Search results for: Additive White Gaussian Noise
1407 A Compact Pi Network for Reducing Bit Error Rate in Dispersive FIR Channel Noise Model
Authors: Kavita Burse, R.N. Yadav, S.C. Shrivastava, Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar
Abstract:During signal transmission, the combined effect of the transmitter filter, the transmission medium, and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) are included in the channel which distort and add noise to the signal. This causes the well defined signal constellation to spread causing errors in bit detection. A compact pi neural network with minimum number of nodes is proposed. The replacement of summation at each node by multiplication results in more powerful mapping. The resultant pi network is tested on six different channels.
Keywords: Additive white Gaussian noise, digitalcommunication system, multiplicative neuron, Pi neural network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1524
1406 A Comparison of Real Valued Transforms for Image Compression
Authors: Shivali D. Kulkarni, Ameya K. Naik, Nitin S. Nagori
Abstract:In this paper we present simulation results for the application of a bandwidth efficient algorithm (mapping algorithm) to an image transmission system. This system considers three different real valued transforms to generate energy compact coefficients. First results are presented for gray scale and color image transmission in the absence of noise. It is seen that the system performs its best when discrete cosine transform is used. Also the performance of the system is dominated more by the size of the transform block rather than the number of coefficients transmitted or the number of bits used to represent each coefficient. Similar results are obtained in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. The varying values of the bit error rate have very little or no impact on the performance of the algorithm. Optimum results are obtained for the system considering 8x8 transform block and by transmitting 15 coefficients from each block using 8 bits.
Keywords: Additive white Gaussian noise channel, mapping algorithm, peak signal to noise ratio, transform encoding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1393
1405 Cyclostationary Gaussian Linearization for Analyzing Nonlinear System Response under Sinusoidal Signal and White Noise Excitation
Authors: R. J. Chang
A cyclostationary Gaussian linearization method is formulated for investigating the time average response of nonlinear system under sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation. The quantitative measure of cyclostationary mean, variance, spectrum of mean amplitude, and mean power spectral density of noise are analyzed. The qualitative response behavior of stochastic jump and bifurcation are investigated. The validity of the present approach in predicting the quantitative and qualitative statistical responses is supported by utilizing Monte Carlo simulations. The present analysis without imposing restrictive analytical conditions can be directly derived by solving non-linear algebraic equations. The analytical solution gives reliable quantitative and qualitative prediction of mean and noise response for the Duffing system subjected to both sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation.
Keywords: Cyclostationary, Duffing system, Gaussian linearization, sinusoidal signal and white noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1898
1404 Effect of Different BER Performance Comparison of MAP and ML Detection
Authors: Naveed Ur Rehman, Rehan Jamil, Irfan Jamil
In this paper, we regard as a coded transmission over a frequency-selective channel. We plan to study analytically the convergence of the turbo-detector using a maximum a posteriori (MAP) equalizer and a MAP decoder. We demonstrate that the densities of the maximum likelihood (ML) exchanged during the iterations are e-symmetric and output-symmetric. Under the Gaussian approximation, this property allows to execute a one-dimensional scrutiny of the turbo-detector. By deriving the analytical terminology of the ML distributions under the Gaussian approximation, we confirm that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the turbo-detector converges to the BER performance of the coded additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel at high signal to noise ratio (SNR), for any frequency selective channel.
Keywords: MAP, ML, SNR, Decoder, BER, Coded transmission.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2121
1403 Least Square-SVM Detector for Wireless BPSK in Multi-Environmental Noise
Authors: J. P. Dubois, Omar M. Abdul-Latif
Abstract:Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). In this paper, SVM is applied to signal detection in communication systems in the presence of channel noise in various environments in the form of Rayleigh fading, additive white Gaussian background noise (AWGN), and interference noise generalized as additive color Gaussian noise (ACGN). The structure and performance of SVM in terms of the bit error rate (BER) metric is derived and simulated for these advanced stochastic noise models and the computational complexity of the implementation, in terms of average computational time per bit, is also presented. The performance of SVM is then compared to conventional binary signaling optimal model-based detector driven by binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. We show that the SVM performance is superior to that of conventional matched filter-, innovation filter-, and Wiener filter-driven detectors, even in the presence of random Doppler carrier deviation, especially for low SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) ranges. For large SNR, the performance of the SVM was similar to that of the classical detectors. However, the convergence between SVM and maximum likelihood detection occurred at a higher SNR as the noise environment became more hostile.
