**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**106

# Search results for: gravitational settling

##### 106 Newtonian Mechanics Descriptions for General Relativity Experimental Tests, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

**Authors:**
Jing-Gang Xie

**Abstract:**

As the continuation to the previous studies of gravitational frequency shift, gravitational time dilation, gravitational light bending, gravitational waves, dark matter, and dark energy are explained in the context of Newtonian mechanics. The photon is treated as the particle with mass of hν/C^{2} under the gravitational field of much larger mass of M. Hence the quantum mechanics theory could be applied to gravitational field on cosmology scale. The obtained results are the same as those obtained by general relativity considering weak gravitational field approximation; however, the results are different when the gravitational field is substantially strong.

**Keywords:**
Gravitational time dilation,
gravitational light bending,
gravitational waves,
dark matter,
dark energy,
General Relativity,
gravitational frequency shift.

##### 105 The Relationship between the Energy of Gravitational Field and the Representative Pseudotensor

**Authors:**
R. I. Khrapko

**Abstract:**

As is known, the role of the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field is to extend the conservation law to the gravitational interaction by taking into account the energy and momentum of the gravitational field. We calculated the contribution of the Einstein pseudotensor to the total mass of a stationary material body and its gravitational field. It turned out that this contribution is positive, despite the fact that the mass-energy of a stationary gravitational field is negative. We concluded that the pseudotensor incorrectly describes the energy of the gravitational field. Nevertheless, this pseudotensor has been used in a large number of scientific works for 100 years. We explain this by the fact that the covariant component of the pseudotensor was regarded as the mass-energy. Besides, we prove the advantage of the covariant energy-momentum conservation law for matter in the Minkowski space-time.

**Keywords:**
Conservation law,
covariant integration,
gravitation field,
isolated system.

##### 104 Numerical Study on the Hazards of Gravitational Forces on Cerebral Aneurysms

**Authors:**
Hashem M. Alargha,
Mohammad O. Hamdan,
Waseem H. Aziz

**Abstract:**

Aerobatic and military pilots are subjected to high gravitational forces that could cause blackout, physical injuries or death. A CFD simulation using fluid-solid interactions scheme has been conducted to investigate the gravitational effects and hazards inside cerebral aneurysms. Medical data have been used to derive the size and geometry of a simple aneurysm on a T-shaped bifurcation. The results show that gravitational force has no effect on maximum Wall Shear Stress (WSS); hence, it will not cause aneurysm initiation/formation. However, gravitational force cause causes hypertension which could contribute to aneurysm rupture.

**Keywords:**
Aneurysm,
CFD,
wall shear stress,
gravity,
fluid dynamics,
bifurcation artery.

##### 103 Gravitational and Centrifugal Forces in the Nut-Kerr-Newman Space-Time

**Authors:**
Atikur Rahman Baizid,
Md. Elias Uddin Biswas,
Ahsan Habib

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gravitational Forces,
Centrifugal Forces,
Nut-Kerr-Newman,
Space time.

##### 102 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

**Authors:**
Barenten Suciu,
Akio Miyamura

**Abstract:**

In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called *translational efficiency* and *rotational efficiency*, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

**Keywords:**
Truncated double-cone,
friction,
rolling and sliding,
efficiency,
gravitational motor and generator.

##### 101 Time Map

**Authors:**
A. Peveri

**Abstract:**

The interaction of mass will determine the curvature of space-time, may determine that events proceed at different rates of time at each point in space, so each has a corresponding gravitational potential time. So we can find different values of gravity (g), corresponding to different times (t), thus making a "map of time in space." The space-time is curved by present mass, causing a force of attraction towards the body, but if you invest the curvature of space-time, we find that this field is repulsive: Obtaining negative gravitational forces and positive gravitational forces respectively.

**Keywords:**
Space-time,
time,
positive gravitation,
negative gravitation.

##### 100 Influence of Electrolytes and High Viscosity on Liquid-Liquid Separation

**Authors:**
K. Anusarn,
P. Chuttrakul,
M. Schmidt,
T. Kangsadan,
A. Pfennig

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Coalescence; electrolytes; liquid-liquid separation;
high viscosity; mixer- settler.

