ceramic samples in the BaO-Re2O3-TiO2 ternary system were synthesized with structural formula Ba2- xRe4+2x/3Ti8O24 where Re= rare earth metal and Re= Sm and La where x varies from 0.0 to 0.6 with step size 0.1. Polycrystalline samples were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The dielectric, electrical and impedance analysis of all the samples in the frequency range 1KHz- 1MHz at room temperature (25°C) have been done to get the understanding of electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation and their correlation. Dielectric response of the samples at lower frequencies shows dielectric dispersion while at higher frequencies it shows dielectric relaxation. The ac conductivity is well fitted by the Jonscher law. The spectroscopic data in the impedance plane confirms the existence of grain contribution to the relaxation. All the properties are found out to be function of frequency as well as the amount of substitution.

Keywords: Dielectric ceramics, Dielectric constant, Loss tangent, AC conductivity, Impedance spectroscopy.

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166 Adaptive Impedance Control for Unknown Time-Varying Environment Position and Stiffness

Authors: Norsinnira Zainul Azlan, Hiroshi Yamaura

Abstract:

This study is concerned with a new adaptive impedance control strategy to compensate for unknown time-varying environment stiffness and position. The uncertainties are expressed by Function Approximation Technique (FAT), which allows the update laws to be derived easily using Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

Keywords: Adaptive Impedance Control, Function Approximation Technique (FAT), unknown time-varying environment position and stiffness.

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165 Adaptive Control Strategy of Robot Polishing Force Based on Position Impedance

Authors: Wang Zhan-Xi, Zhang Yi-Ming, Chen Hang, Wang Gang

Abstract:

Manual polishing has problems such as high labor intensity, low production efficiency and difficulty in guaranteeing the consistency of polishing quality. The use of robot polishing instead of manual polishing can effectively avoid these problems. Polishing force directly affects the quality of polishing, so accurate tracking and control of polishing force is one of the most important conditions for improving the accuracy of robot polishing. The traditional force control strategy is difficult to adapt to the strong coupling of force control and position control during the robot polishing process. Therefore, based on the analysis of force-based impedance control and position-based impedance control, this paper proposed a type of adaptive controller. Based on force feedback control of active compliance control, the controller can adaptively estimate the stiffness and position of the external environment and eliminate the steady-state force error produced by traditional impedance control. The simulation results of the model show that the adaptive controller has good adaptability to changing environmental positions and environmental stiffness, and can accurately track and control polishing force.

Keywords: robot polishing, force feedback, impedance control, adaptive control

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164 A Novel Low Power Very Low Voltage High Performance Current Mirror

Authors: Khalil Monfaredi, Hassan Faraji Baghtash, Majid Abbasi

Abstract:

In this paper a novel high output impedance, low input impedance, wide bandwidth, very simple current mirror with input and output voltage requirements less than that of a simple current mirror is presented. These features are achieved with very simple structure avoiding extra large node impedances to ensure high bandwidth operation. The circuit's principle of operation is discussed and compared to simple and low voltage cascode (LVC) current mirrors. Such outstanding features of this current mirror as high output impedance ~384K, low input impedance~6.4, wide bandwidth~178MHz, low input voltage ~ 362mV, low output voltage ~ 38mV and low current transfer error ~4% (all at 50μA) makes it an outstanding choice for high performance applications. Simulation results in BSIM 0.35μm CMOS technology with HSPICE are given in comparison with simple, and LVC current mirrors to verify and validate the performance of the proposed current mirror.

Keywords: Analog circuits, Current mirror, high frequency, Low power, Low voltage.

