Search results for: Reactor safety
1096 Hydrodynamic Simulation of Fixed Bed GTL Reactor Using CFD
Authors: Sh. Shahhosseini, S. Alinia, M. Irani
Abstract:In this work, axisymetric CFD simulation of fixed bed GTL reactor has been conducted, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In fixed bed CFD modeling, when N (tube-to-particle diameter ratio) has a large value, it is common to consider the packed bed as a porous media. Synthesis gas (a mixture of predominantly carbon monoxide and hydrogen) was fed to the reactor. The reactor length was 20 cm, divided to three sections. The porous zone was in the middle section of the reactor. The model equations were solved employing finite volume method. The effects of particle diameter, bed voidage, fluid velocity and bed length on pressure drop have been investigated. Simulation results showed these parameters could have remarkable impacts on the reactor pressure drop.
Keywords: GTL Process, Fixed bed reactor, Pressure drop, CFDsimulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2255
1095 Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Pressure Tube of Indian PHWR at 20 bar Pressure
Authors: Gopal Nandan, P. K. Sahooa, Ravi Kumara, B Chatterjeeb, D. Mukhopadhyayb, H. G. Leleb
Abstract:In a nuclear reactor Loss of Coolant accident (LOCA) considers wide range of postulated damage or rupture of pipe in the heat transport piping system. In the case of LOCA with/without failure of emergency core cooling system in a Pressurised Heavy water Reactor, the Pressure Tube (PT) temperature could rise significantly due to fuel heat up and gross mismatch of the heat generation and heat removal in the affected channel. The extent and nature of deformation is important from reactor safety point of view. Experimental set-ups have been designed and fabricated to simulate ballooning (radial deformation) of PT for 220 MWe IPHWRs. Experiments have been conducted by covering the CT by ceramic fibers and then by submerging CT in water of voided PTs. In both the experiments, it is observed that ballooning initiates at a temperature around 665´┐¢C and complete contact between PT and Caldaria Tube (CT) occurs at around 700´┐¢C approximately. The strain rate is found to be 0.116% per second. The structural integrity of PT is retained (no breach) for all the experiments. The PT heatup is found to be arrested after the contact between PT and CT, thus establishing moderator acting as an efficient heat sink for IPHWRs.
Keywords: Pressure Tube, Calandria Tube, Thermo-mechanicaldeformation, Boiling heat transfer, Reactor safetyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2074
1094 Fuzzy Power Controller Design for Purdue University Research Reactor-1
Authors: Oktavian Muhammad Rizki, Appiah Rita, Lastres Oscar, Miller True, Chapman Alec, Tsoukalas Lefteri H.
The Purdue University Research Reactor-1 (PUR-1) is a 10 kWth pool-type research reactor located at Purdue University’s West Lafayette campus. The reactor was recently upgraded to use entirely digital instrumentation and control systems. However, currently, there is no automated control system to regulate the power in the reactor. We propose a fuzzy logic controller as a form of digital twin to complement the existing digital instrumentation system to monitor and stabilize power control using existing experimental data. This work assesses the feasibility of a power controller based on a Fuzzy Rule-Based System (FRBS) by modelling and simulation with a MATLAB algorithm. The controller uses power error and reactor period as inputs and generates reactivity insertion as output. The reactivity insertion is then converted to control rod height using a logistic function based on information from the recorded experimental reactor control rod data. To test the capability of the proposed fuzzy controller, a point-kinetic reactor model is utilized based on the actual PUR-1 operation conditions and a Monte Carlo N-Particle simulation result of the core to numerically compute the neutronics parameters of reactor behavior. The Point Kinetic Equation (PKE) was employed to model dynamic characteristics of the research reactor since it explains the interactions between the spatial and time varying input and output variables efficiently. The controller is demonstrated computationally using various cases: startup, power maneuver, and shutdown. From the test results, it can be proved that the implemented fuzzy controller can satisfactorily regulate the reactor power to follow demand power without compromising nuclear safety measures.