##### 99 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units Using Gravitational Search Method

**Authors:**
Satyendra Pratap Singh,
S. P. Singh

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a methodology using Gravitational Search Algorithm for optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in order to achieve complete observability of the power system. The objective of proposed algorithm is to minimize the total number of PMUs at the power system buses, which in turn minimize installation cost of the PMUs. In this algorithm, the searcher agents are collection of masses which interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion. This new Gravitational Search Algorithm based method has been applied to the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. Case studies reveal optimal number of PMUs with better observability by proposed method.

**Keywords:**
Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA),
Law of
Motion,
Law of Gravity,
Observability,
Phasor Measurement Unit.

##### 98 Einstein’s General Equation of the Gravitational Field

**Authors:**
A. Benzian

**Abstract:**

The generalization of relativistic theory of gravity based essentially on the principle of equivalence stipulates that for all bodies, the grave mass is equal to the inert mass which leads us to believe that gravitation is not a property of the bodies themselves, but of space, and the conclusion that the gravitational field must curved space-time what allows the abandonment of Minkowski space (because Minkowski space-time being nonetheless null curvature) to adopt Riemannian geometry as a mathematical framework in order to determine the curvature. Therefore the work presented in this paper begins with the evolution of the concept of gravity then tensor field which manifests by Riemannian geometry to formulate the general equation of the gravitational field.

**Keywords:**
Inertia,
principle of equivalence,
tensors,
Riemannian geometry.

##### 97 On Symmetries and Exact Solutions of Einstein Vacuum Equations for Axially Symmetric Gravitational Fields

**Authors:**
Nisha Goyal,
R.K. Gupta

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gravitational fields,
Lie Classical method,
Exact solutions.

##### 96 Hexagonal Honeycomb Sandwich Plate Optimization Using Gravitational Search Algorithm

**Authors:**
A. Boudjemai,
A. Zafrane,
R. Hocine

**Abstract:**

Honeycomb sandwich panels are increasingly used in the construction of space vehicles because of their outstanding strength, stiffness and light weight properties. However, the use of honeycomb sandwich plates comes with difficulties in the design process as a result of the large number of design variables involved, including composite material design, shape and geometry. Hence, this work deals with the presentation of an optimal design of hexagonal honeycomb sandwich structures subjected to space environment. The optimization process is performed using a set of algorithms including the gravitational search algorithm (GSA). Numerical results are obtained and presented for a set of algorithms. The results obtained by the GSA algorithm are much better compared to other algorithms used in this study.

**Keywords:**
Optimization,
Gravitational search algorithm,
Genetic algorithm,
Honeycomb plate.

##### 95 Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) Optimized SSSC Based Facts Controller to Improve Power System Oscillation Stability

**Authors:**
Gayadhar Panda,
P. K. Rautraya

**Abstract:**

Damping of inter-area electromechanical oscillations is one of the major challenges to the electric power system operators. This paper presents Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) for tuning Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) based damping controller to improve power system oscillation stability. In the proposed algorithm, the searcher agents are a collection of masses which interact with each other based on the Newtonian gravity and the laws of motion. The effectiveness of the scheme in damping power system oscillations during system faults at different loading conditions is demonstrated through time-domain simulation.

**Keywords:**
FACTS,
Damping controller design,
Gravitational search algorithm (GSA),
Power system oscillations,
Single-machine infinite Bus power system,
SSSC.

##### 94 Process Analysis through Length Consistency

**Authors:**
James E. Ponder

**Abstract:**

The requirement for consistency in physics can sometimes offer a common ground between disciplines such that their fundamental equations share a common parameter set and mathematical method for equation extraction. The parameter set shared by Relativity and Quantum Wave Mechanics enables an analysis which will be seen to be very straightforward, primarily classical in nature using linear algebra concepts, yet deriving a theoretical estimate of the value of the Gravitational Constant along with dependencies never before known.