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163 Effect of TCSR on Measured Impedance by Distance Protection in Presence Single Phase to Earth Fault

Authors: Mohamed Zellagui, Abdelaziz Chaghi

Abstract:

This paper presents the impact study of apparent reactance injected by series Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) i.e. Thyristor Controlled Series Reactor (TCSR) on the measured impedance of a 400 kV single electrical transmission line in the presence of phase to earth fault with fault resistance. The study deals with an electrical transmission line of Eastern Algerian transmission networks at Group Sonelgaz (Algerian Company of Electrical and Gas) compensated by TCSR connected at midpoint of the line. This compensator used to inject active and reactive powers is controlled by three TCSR-s. The simulations results investigate the impacts of the TCSR on the parameters of short circuit calculation and parameters of measured impedance by distance relay in the presence of earth fault for three cases study.

Keywords: TCSR, Transmission line, Apparent reactance, Earth fault, Symmetrical components, Distance protection, Measured impedance.

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162 Manipulator Development for Telediagnostics

Authors: Adam Kurnicki, Bartłomiej Stanczyk, Bartosz Kania

Abstract:

This paper presents development of the light-weight manipulator with series elastic actuation for medical telediagnostics (USG examination). General structure of realized impedance control algorithm was shown. It was described how to perform force measurements based mainly on elasticity of manipulator links.

Keywords: Telediagnostics, elastic manipulator, impedance control, force measurement.

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161 Evaluation of the Zero Sequence Impedance of Overhead High Voltage Lines

Authors: Rabah Diabi

Abstract:

As known, the guard wires of overhead high voltage are usually grounded through the grounding systems of support and of the terminal stations. They do affect the zero sequence impedance value of the line, Z0, which is generally, calculated assuming that the wires guard are at ground potential. In this way it is not considered the effect of the resistances of earth of supports and stations. In this work is formed a formula for the calculation of Z0 which takes account of said resistances. Is also proposed a method of calculating the impedance zero sequence overhead lines in which, in various sections or spans, the guard wires are connected to the supports, or isolated from them, or are absent. Parametric analysis is given for lines 220 kV and 400 kV, which shows the extent of the errors made with traditional methods of calculation.

Keywords: Overhead line, power system, zero sequence, wire guard, grounding.

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160 Study of Intergranular Corrosion in Austenitic Stainless Steels Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: Satish Kolli, Adriana Ferancova, David Porter, Jukka Kömi

Abstract:

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to detect sensitization in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated in the temperature regime 600-820 °C to produce different degrees of sensitization in the material. The tests were conducted at five different DC potentials in the transpassive region. The quantitative determination of degree of sensitization has been done using double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests (DL-EPR). The correlation between EIS Nyquist diagrams and DL-EPR degree of sensitization values has been studied. The EIS technique can be used as a qualitative tool in determining the intergranular corrosion in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated at a given temperature.

Keywords: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, intergranular corrosion, sensitization, stainless steel.

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159 Performance Analysis of MC-SS for the Indoor BPLC Systems

Authors: Justinian Anatory

Abstract:

power-line networks are promise infrastructure for broadband services provision to end users. However, the network performance is affected by stochastic channel changing which is due to load impedances, number of branches and branched line lengths. It has been proposed that multi-carrier modulations techniques such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum (MC-SS), wavelet OFDM can be used in such environment. This paper investigates the performance of different indoor topologies of power-line networks that uses MC-SS modulation scheme.It is observed that when a branch is added in the link between sending and receiving end of an indoor channel an average of 2.5dB power loss is found. In additional, when the branch is added at a node an average of 1dB power loss is found. Additionally when the terminal impedances of the branch change from line characteristic impedance to impedance either higher or lower values the channel performances were tremendously improved. For example changing terminal load from characteristic impedance (85 .) to 5 . the signal to noise ratio (SNR) required to attain the same performances were decreased from 37dB to 24dB respectively. Also, changing the terminal load from channel characteristic impedance (85 .) to very higher impedance (1600 .) the SNR required to maintain the same performances were decreased from 37dB to 23dB. The result concludes that MC-SS performs better compared with OFDM techniques in all aspects and especially when the channel is terminated in either higher or lower impedances.

Keywords: Communication channel model; Broadband Powerlinecommunication; Branched network; OFDM; Delay Spread, MCSS;impulsive noise; load impedance

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