Keywords: Fuzzy logic controller, power controller, reactivity, research reactor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 214
1093 Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of the IAEA 10MW Benchmark Reactor under Normal Operating Condition
Authors: Hamed Djalal
The aim of this paper is to perform a thermal-hydraulic analysis of the IAEA 10 MW benchmark reactor solving analytically and numerically, by mean of the finite volume method, respectively the steady state and transient forced convection in rectangular narrow channel between two parallel MTR-type fuel plates, imposed under a cosine shape heat flux. A comparison between both solutions is presented to determine the minimal coolant velocity which can ensure a safe reactor core cooling, where the cladding temperature should not reach a specific safety limit 90 °C. For this purpose, a computer program is developed to determine the principal parameter related to the nuclear core safety, such as the temperature distribution in the fuel plate and in the coolant (light water) as a function of the inlet coolant velocity. Finally, a good agreement is noticed between the both analytical and numerical solutions, where the obtained results are displayed graphically.
Keywords: Forced convection, friction factor pressure drop thermal hydraulic analysis, vertical heated rectangular channel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 672
1092 Partial Oxidation of Methane in the Pulsed Compression Reactor: Experiments and Simulation
Authors: Timo Roestenberg, Maxim Glushenkov, Alexander Kronberg, Anton A. Verbeek, Theo H. vd Meer
Abstract:The Pulsed Compression Reactor promises to be a compact, economical and energy efficient alternative to conventional chemical reactors. In this article, the production of synthesis gas using the Pulsed Compression Reactor is investigated. This is done experimentally as well as with simulations. The experiments are done by means of a single shot reactor, which replicates a representative, single reciprocation of the Pulsed Compression Reactor with great control over the reactant composition, reactor temperature and pressure and temperature history. Simulations are done with a relatively simple method, which uses different models for the chemistry and thermodynamic properties of the species in the reactor. Simulation results show very good agreement with the experimental data, and give great insight into the reaction processes that occur within the cycle.
Keywords: Chemical reactors, Energy, Pulsed compressionreactor, SimulationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1495
1091 Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Heavy Paraffin Dehydrogenation Reactor for Selective Olefin Production in Linear Alkyl Benzene Production Plant
Authors: G. Zahedi, H. Yaghoobi
Abstract:Modeling of a heterogeneous industrial fixed bed reactor for selective dehydrogenation of heavy paraffin with Pt-Sn- Al2O3 catalyst has been the subject of current study. By applying mass balance, momentum balance for appropriate element of reactor and using pressure drop, rate and deactivation equations, a detailed model of the reactor has been obtained. Mass balance equations have been written for five different components. In order to estimate reactor production by the passage of time, the reactor model which is a set of partial differential equations, ordinary differential equations and algebraic equations has been solved numerically. Paraffins, olefins, dienes, aromatics and hydrogen mole percent as a function of time and reactor radius have been found by numerical solution of the model. Results of model have been compared with industrial reactor data at different operation times. The comparison successfully confirms validity of proposed model.
Keywords: Dehydrogenation, fixed bed reactor, modeling, linear alkyl benzene.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2893
1090 Pollutants Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by the Combined Electrochemical Sequencing Batch Reactor
Authors: Amin Mojiri, Akiyoshi Ohashi, Tomonori Kindaichi
Abstract:Synthetic domestic wastewater was treated via combining treatment methods, including electrochemical oxidation, adsorption, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR). In the upper part of the reactor, an anode and a cathode (Ti/RuO2-IrO2) were organized in parallel for the electrochemical oxidation procedure. Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) with a concentration of 2.5 g/L was applied as the electrolyte. The voltage and current were fixed on 7.50 V and 0.40 A, respectively. Then, 15% working value of the reactor was filled by activated sludge, and 85% working value of the reactor was added with synthetic wastewater. Powdered cockleshell, 1.5 g/L, was added in the reactor to do ion-exchange. Response surface methodology was employed for statistical analysis. Reaction time (h) and pH were considered as independent factors. A total of 97.0% biochemical oxygen demand, 99.9% phosphorous and 88.6% cadmium were eliminated at the optimum reaction time (80.0 min) and pH (6.4).
Keywords: Adsorption, electrochemical oxidation, metals, sequencing batch reactor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 650
1089 CFD Simulation of Fixed Bed Reactor in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of GTL Technology
Authors: Sh. Shahhosseini, S. Alinia, M. Irani
In this paper 2D Simulation of catalytic Fixed Bed Reactor in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of GTL technology has been performed utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) has been used as feedstock. The reactor was modeled and the model equations were solved employing finite volume method. The model was validated against the experimental data reported in literature. The comparison showed a good agreement between simulation results and the experimental data. In addition, the model was applied to predict the concentration contours of the reactants and products along the length of reactor.