**Keywords:**
Gravitational Constant,
Physical Consistency,
Quantum Mechanics,
Relativity.

##### 93 A Hybrid Neural Network and Gravitational Search Algorithm (HNNGSA) Method to Solve well known Wessinger's Equation

**Authors:**
M. Ghalambaz,
A.R. Noghrehabadi,
M.A. Behrang,
E. Assareh,
A. Ghanbarzadeh,
N.Hedayat

**Abstract:**

This study presents a hybrid neural network and Gravitational Search Algorithm (HNGSA) method to solve well known Wessinger's equation. To aim this purpose, gravitational search algorithm (GSA) technique is applied to train a multi-layer perceptron neural network, which is used as approximation solution of the Wessinger's equation. A trial solution of the differential equation is written as sum of two parts. The first part satisfies the initial/ boundary conditions and does not contain any adjustable parameters and the second part which is constructed so as not to affect the initial/boundary conditions. The second part involves adjustable parameters (the weights and biases) for a multi-layer perceptron neural network. In order to demonstrate the presented method, the obtained results of the proposed method are compared with some known numerical methods. The given results show that presented method can introduce a closer form to the analytic solution than other numerical methods. Present method can be easily extended to solve a wide range of problems.

**Keywords:**
Neural Networks,
Gravitational Search Algorithm
(GSR),
Wessinger's Equation.

##### 92 A Meta-Heuristic Algorithm for Set Covering Problem Based on Gravity

**Authors:**
S. Raja Balachandar,
K. Kannan

**Abstract:**

A new Meta heuristic approach called "Randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm (RGES)" for solving large size set covering problems has been designed. This algorithm is found upon introducing randomization concept along with the two of the four primary parameters -velocity- and -gravity- in physics. A new heuristic operator is introduced in the domain of RGES to maintain feasibility specifically for the set covering problem to yield best solutions. The performance of this algorithm has been evaluated on a large set of benchmark problems from OR-library. Computational results showed that the randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm - based heuristic is capable of producing high quality solutions. The performance of this heuristic when compared with other existing heuristic algorithms is found to be excellent in terms of solution quality.

**Keywords:**
Set covering problem,
velocity,
gravitational force,
Newton's law,
meta heuristic,
combinatorial optimization.

##### 91 A Meta-Heuristic Algorithm for Vertex Covering Problem Based on Gravity

**Authors:**
S. Raja Balachandar,
K.Kannan

**Abstract:**

A new Meta heuristic approach called "Randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm (RGES)" for solving vertex covering problems has been designed. This algorithm is found upon introducing randomization concept along with the two of the four primary parameters -velocity- and -gravity- in physics. A new heuristic operator is introduced in the domain of RGES to maintain feasibility specifically for the vertex covering problem to yield best solutions. The performance of this algorithm has been evaluated on a large set of benchmark problems from OR-library. Computational results showed that the randomized gravitational emulation search algorithm - based heuristic is capable of producing high quality solutions. The performance of this heuristic when compared with other existing heuristic algorithms is found to be excellent in terms of solution quality.

**Keywords:**
Vertex covering Problem,
Velocity,
Gravitational Force,
Newton's Law,
Meta Heuristic,
Combinatorial optimization.

##### 90 Considering Aerosol Processes in Nuclear Transport Package Containment Safety Cases

**Authors:**
Andrew Cummings,
Rhianne Boag,
Sarah Bryson,
Gordon Turner

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Aerosol processes,
Brownian coagulation,
gravitational settling,
transport regulations.

##### 89 Treatment of Leaden Sludge of Algiers Refinery by Electrooxidation

**Authors:**
K. Ighilahriz,
M. Taleb Ahmed,
R. Maachi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Electrooxidation,
leaching,
leaden sludge,
the oil industry.

