**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**30127

##### Newtonian Mechanics Descriptions for General Relativity Experimental Tests, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

**Authors:**
Jing-Gang Xie

**Abstract:**

As the continuation to the previous studies of gravitational frequency shift, gravitational time dilation, gravitational light bending, gravitational waves, dark matter, and dark energy are explained in the context of Newtonian mechanics. The photon is treated as the particle with mass of hν/C^{2} under the gravitational field of much larger mass of M. Hence the quantum mechanics theory could be applied to gravitational field on cosmology scale. The obtained results are the same as those obtained by general relativity considering weak gravitational field approximation; however, the results are different when the gravitational field is substantially strong.

**Keywords:**
Gravitational time dilation,
gravitational light bending,
gravitational waves,
dark matter,
dark energy,
General Relativity,
gravitational frequency shift.

**Digital Object Identifier (DOI):**
doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2021889

**References:**

[1] L. Ryder, “Introduction to General Relativity,” Cambridge University Press, 2009, ISBN-13 978-0—511-58004-8 eBook (EBL); ISBN-13 978-0-521-84563-2 Hardback.

[2] B. Schutz, “A First Course in General Relativity,” Cambridge University Press, edit; 2009; ISBN-13 978-0—511-53995-4 eBook (EBL); ISBN-13 978-0-521-88705-2 Hardback.

[3] S. Carroll, “Spacetime and Geometry An Introduction to General Relativity,” Pearson; ISBN 10: 1-292-02663-4; ISBN 13: 978-1—292-02663-3.

[4] V. A. Kostelecký and S. Samuel, “Gravitational phenomenology in higher-dimensional theories and strings,” Phys. Rev. D 40, 1886 – Published 15 September 1989.

[5] S. B. Giddings, “On Facts in Superstring Theory,” SLAC Summer Institute on Particle Physics (SSI04), Aug. 2-13, 2004.

[6] O. Z. Mar´ın, “Gravity and Strings,” https://arxiv.org/pdf/0905.1439.

[7] C. Kiefer, “Quantum Gravity — A Short Overview,” Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2004.

[8] B. F.Schutz, “Gravitational wave astronomy,” Classical and Quantum Gravity, Volume 16, Number 12A.

[9] J.-G. Xie, “Gravitational Frequency Shifts for Photons and Particles,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Vol:11, No:1, 2017.

[10] I. Pikovski, M. Zych, F. Costa, & Č. Brukner, “Universal decoherence due to gravitational time dilation.” Nature Physics, 11(8), 668, (2015).

[11] S. Mahajan,“Estimating light bending using order-of-magnitude physics,”http://www.inference.org.uk/sanjoy/teaching/approximation/light-bending.pdf

[12] T Yarman, “Bending of light caused by gravitation: the same result via totally different philosophies,” https://arxiv.org/pdf/1401.3110, 2014..

[13] P. D. Mannheim, “Alternatives to dark matter and dark energy,” Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 56(2), 340-445, (2006).

[14] E. J. Copeland, M. Sami, & S. Tsujikawa “Dynamics of dark energy,” International Journal of Modern Physics D, 15(11), 1753-1935, (2006).

[15] P. J. E. Peebles and B.Ratra, “The cosmological constant and dark energy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, ,22 April 2003.

[16] Larmor Radiation, “Radiation from an Accelerated Charge,” https://www.cv.nrao.edu/course/astr534/PDFnewfiles/LarmorRad.pdf.

[17] M. DeCross, S. Dash, C. Williams, et al., “Gravitational Waves,” https://brilliant.org/wiki/gravitational-waves/

[18] C. Sormani, C. D. Hill, P. Nurowski, L. Bieri, D. Garfinkle, N. Yunes, “The Mathematics of Gravitational Waves,” www.ams.org/notices/201707/rnoti-p684.pdf.

[19] B. P. Abbott et al., “Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102 – Published 11 February 2016. https://journals.aps.org/prl/pdf/10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102

[20] The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration., “The basic physics of the binary black hole merger,” LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations, Annalen der Physik, Volume 529, Issue 1-2, January 2017, 1600209 https://dcc.ligo.org/public/0126/P1600161/013/BBHBasicsANDPFullAuth.pdf