Keywords: Colour noise, Doppler shift, innovation filter, least square-support vector machine, matched filter, Rayleigh fading, Wiener filter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1695
1402 Self-tuned LMS Algorithm for Sinusoidal Time Delay Tracking
Authors: Jonah Gamba
Abstract:In this paper the problem of estimating the time delay between two spatially separated noisy sinusoidal signals by system identification modeling is addressed. The system is assumed to be perturbed by both input and output additive white Gaussian noise. The presence of input noise introduces bias in the time delay estimates. Normally the solution requires a priori knowledge of the input-output noise variance ratio. We utilize the cascade of a self-tuned filter with the time delay estimator, thus making the delay estimates robust to input noise. Simulation results are presented to confirm the superiority of the proposed approach at low input signal-to-noise ratios.
Keywords: LMS algorithm, Self-tuned filter, Systemidentification, Time delay estimation, .Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1468
1401 Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes Based On ML for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments
Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon
In this paper, frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise environments are proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. First, a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments is proposed, and then, the complexity of the ML estimation scheme is reduced by employing a reduced set of candidate values. In numerical results, it is demonstrated that the proposed schemes provide a significant performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments while maintaining the performance similar to the estimation performance in Gaussian noise environments.
Keywords: Frequency offset estimation, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise environment, OFDM, training symbol.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1820
1400 Volterra Filtering Techniques for Removal of Gaussian and Mixed Gaussian-Impulse Noise
Authors: M. B. Meenavathi, K. Rajesh
In this paper, we propose a new class of Volterra series based filters for image enhancement and restoration. Generally the linear filters reduce the noise and cause blurring at the edges. Some nonlinear filters based on median operator or rank operator deal with only impulse noise and fail to cancel the most common Gaussian distributed noise. A class of second order Volterra filters is proposed to optimize the trade-off between noise removal and edge preservation. In this paper, we consider both the Gaussian and mixed Gaussian-impulse noise to test the robustness of the filter. Image enhancement and restoration results using the proposed Volterra filter are found to be superior to those obtained with standard linear and nonlinear filters.
Keywords: Gaussian noise, Image enhancement, Imagerestoration, Linear filters, Nonlinear filters, Volterra series.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2608
1399 An Approach to Noise Variance Estimation in Very Low Signal-to-Noise Ratio Stochastic Signals
Authors: Miljan B. Petrović, Dušan B. Petrović, Goran S. Nikolić
This paper describes a method for AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) variance estimation in noisy stochastic signals, referred to as Multiplicative-Noising Variance Estimation (MNVE). The aim was to develop an estimation algorithm with minimal number of assumptions on the original signal structure. The provided MATLAB simulation and results analysis of the method applied on speech signals showed more accuracy than standardized AR (autoregressive) modeling noise estimation technique. In addition, great performance was observed on very low signal-to-noise ratios, which in general represents the worst case scenario for signal denoising methods. High execution time appears to be the only disadvantage of MNVE. After close examination of all the observed features of the proposed algorithm, it was concluded it is worth of exploring and that with some further adjustments and improvements can be enviably powerful.
Keywords: Noise, signal-to-noise ratio, stochastic signals, variance estimation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1980
1398 Tests for Gaussianity of a Stationary Time Series
Authors: Adnan Al-Smadi
Abstract:One of the primary uses of higher order statistics in signal processing has been for detecting and estimation of non- Gaussian signals in Gaussian noise of unknown covariance. This is motivated by the ability of higher order statistics to suppress additive Gaussian noise. In this paper, several methods to test for non- Gaussianity of a given process are presented. These methods include histogram plot, kurtosis test, and hypothesis testing using cumulants and bispectrum of the available sequence. The hypothesis testing is performed by constructing a statistic to test whether the bispectrum of the given signal is non-zero. A zero bispectrum is not a proof of Gaussianity. Hence, other tests such as the kurtosis test should be employed. Examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the presented methods.