Keywords: GTL, Fischer–Tropsch synthesis, Fixed Bed Reactor, CFD simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2808
1088 Residence Time Distribution in a Two Impinging Streams Cyclone Reactor: CFD Prediction and Experimental Validation
Authors: Nahid Ghasemi, Morteza Sohrabi, Yasan Soleymani
Abstract:The quantified residence time distribution (RTD) provides a numerical characterization of mixing in a reactor, thus allowing the process engineer to better understand mixing performance of the reactor.This paper discusses computational studies to investigate flow patterns in a two impinging streams cyclone reactor(TISCR) . Flow in the reactor was modeled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Utilizing the Eulerian- Lagrangian approach, implemented in FLUENT (V6.3.22), particle trajectories were obtained by solving the particle force balance equations. From simulation results obtained at different Δts, the mean residence time (tm) and the mean square deviation (σ2) were calculated. a good agreement can be observed between predicted and experimental data. Simulation results indicate that the behavior of complex reactor systems can be predicted using the CFD technique with minimum data requirement for validation.
Keywords: Impinging streams reactor, Residence timedistribution, CFD, Eulerian-Lagrangian approachProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2215
1087 Generalized Predictive Control of Batch Polymerization Reactor
Authors: R. Khaniki, M.B. Menhaj, H. Eliasi
This paper describes the application of a model predictive controller to the problem of batch reactor temperature control. Although a great deal of work has been done to improve reactor throughput using batch sequence control, the control of the actual reactor temperature remains a difficult problem for many operators of these processes. Temperature control is important as many chemical reactions are sensitive to temperature for formation of desired products. This controller consist of two part (1) a nonlinear control method GLC (Global Linearizing Control) to create a linear model of system and (2) a Model predictive controller used to obtain optimal input control sequence. The temperature of reactor is tuned to track a predetermined temperature trajectory that applied to the batch reactor. To do so two input signals, electrical powers and the flow of coolant in the coil are used. Simulation results show that the proposed controller has a remarkable performance for tracking reference trajectory while at the same time it is robust against noise imposed to system output.
Keywords: Generalized Predictive Control (GPC), TemperatureControl, Global Linearizing Control (GLC), Batch Reactor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1396
1086 Generalized Predictive Control of Batch Polymerization Reactor
Authors: R. Khaniki, M.B. Menhaj, H. Eliasi
Abstract:This paper describes the application of a model predictive controller to the problem of batch reactor temperature control. Although a great deal of work has been done to improve reactor throughput using batch sequence control, the control of the actual reactor temperature remains a difficult problem for many operators of these processes. Temperature control is important as many chemical reactions are sensitive to temperature for formation of desired products. This controller consist of two part (1) a nonlinear control method GLC (Global Linearizing Control) to create a linear model of system and (2) a Model predictive controller used to obtain optimal input control sequence. The temperature of reactor is tuned to track a predetermined temperature trajectory that applied to the batch reactor. To do so two input signals, electrical powers and the flow of coolant in the coil are used. Simulation results show that the proposed controller has a remarkable performance for tracking reference trajectory while at the same time it is robust against noise imposed to system output.
Keywords: Generalized Predictive Control (GPC), TemperatureControl, Global Linearizing Control (GLC), Batch Reactor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1670
1085 Hydrodynamic Analysis with Heat Transfer in Solid Gas Fluidized Bed Reactor for Solar Thermal Applications
Authors: Sam Rasoulzadeh, Atefeh Mousavi
Fluidized bed reactors are known as highly exothermic and endothermic according to uniformity in temperature as a safe and effective mean for catalytic reactors. In these reactors, a wide range of catalyst particles can be used and by using a continuous operation proceed to produce in succession. Providing optimal conditions for the operation of these types of reactors will prevent the exorbitant costs necessary to carry out laboratory work. In this regard, a hydrodynamic analysis was carried out with heat transfer in the solid-gas fluidized bed reactor for solar thermal applications. The results showed that in the fluid flow the input of the reactor has a lower temperature than the outlet, and when the fluid is passing from the reactor, the heat transfer happens between cylinder and solar panel and fluid. It increases the fluid temperature in the outlet pump and also the kinetic energy of the fluid has been raised in the outlet areas.