##### 88 Method of Moments Applied to a Cuboidal Cavity Resonator: Effect of Gravitational Field Produced by a Black Hole

**Authors:**
Arti Vaish,
Harish Parthasarathy

**Abstract:**

This paper deals with the formulation of Maxwell-s equations in a cavity resonator in the presence of the gravitational field produced by a blackhole. The metric of space-time due to the blackhole is the Schwarzchild metric. Conventionally, this is expressed in spherical polar coordinates. In order to adapt this metric to our problem, we have considered this metric in a small region close to the blackhole and expressed this metric in a cartesian system locally.

**Keywords:**
Method of moments,
General theory of relativity,
Electromagnetism,
Metric tensor,
schwarzchild metric,
Wave Equation.

##### 87 An Analysis of Dynamic Economic Dispatch Using Search Space Reduction Based Gravitational Search Algorithm

**Authors:**
K. C. Meher,
R. K. Swain,
C. K. Chanda

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Dynamic economic dispatch,
dynamic search space reduction strategy,
gravitational search algorithm,
ramp rate limits,
valve-point effects.

##### 86 Frictional Effects on the Dynamics of a Truncated Double-Cone Gravitational Motor

**Authors:**
Barenten Suciu

**Abstract:**

In this work, effects of the friction and truncation on the dynamics of a double-cone gravitational motor, self-propelled on a straight V-shaped horizontal rail, are evaluated. Such mechanism has a variable radius of contact, and, on one hand, it is similar to a pulley mechanism that changes the potential energy into the kinetic energy of rotation, but on the other hand, it is similar to a pendulum mechanism that converts the potential energy of the suspended body into the kinetic energy of translation along a circular path. Movies of the self- propelled double-cones, made of S45C carbon steel and wood, along rails made of aluminum alloy, were shot for various opening angles of the rails. Kinematical features of the double-cones were estimated through the slow-motion processing of the recorded movies. Then, a kinematical model is derived under assumption that the distance traveled by the contact points on the rectilinear rails is identical with the distance traveled by the contact points on the truncated conical surface. Additionally, a dynamic model, for this particular contact problem, was proposed and validated against the experimental results. Based on such model, the traction force and the traction torque acting on the double-cone are identified. One proved that the rolling traction force is always smaller than the sliding friction force; i.e., the double-cone is rolling without slipping. Results obtained in this work can be used to achieve the proper design of such gravitational motor.

**Keywords:**
Truncated double-cone,
friction,
rolling and sliding,
dynamic model,
gravitational motor.

##### 85 Generalization Kernel for Geopotential Approximation by Harmonic Splines

**Authors:**
Elena Kotevska

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Geopotential,
Reproducing Kernel,
Approximation,
Regular Surface

##### 84 Rheological Behavior of Fresh Activated Sludge

**Authors:**
Salam K. Al-Dawery

**Abstract:**

Despite of few research works on municipal sludge, still there is a lack of actual data. Thus, this work was focused on the conditioning and rheology of fresh activated sludge. The effect of cationic polyelectrolyte has been investigated at different concentrations and pH values in a comparative fashion. Yield stress is presented in all results indicating the minimum stress that necessary to reach flow conditions. Connections between particle-particle is the reason for this yield stress, also, the addition of polyelectrolyte causes strong bonds between particles and water resulting in the aggregation of particles which required higher shear stress in order to flow. The results from the experiments indicate that the cationic polyelectrolytes have significant effluence on the sludge characteristic and water quality such as turbidity, SVI, zone settling rate and shear stress.

**Keywords:**
Rheology,
Polyelectrolyte,
Settling volume index,
Turbidity.

##### 83 Measurement of Acoustic Loss in Nano-Layered Coating Developed for Thermal Noise Reduction

**Authors:**
E. Cesarini,
M. Lorenzini,
R. Cardarelli,
S. Chao,
E. Coccia,
V. Fafone,
Y. Minenkow,
I. Nardecchia,
I. M. Pinto,
A. Rocchi,
V. Sequino,
C. Taranto

**Abstract:**

Structural relaxation processes in optical coatings represent a fundamental limit to the sensitivity of gravitational waves detectors, MEMS, optical metrology and entangled state experiments. To face this problem, many research lines are now active, in particular the characterization of new materials and novel solutions to be employed as coatings in future gravitational wave detectors. Nano-layered coating deposition is among the most promising techniques. We report on the measurement of acoustic loss of nm-layered composites (Ti_{2}O/SiO_{2}), performed with the GeNS nodal suspension, compared with sputtered λ/4 thin films nowadays employed.

