@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10010736,
	  title     = {Considering Aerosol Processes in Nuclear Transport Package Containment Safety Cases},
	  author    = {Andrew Cummings and  Rhianne Boag and  Sarah Bryson and  Gordon Turner},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Packages designed for transport of radioactive material
must satisfy rigorous safety regulations specified by the International
Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Higher Activity Waste (HAW)
transport packages have to maintain containment of their contents
during normal and accident conditions of transport (NCT and ACT).
To ensure containment criteria is satisfied these packages are required
to be leak-tight in all transport conditions to meet allowable activity
release rates. Package design safety reports are the safety cases
that provide the claims, evidence and arguments to demonstrate that
packages meet the regulations and once approved by the competent
authority (in the UK this is the Office for Nuclear Regulation) a
licence to transport radioactive material is issued for the package(s).
The standard approach to demonstrating containment in the RWM
transport safety case is set out in BS EN ISO 12807. In this
document a method for measuring a leak rate from the package
is explained by way of a small interspace test volume situated
between two O-ring seals on the underside of the package lid.
The interspace volume is pressurised and a pressure drop measured.
A small interspace test volume makes the method more sensitive
enabling the measurement of smaller leak rates. By ascertaining the
activity of the contents, identifying a releasable fraction of material
and by treating that fraction of material as a gas, allowable leak
rates for NCT and ACT are calculated. The adherence to basic
safety principles in ISO12807 is very pessimistic and current practice
in the demonstration of transport safety, which is accepted by the
UK regulator. It is UK government policy that management of
HAW will be through geological disposal. It is proposed that the
intermediate level waste be transported to the geological disposal
facility (GDF) in large cuboid packages. This poses a challenge
for containment demonstration because such packages will have
long seals and therefore large interspace test volumes. There is also
uncertainty on the releasable fraction of material within the package
ullage space. This is because the waste may be in many different
forms which makes it difficult to define the fraction of material
released by the waste package. Additionally because of the large
interspace test volume, measuring the calculated leak rates may not
be achievable. For this reason a justification for a lower releasable
fraction of material is sought. This paper considers the use of aerosol
processes to reduce the releasable fraction for both NCT and ACT. It
reviews the basic coagulation and removal processes and applies the
dynamic aerosol balance equation. The proposed solution includes
only the most well understood physical processes namely; Brownian
coagulation and gravitational settling. Other processes have been
eliminated either on the basis that they would serve to reduce the
release to the environment further (pessimistically in keeping with
the essence of nuclear transport safety cases) or that they are not
credible in the conditions of transport considered.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Environmental and Ecological Engineering},
	  volume    = {13},
	  number    = {9},
	  year      = {2019},
	  pages     = {577 - 587},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/10010736},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/153},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 153, 2019},
	}