Keywords: Heat transfer, solar reactor, fluidized bed reactor, CFD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 500
1084 Design Optimization of the Primary Containment Building of a Pressurized Water Reactor
Authors: M. Hossain, A. H. Khan, M. A. R. Sarkar
Primary containment structure is one of the five safety layers of a nuclear facility which is needed to be designed in such a manner that it can withstand the pressure and excessive radioactivity during accidental situations. It is also necessary to ensure minimization of cost with maximum possible safety in order to make the design economically feasible and attractive. This paper attempts to identify the optimum design conditions for primary containment structure considering both mechanical and radiation safety keeping the economic aspects in mind. This work takes advantage of commercial simulation software to identify the suitable conditions without the requirement of costly experiments. Generated data may be helpful for further studies.
Keywords: PWR, concrete containment, finite element approach, neutron attenuation, Von Mises Stress.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 731
1083 Incorporation of Safety into Design by Safety Cube
Authors: Mohammad Rajabalinejad
Abstract:Safety is often seen as a requirement or a performance indicator through the design process, and this does not always result in optimally safe products or systems. This paper suggests integrating the best safety practices with the design process to enrich the exploration experience for designers and add extra values for customers. For this purpose, the commonly practiced safety standards and design methods have been reviewed and their common blocks have been merged forming Safety Cube. Safety Cube combines common blocks for design, hazard identification, risk assessment and risk reduction through an integral approach. An example application presents the use of Safety Cube for design of machinery.
Keywords: Safety, safety cube, design, product, system, machinery.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 795
1082 Effects of Turbulence Penetration on Valve Leakage in Nuclear Reactor Coolant System
Authors: Gupta Rajesh, Paudel Sagar, Sharma Utkarsh, Singh Amit Kumar
Thermal stratification has drawn much attention because of the malfunctions at various nuclear plants in U.S.A that raised significant safety concerns. The concerns due to this phenomenon relate to thermal stresses in branch pipes connected to the reactor coolant system piping. This stress limits the lifetime of the piping system, and even leading to penetrating cracks. To assess origin of valve damage in the pipeline, it is essential to determine the effect of turbulence penetration on valve leakage; since stratified flow is generally generated by turbulent penetration or valve leakage. As a result, we concluded with the help of coupled fluent-structural analysis that the pipe with less turbulence has less chance of failure there by requiring less maintenance.
Keywords: Reactor coolant system, thermal stratification, turbulent penetration, coupled fluent-structural analysis, Von Mises stress.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1258
1081 Heat Transfer Analysis of a Multiphase Oxygen Reactor Heated by a Helical Tube in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production
Authors: Mohammed W. Abdulrahman
In the thermochemical water splitting process by Cu-Cl cycle, oxygen gas is produced by an endothermic thermolysis process at a temperature of 530oC. Oxygen production reactor is a three-phase reactor involving cuprous chloride molten salt, copper oxychloride solid reactant and oxygen gas. To perform optimal performance, the oxygen reactor requires accurate control of heat transfer to the molten salt and decomposing solid particles within the thermolysis reactor. In this paper, the scale up analysis of the oxygen reactor that is heated by an internal helical tube is performed from the perspective of heat transfer. A heat balance of the oxygen reactor is investigated to analyze the size of the reactor that provides the required heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. It is found that the helical tube wall and the service side constitute the largest thermal resistances of the oxygen reactor system. In the analysis of this paper, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be heated by two types of nuclear reactor, which are HTGR and CANDU SCWR. It is concluded that using CANDU SCWR requires more heat transfer rate by 3-4 times than that when using HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also studied and it is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Comparisons between the results of this study and pervious results of material balances in the oxygen reactor show that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.
Keywords: Heat transfer, Cu-Cl cycle, hydrogen production, oxygen, clean energy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1138
1080 Optical Analysis of Variable Aperture Mechanism for a Solar Reactor
Authors: Akanksha Menon, Nesrin Ozalp
Abstract:Solar energy is not only sustainable but also a clean alternative to be used as source of high temperature heat for many processes and power generation. However, the major drawback of solar energy is its transient nature. Especially in solar thermochemical processing, it is crucial to maintain constant or semiconstant temperatures inside the solar reactor. In our laboratory, we have developed a mechanism allowing us to achieve semi-constant temperature inside the solar reactor. In this paper, we introduce the concept along with some updated designs and provide the optical analysis of the concept under various incoming flux.