Keywords: Non-Gaussian, bispectrum, kurtosis, hypothesistesting, histogram.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1755
1397 Modelling of Electron States in Quantum -Wire Systems - Influence of Stochastic Effects on the Confining Potential
Authors: Mikhail Vladimirovich Deryabin, Morten Willatzen
In this work, we address theoretically the influence of red and white Gaussian noise for electronic energies and eigenstates of cylindrically shaped quantum dots. The stochastic effect can be imagined as resulting from crystal-growth statistical fluctuations in the quantum-dot material composition. In particular we obtain analytical expressions for the eigenvalue shifts and electronic envelope functions in the k . p formalism due to stochastic variations in the confining band-edge potential. It is shown that white noise in the band-edge potential leaves electronic properties almost unaffected while red noise may lead to changes in state energies and envelopefunction amplitudes of several percentages. In the latter case, the ensemble-averaged envelope function decays as a function of distance. It is also shown that, in a stochastic system, constant ensembleaveraged envelope functions are the only bounded solutions for the infinite quantum-wire problem and the energy spectrum is completely discrete. In other words, the infinite stochastic quantum wire behaves, ensemble-averaged, as an atom.
Keywords: cylindrical quantum dots, electronic eigen energies, red and white Gaussian noise, ensemble averaging effects.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1405
1396 A Robust Reception of IEEE 802.15.4a IR-TH UWB in Dense Multipath and Gaussian Noise
Authors: Farah Haroon, Haroon Rasheed, Kazi M Ahmed
Abstract:IEEE 802.15.4a impulse radio-time hopping ultra wide band (IR-TH UWB) physical layer, due to small duty cycle and very short pulse widths is robust against multipath propagation. However, scattering and reflections with the large number of obstacles in indoor channel environments, give rise to dense multipath fading. It imposes serious problem to optimum Rake receiver architectures, for which very large number of fingers are needed. Presence of strong noise also affects the reception of fine pulses having extremely low power spectral density. A robust SRake receiver for IEEE 802.15.4a IRTH UWB in dense multipath and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is proposed to efficiently recover the weak signals with much reduced complexity. It adaptively increases the signal to noise (SNR) by decreasing noise through a recursive least square (RLS) algorithm. For simulation, dense multipath environment of IEEE 802.15.4a industrial non line of sight (NLOS) is employed. The power delay profile (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for the respective channel environment are found. Moreover, the error performance of the proposed architecture is evaluated in comparison with conventional SRake and AWGN correlation receivers. The simulation results indicate a substantial performance improvement with very less number of Rake fingers.
Keywords: Adaptive noise cancellation, dense multipath propoagation, IEEE 802.15.4a, IR-TH UWB, industrial NLOS environment, SRake receiverProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1686
1395 ML-Based Blind Frequency Offset Estimation Schemes for OFDM Systems in Non-Gaussian Noise Environments
Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon
This paper proposes frequency offset (FO) estimation schemes robust to the non-Gaussian noise for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. A maximum-likelihood (ML) scheme and a low-complexity estimation scheme are proposed by applying the probability density function of the cyclic prefix of OFDM symbols to the ML criterion. From simulation results, it is confirmed that the proposed schemes offer a significant FO estimation performance improvement over the conventional estimation scheme in non-Gaussian noise environments.
Keywords: Frequency offset, cyclic prefix, maximum-likelihood, non-Gaussian noise, OFDM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1825
1394 Extended Study on Removing Gaussian Noise in Mechanical Engineering Drawing Images using Median Filters
Authors: Low Khong Teck, Hasan S. M. Al-Khaffaf, Abdullah Zawawi Talib, Tan Kian Lam
Abstract:In this paper, an extended study is performed on the effect of different factors on the quality of vector data based on a previous study. In the noise factor, one kind of noise that appears in document images namely Gaussian noise is studied while the previous study involved only salt-and-pepper noise. High and low levels of noise are studied. For the noise cleaning methods, algorithms that were not covered in the previous study are used namely Median filters and its variants. For the vectorization factor, one of the best available commercial raster to vector software namely VPstudio is used to convert raster images into vector format. The performance of line detection will be judged based on objective performance evaluation method. The output of the performance evaluation is then analyzed statistically to highlight the factors that affect vector quality.