**Keywords:**
Mechanical measurement,
nanomaterials,
optical coating,
thermal noise.

##### 82 Modeling of Cross Flow Classifier with Water Injection

**Authors:**
E. Pikushchak,
J. Dueck,
L. Minkov

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Classification,
fine particle processing,
hydrocyclone,
water injection.

##### 81 Seismic Behavior of Steel Structure with Buckling- Restrained Braces

**Authors:**
M. Reza Bagerzadeh Karimi,
M. Ali Lotfollahi Yaghin,
R. Mehdi Nezhad,
V. Sadeghi,
M. Aghabalaie

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame (BRBF),
energydissipating,
ABAQUS,
SAP2000,
impact load.

##### 80 Development and Control of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation: The Case of Colzate-Vertova Landslide, Bergamo, Northern Italy

**Authors:**
Paola Comella,
Vincenzo Francani,
Paola Gattinoni

**Abstract:**

This paper presents the Colzate-Vertova landslide, a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) located in the Seriana Valley, Northern Italy. The paper aims at describing the development as well as evaluating the factors that influence the evolution of the landslide. After defining the conceptual model of the landslide, numerical simulations were developed using a finite element numerical model, first with a two-dimensional domain, and later with a three-dimensional one. The results of the 2-D model showed a displacement field typical of a sackung, as a consequence of the erosion along the Seriana Valley. The analysis also showed that the groundwater flow could locally affect the slope stability, bringing about a reduction in the safety factor, but without reaching failure conditions. The sensitivity analysis carried out on the strength parameters pointed out that slope failures could be reached only for relevant reduction of the geotechnical characteristics. Such a result does not fit the real conditions observed on site, where a number of small failures often develop all along the hillslope. The 3-D model gave a more comprehensive analysis of the evolution of the DSGSD, also considering the border effects. The results showed that the convex profile of the slope favors the development of displacements along the lateral valley, with a relevant reduction in the safety factor, justifying the existing landslides.

**Keywords:**
Deep seated gravitational slope deformation,
Italy,
landslide,
numerical modeling.

##### 79 Numerical Investigation of Baffle Effect on the Flow in a Rectangular Primary Sedimentation Tank

**Authors:**
M. Shahrokhi,
F. Rostami,
M.A. Md Said,
S. Syafalni

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Sedimentation tanks,
Baffle,
Numerical Modeling,
VOF,
Circulation Zone

##### 78 Gravitational Frequency Shifts for Photons and Particles

**Authors:**
Jing-Gang Xie

**Abstract:**

The research, in this case, considers the integration of the Quantum Field Theory and the General Relativity Theory. As two successful models in explaining behaviors of particles, they are incompatible since they work at different masses and scales of energy, with the evidence that regards the description of black holes and universe formation. It is so considering previous efforts in merging the two theories, including the likes of the String Theory, Quantum Gravity models, and others. In a bid to prove an actionable experiment, the paper’s approach starts with the derivations of the existing theories at present. It goes on to test the derivations by applying the same initial assumptions, coupled with several deviations. The resulting equations get similar results to those of classical Newton model, quantum mechanics, and general relativity as long as conditions are normal. However, outcomes are different when conditions are extreme, specifically with no breakdowns even for less than Schwarzschild radius, or at Planck length cases. Even so, it proves the possibilities of integrating the two theories.

**Keywords:**
General relativity theory,
particles,
photons,
quantum gravity model,
gravitational frequency shift.

##### 77 GSA-Based Design of Dual Proportional Integral Load Frequency Controllers for Nonlinear Hydrothermal Power System

**Authors:**
M. Elsisi,
M. Soliman,
M. A. S. Aboelela,
W. Mansour

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA),
Load
Frequency Control (LFC),
Dual Proportional-Integral (DPI)
controller.