Keywords: Aperture, Solar reactor, Optical analysis, Solar thermalProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1336
1079 Hydraulic Studies on Core Components of PFBR
Authors: G. K. Pandey, D. Ramadasu, I. Banerjee, V. Vinod, G. Padmakumar, V. Prakash, K. K. Rajan
Detailed thermal hydraulic investigations are very essential for safe and reliable functioning of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. These investigations are further more important for components with complex profile, since there is no direct correlation available in literature to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of such components directly. In those cases available correlations for similar profile or geometries may lead to significant uncertainty in the outcome. Hence experimental approach can be adopted to evaluate these hydraulic characteristics more precisely for better prediction in reactor core components. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), a sodium cooled pool type reactor is under advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Several components of this reactor core require hydraulic investigation before its usage in the reactor. These hydraulic investigations on full scale models, carried out by experimental approaches using water as simulant fluid are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Fast Breeder Reactor, Cavitation, pressure drop, Reactor components.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2787
1078 Design of Laboratory Pilot Reactor for Filtering and Separation of Water – oil Emulsions
Authors: Irena Markovska, Nikolai Zaicev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Dimitar Georgiev, Yancho Hristov
Abstract:The present paper deals with problems related to the possibilities to use fractal systems to solve some important scientific and practical problems connected with filtering and separation of aqueous phases from organic ones. For this purpose a special separator have been designed. The reactor was filled with a porous material with fractal dimension, which is an integral part of the set for filtration and separation of emulsions. As a model emulsion hexadecan mixture with water in equal quantities (1:1) was used. We examined the hydrodynamics of the separation of the emulsion at different rates of submission of the entrance of the reactor.
Keywords: pilot reactor, fractal systems, separation, emulsionsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1471
1077 Study of the Late Phase of Core Degradation during Reflooding by Safety Injection System for VVER1000 with ASTECv2 Computer Code
Authors: Antoaneta Stefanova, Rositsa Gencheva, Pavlin Groudev
Abstract:This paper presents the modeling approach in SBO sequence for VVER 1000 reactors and describes the reactor core behavior at late in-vessel phase in case of late reflooding by HPIS and gives preliminary results for the ASTECv2 validation. The work is focused on investigation of plant behavior during total loss of power and the operator actions. The main goal of these analyses is to assess the phenomena arising during the Station blackout (SBO) followed by primary side high pressure injection system (HPIS) reflooding of already damaged reactor core at very late “in-vessel” phase. The purpose of the analyses is to define how the later HPIS switching on can delay the time of vessel failure or possibly avoid vessel failure. The times for HPP injection were chosen based on previously performed investigations.
Keywords: VVER, operator action validation, reflooding of overheated reactor core, ASTEC computer code.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1347
1076 Aspen Plus Simulation of Saponification of Ethyl Acetate in the Presence of Sodium Hydroxide in a Plug Flow Reactor
Authors: U. P. L. Wijayarathne, K. C. Wasalathilake
This work presents the modelling and simulation of saponification of ethyl acetate in the presence of sodium hydroxide in a plug flow reactor using Aspen Plus simulation software. Plug flow reactors are widely used in the industry due to the non-mixing property. The use of plug flow reactors becomes significant when there is a need for continuous large scale reaction or fast reaction. Plug flow reactors have a high volumetric unit conversion as the occurrence for side reactions is minimum. In this research Aspen Plus V8.0 has been successfully used to simulate the plug flow reactor. In order to simulate the process as accurately as possible HYSYS Peng- Robinson EOS package was used as the property method. The results obtained from the simulation were verified by the experiment carried out in the EDIBON plug flow reactor module. The correlation coefficient (r2) was 0.98 and it proved that simulation results satisfactorily fit for the experimental model. The developed model can be used as a guide for understanding the reaction kinetics of a plug flow reactor.