Keywords: Performance Evaluation, Vectorization, Median Filter, Gaussian Noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1586
1393 An Efficient Gaussian Noise Removal Image Enhancement Technique for Gray Scale Images
Authors: V. Murugan, R. Balasubramanian
Image enhancement is a challenging issue in many applications. In the last two decades, there are various filters developed. This paper proposes a novel method which removes Gaussian noise from the gray scale images. The proposed technique is compared with Enhanced Fuzzy Peer Group Filter (EFPGF) for various noise levels. Experimental results proved that the proposed filter achieves better Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio PSNR than the existing techniques. The proposed technique achieves 1.736dB gain in PSNR than the EFPGF technique.
Keywords: Gaussian noise, adaptive bilateral filter, fuzzy peer group filter, switching bilateral filter, PSNRProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2233
1392 Sparse Frequencies Extracting from Partial Phase-Only Measurements
Authors: R. Fan, Q. Wan, H. Chen, Y.L. Liu, Y.P. Liu
Abstract:This paper considers a robust recovery of sparse frequencies from partial phase-only measurements. With the proposed method, sparse frequencies can be reconstructed, which makes full use of the sparse distribution in the Fourier representation of the complex-valued time signal. Simulation experiments illustrate the proposed method-s advantages over conventional methods in both noiseless and additive white Gaussian noise cases.
Keywords: Sparse signal recovery, phase-only measurements, Compressive sensing, convex relaxation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1354
1391 CT Medical Images Denoising Based on New Wavelet Thresholding Compared with Curvelet and Contourlet
Authors: Amir Moslemi, Amir Movafeghi, Shahab Moradi
Abstract:One of the most important challenging factors in medical images is nominated as noise. Image denoising refers to the improvement of a digital medical image that has been infected by Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The digital medical image or video can be affected by different types of noises. They are impulse noise, Poisson noise and AWGN. Computed tomography (CT) images are subjects to low quality due to the noise. Quality of CT images is dependent on absorbed dose to patients directly in such a way that increase in absorbed radiation, consequently absorbed dose to patients (ADP), enhances the CT images quality. In this manner, noise reduction techniques on purpose of images quality enhancement exposing no excess radiation to patients is one the challenging problems for CT images processing. In this work, noise reduction in CT images was performed using two different directional 2 dimensional (2D) transformations; i.e., Curvelet and Contourlet and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) thresholding methods of BayesShrink and AdaptShrink, compared to each other and we proposed a new threshold in wavelet domain for not only noise reduction but also edge retaining, consequently the proposed method retains the modified coefficients significantly that result good visual quality. Data evaluations were accomplished by using two criterions; namely, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and Structure similarity (Ssim).
Keywords: Computed Tomography (CT), noise reduction, curve-let, contour-let, Signal to Noise Peak-Peak Ratio (PSNR), Structure Similarity (Ssim), Absorbed Dose to Patient (ADP).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2522
1390 Quality Estimation of Video Transmitted overan Additive WGN Channel based on Digital Watermarking and Wavelet Transform
Authors: Mohamed S. El-Mahallawy, Attalah Hashad, Hazem Hassan Ali, Heba Sami Zaky
Abstract:This paper presents an evaluation for a wavelet-based digital watermarking technique used in estimating the quality of video sequences transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel in terms of a classical objective metric, such as Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) without the need of the original video. In this method, a watermark is embedded into the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain of the original video frames using a quantization method. The degradation of the extracted watermark can be used to estimate the video quality in terms of PSNR with good accuracy. We calculated PSNR for video frames contaminated with AWGN and compared the values with those estimated using the Watermarking-DWT based approach. It is found that the calculated and estimated quality measures of the video frames are highly correlated, suggesting that this method can provide a good quality measure for video frames transmitted over AWGN channel without the need of the original video.
Keywords: AWGN, DWT, PSNR, Watermarking, VideoQuality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1734
1389 Performance Comparison and Analysis of Serial Concatenated Convolutional Codes
Authors: Dongwon Lee, Eon Kyeong Joo
Abstract:In this paper, the performance of three types of serial concatenated convolutional codes (SCCC) is compared and analyzed in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. In Type I, only the parity bits of outer encoder are passed to inner encoder. In Type II and Type III, both the information bits and the parity bits of outer encoder are transferred to inner encoder. As results of simulation, Type I shows the best bit error rate (BER) performance at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, Type III shows the best BER performance at high SNR in AWGN channel. The simulation results are analyzed using the distance spectrum.
Keywords: Distance spectrum, MAP algorithm, SCCC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1645
1388 Audio Watermarking Using Spectral Modifications
Authors: Jyotsna Singh, Parul Garg, Alok Nath De
Abstract:In this paper, we present a non-blind technique of adding the watermark to the Fourier spectral components of audio signal in a way such that the modified amplitude does not exceed the maximum amplitude spread (MAS). This MAS is due to individual Discrete fourier transform (DFT) coefficients in that particular frame, which is derived from the Energy Spreading function given by Schroeder. Using this technique one can store double the information within a given frame length i.e. overriding the watermark on the host of equal length with least perceptual distortion. The watermark is uniformly floating on the DFT components of original signal. This helps in detecting any intentional manipulations done on the watermarked audio. Also, the scheme is found robust to various signal processing attacks like presence of multiple watermarks, Additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) and mp3 compression.
Keywords: Discrete Fourier Transform, Spreading Function, Watermark, Pseudo Noise Sequence, Spectral Masking EffectProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1556
1387 Analysis of Bit Error Rate Improvement in MFSK Communication Link
Authors: O. P. Sharma, V. Janyani, S. Sancheti
Abstract:Data rate, tolerable bit error rate or frame error rate and range & coverage are the key performance requirement of a communication link. In this paper performance of MFSK link is analyzed in terms of bit error rate, number of errors and total number of data processed. In the communication link model proposed, which is implemented using MATLAB block set, an improvement in BER is observed. Different parameters which effects and enables to keep BER low in M-ary communication system are also identified.
Keywords: Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), Bit Error Rate (BER), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Orthogonal Signaling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2713
1386 Method to Improve Channel Coding Using Cryptography
Authors: Ayyaz Mahmood
Abstract:A new approach for the improvement of coding gain in channel coding using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) algorithm is proposed. This new approach uses the avalanche effect of block cipher algorithm AES and soft output values of MAP decoding algorithm. The performance of proposed approach is evaluated in the presence of Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). For the verification of proposed approach, computer simulation results are included.
Keywords: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Avalanche Effect, Maximum A Posteriori (MAP), Soft Input Decryption (SID).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1847
1385 Analytical Modeling of Globular Protein-Ferritin in α-Helical Conformation: A White Noise Functional Approach
Authors: Vernie C. Convicto, Henry P. Aringa, Wilson I. Barredo
Abstract:This study presents a conformational model of the helical structures of globular protein particularly ferritin in the framework of white noise path integral formulation by using Associated Legendre functions, Bessel and convolution of Bessel and trigonometric functions as modulating functions. The model incorporates chirality features of proteins and their helix-turn-helix sequence structural motif.
Keywords: Globular protein, modulating function, white noise, winding probability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1812
1384 Performance of Block Codes Using the Eigenstructure of the Code Correlation Matrixand Soft-Decision Decoding of BPSK
Authors: Vitalice K. Oduol, C. Ardil
A method is presented for obtaining the error probability for block codes. The method is based on the eigenvalueeigenvector properties of the code correlation matrix. It is found that under a unary transformation and for an additive white Gaussian noise environment, the performance evaluation of a block code becomes a one-dimensional problem in which only one eigenvalue and its corresponding eigenvector are needed in the computation. The obtained error rate results show remarkable agreement between simulations and analysis.
Keywords: bit error rate, block codes, code correlation matrix, eigenstructure, soft-decision decoding, weight vector.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1643
1383 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels
Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouallègue
Abstract:In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.
Keywords: AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding, LDPC codes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 832
1382 Signal Reconstruction Using Cepstrum of Higher Order Statistics
Authors: Adnan Al-Smadi, Mahmoud Smadi
This paper presents an algorithm for reconstructing phase and magnitude responses of the impulse response when only the output data are available. The system is driven by a zero-mean independent identically distributed (i.i.d) non-Gaussian sequence that is not observed. The additive noise is assumed to be Gaussian. This is an important and essential problem in many practical applications of various science and engineering areas such as biomedical, seismic, and speech processing signals. The method is based on evaluating the bicepstrum of the third-order statistics of the observed output data. Simulations results are presented that demonstrate the performance of this method.