Keywords: Aspen Plus, Modelling, Plug Flow Reactor, Simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 9182
1075 Reduction of Plutonium Production in Heavy Water Research Reactor: A Feasibility Study through Neutronic Analysis Using MCNPX2.6 and CINDER90 Codes
Authors: H. Shamoradifar, B. Teimuri, P. Parvaresh, S. Mohammadi
One of the main characteristics of Heavy Water Moderated Reactors is their high production of plutonium. This article demonstrates the possibility of reduction of plutonium and other actinides in Heavy Water Research Reactor. Among the many ways for reducing plutonium production in a heavy water reactor, in this research, changing the fuel from natural Uranium fuel to Thorium-Uranium mixed fuel was focused. The main fissile nucleus in Thorium-Uranium fuels is U-233 which would be produced after neutron absorption by Th-232, so the Thorium-Uranium fuels have some known advantages compared to the Uranium fuels. Due to this fact, four Thorium-Uranium fuels with different compositions ratios were chosen in our simulations; a) 10% UO2-90% THO2 (enriched= 20%); b) 15% UO2-85% THO2 (enriched= 10%); c) 30% UO2-70% THO2 (enriched= 5%); d) 35% UO2-65% THO2 (enriched= 3.7%). The natural Uranium Oxide (UO2) is considered as the reference fuel, in other words all of the calculated data are compared with the related data from Uranium fuel. Neutronic parameters were calculated and used as the comparison parameters. All calculations were performed by Monte Carol (MCNPX2.6) steady state reaction rate calculation linked to a deterministic depletion calculation (CINDER90). The obtained computational data showed that Thorium-Uranium fuels with four different fissile compositions ratios can satisfy the safety and operating requirements for Heavy Water Research Reactor. Furthermore, Thorium-Uranium fuels have a very good proliferation resistance and consume less fissile material than uranium fuels at the same reactor operation time. Using mixed Thorium-Uranium fuels reduced the long-lived α emitter, high radiotoxic wastes and the radio toxicity level of spent fuel.
Keywords: Burn-up, heavy water reactor, minor actinides, Monte Carlo, proliferation resistance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 895
1074 Simulation Design of Separator for the Treatment of Emulsions
Authors: Irena Markovska, Dimitar Rusev, Nikolai Zaicev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Dimitar Georgiev, Yancho Hristov
Abstract:A prototype model of an emulsion separator was designed and manufactured. Generally, it is a cylinder filled with different fractal modules. The emulsion was fed into the reactor by a peristaltic pump through an inlet placed at the boundary between the two phases. For hydrodynamic design and sizing of the reactor the assumptions of the theory of filtration were used and methods to describe the separation process were developed. Based on this methodology and using numerical methods and software of Autodesk the process is simulated in different operating modes. The basic hydrodynamic characteristics - speed and performance for different types of fractal systems and decisions to optimize the design of the reactor were also defined.
Keywords: fractal systems, reactor, separation, emulsionsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1620
1073 Nuclear Fuel Safety Threshold Determined by Logistic Regression Plus Uncertainty
Authors: D. S. Gomes, A. T. Silva
Abstract:Analysis of the uncertainty quantification related to nuclear safety margins applied to the nuclear reactor is an important concept to prevent future radioactive accidents. The nuclear fuel performance code may involve the tolerance level determined by traditional deterministic models producing acceptable results at burn cycles under 62 GWd/MTU. The behavior of nuclear fuel can simulate applying a series of material properties under irradiation and physics models to calculate the safety limits. In this study, theoretical predictions of nuclear fuel failure under transient conditions investigate extended radiation cycles at 75 GWd/MTU, considering the behavior of fuel rods in light-water reactors under reactivity accident conditions. The fuel pellet can melt due to the quick increase of reactivity during a transient. Large power excursions in the reactor are the subject of interest bringing to a treatment that is known as the Fuchs-Hansen model. The point kinetic neutron equations show similar characteristics of non-linear differential equations. In this investigation, the multivariate logistic regression is employed to a probabilistic forecast of fuel failure. A comparison of computational simulation and experimental results was acceptable. The experiments carried out use the pre-irradiated fuels rods subjected to a rapid energy pulse which exhibits the same behavior during a nuclear accident. The propagation of uncertainty utilizes the Wilk's formulation. The variables chosen as essential to failure prediction were the fuel burnup, the applied peak power, the pulse width, the oxidation layer thickness, and the cladding type.