Keywords: Cepstrum, bicepstrum, third order statisticsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1893
1381 A Fast HRRP Synthesis Algorithm with Sensing Dictionary in GTD Model
Authors: R. Fan, Q. Wan, H. Chen, Y.L. Liu, Y.P. Liu
In the paper, a fast high-resolution range profile synthetic algorithm called orthogonal matching pursuit with sensing dictionary (OMP-SD) is proposed. It formulates the traditional HRRP synthetic to be a sparse approximation problem over redundant dictionary. As it employs a priori that the synthetic range profile (SRP) of targets are sparse, SRP can be accomplished even in presence of data lost. Besides, the computation complexity decreases from O(MNDK) flops for OMP to O(M(N + D)K) flops for OMP-SD by introducing sensing dictionary (SD). Simulation experiments illustrate its advantages both in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and noiseless situation, respectively.
Keywords: GTD-based model, HRRP, orthogonal matching pursuit, sensing dictionary.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1768
1380 Medical Image Segmentation Based On Vigorous Smoothing and Edge Detection Ideology
Authors: Jagadish H. Pujar, Pallavi S. Gurjal, Shambhavi D. S, Kiran S. Kunnur
Medical image segmentation based on image smoothing followed by edge detection assumes a great degree of importance in the field of Image Processing. In this regard, this paper proposes a novel algorithm for medical image segmentation based on vigorous smoothening by identifying the type of noise and edge diction ideology which seems to be a boom in medical image diagnosis. The main objective of this algorithm is to consider a particular medical image as input and make the preprocessing to remove the noise content by employing suitable filter after identifying the type of noise and finally carrying out edge detection for image segmentation. The algorithm consists of three parts. First, identifying the type of noise present in the medical image as additive, multiplicative or impulsive by analysis of local histograms and denoising it by employing Median, Gaussian or Frost filter. Second, edge detection of the filtered medical image is carried out using Canny edge detection technique. And third part is about the segmentation of edge detected medical image by the method of Normalized Cut Eigen Vectors. The method is validated through experiments on real images. The proposed algorithm has been simulated on MATLAB platform. The results obtained by the simulation shows that the proposed algorithm is very effective which can deal with low quality or marginal vague images which has high spatial redundancy, low contrast and biggish noise, and has a potential of certain practical use of medical image diagnosis.
Keywords: Image Segmentation, Image smoothing, Edge Detection, Impulsive noise, Gaussian noise, Median filter, Canny edge, Eigen values, Eigen vector.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1784
1379 Blind Source Separation Using Modified Gaussian FastICA
Authors: V. K. Ananthashayana, Jyothirmayi M.
Abstract:This paper addresses the problem of source separation in images. We propose a FastICA algorithm employing a modified Gaussian contrast function for the Blind Source Separation. Experimental result shows that the proposed Modified Gaussian FastICA is effectively used for Blind Source Separation to obtain better quality images. In this paper, a comparative study has been made with other popular existing algorithms. The peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and improved signal to noise ratio (ISNR) are used as metrics for evaluating the quality of images. The ICA metric Amari error is also used to measure the quality of separation.
Keywords: Amari error, Blind Source Separation, Contrast function, Gaussian function, Independent Component Analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1634
1378 Formant Tracking Linear Prediction Model using HMMs for Noisy Speech Processing
Authors: Zaineb Ben Messaoud, Dorra Gargouri, Saida Zribi, Ahmed Ben Hamida
Abstract:This paper presents a formant-tracking linear prediction (FTLP) model for speech processing in noise. The main focus of this work is the detection of formant trajectory based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM), for improved formant estimation in noise. The approach proposed in this paper provides a systematic framework for modelling and utilization of a time- sequence of peaks which satisfies continuity constraints on parameter; the within peaks are modelled by the LP parameters. The formant tracking LP model estimation is composed of three stages: (1) a pre-cleaning multi-band spectral subtraction stage to reduce the effect of residue noise on formants (2) estimation stage where an initial estimate of the LP model of speech for each frame is obtained (3) a formant classification using probability models of formants and Viterbi-decoders. The evaluation results for the estimation of the formant tracking LP model tested in Gaussian white noise background, demonstrate that the proposed combination of the initial noise reduction stage with formant tracking and LPC variable order analysis, results in a significant reduction in errors and distortions. The performance was evaluated with noisy natual vowels extracted from international french and English vocabulary speech signals at SNR value of 10dB. In each case, the estimated formants are compared to reference formants.
Keywords: Formants Estimation, HMM, Multi Band Spectral Subtraction, Variable order LPC coding, White Gauusien Noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1852