Keywords: Logistic regression, reactivity-initiated accident, safety margins, uncertainty propagation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 888
1072 Optimum Operating Conditions for Direct Oxidation of H2S in a Fluidized Bed Reactor
Authors: Fahimeh Golestani, Mohammad Kazemeini, Moslem Fattahi, Ali Amjadian
Abstract:In this research a mathematical model for direct oxidization of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur in a fluidized bed reactor with external circulation was developed. As the catalyst is deactivated in the fluidized bed, it might be placed in a reduction tank in order to remove sulfur through heating above its dew point. The reactor model demonstrated via MATLAB software. It was shown that variations of H2S conversion as well as; products formed were reasonable in comparison with corresponding results of a fixed bed reactor. Through analyzing results of this model, it became possible to propose the main optimized operating conditions for the process considered. These conditions included; the temperature range of 100-130ºC and utilizing the catalyst as much as possible providing the highest bed density respect to dimensions of bed, economical aspects that the bed ever remained in fluidized mode. A high active and stable catalyst under the optimum conditions exhibited 100% conversion in a fluidized bed reactor.
Keywords: Direct oxidization, Fluidized bed, H2S, Mathematical modeling, Optimum conditions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1768
1071 Depyritization of US Coal Using Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria: Batch Stirred Reactor Study
Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Haragobinda Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim
Microbial depyritization of coal using chemoautotrophic bacteria is gaining acceptance as an efficient and eco-friendly technique. The process uses the metabolic activity of chemoautotrophic bacteria in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 8L bench scale stirred tank reactor having 1% (w/v) pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated at 35ºC and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. It was found that at the end of bio-depyritization process, about 90% of pyrite and 67% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The results indicate that the bio-depyritization process is an efficient process in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal.
Keywords: At. ferrooxidans, Batch reactor, Coal desulfurization, Pyrite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1827
1070 Similitude for Thermal Scale-up of a Multiphase Thermolysis Reactor in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production
Authors: Mohammed W. Abdulrahman
The thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is considered as a sustainable and efficient technology for a hydrogen production, when linked with clean-energy systems such as nuclear reactors or solar thermal plants. In the Cu-Cl cycle, water is decomposed thermally into hydrogen and oxygen through a series of intermediate reactions. This paper investigates the thermal scale up analysis of the three phase oxygen production reactor in the Cu-Cl cycle, where the reaction is endothermic and the temperature is about 530 oC. The paper focuses on examining the size and number of oxygen reactors required to provide enough heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. The type of the multiphase reactor used in this paper is the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) that is heated by a half pipe jacket. The thermal resistance of each section in the jacketed reactor system is studied to examine its effect on the heat balance of the reactor. It is found that the dominant contribution to the system thermal resistance is from the reactor wall. In the analysis, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be driven by a nuclear reactor where two types of nuclear reactors are examined as the heat source to the oxygen reactor. These types are the CANDU Super Critical Water Reactor (CANDU-SCWR) and High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR). It is concluded that a better heat transfer rate has to be provided for CANDU-SCWR by 3-4 times than HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also examined in this paper and is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Finally, a comparison between the results of heat balance and existing results of mass balance is performed and is found that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.
Keywords: Clean energy, Cu-Cl cycle, heat transfer, sustainable energy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1504
1069 Hydrodynamics of Bubbly Flow in a Modified Reactor
Authors: M. Sivaiah, R. Parmar, S. K. Majumder
This article reports on hydrodynamic, mass transfer performances of fine bubble in a modified reactor. The quality of mixing in the modified reactor is discussed in the paper. Mass transfer efficiency based on quality of mixing is enunciated. To interpret the gas phase volume fraction and the quality of mixing is the empirical models for the modified system are developed.
Keywords: Downflow, bubble, hydrodynamics, gas-liquid, mixing, mass transfer, gas holdupProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1947
1068 Investigation of the Capability of REALP5 to Solve Complex Fuel Geometry
Authors: D. Abdelrazek, M. NaguibAly, A. A. Badawi, Asmaa G. Abo Elnour, A. A. El-Kafas
This work is developed within IAEA Coordinated Research Program 1496, “Innovative methods in research reactor analysis: Benchmark against experimental data on neutronics and thermal-hydraulic computational methods and tools for operation and safety analysis of research reactors”.
The study investigates the capability of Code RELAP5/Mod3.4 to solve complex geometry complexity. Its results are compared to the results of PARET, a common code in thermal hydraulic analysis for research reactors, belonging to MTR-PC groups.
The WWR-SM reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in the Republic of Uzbekistan is simulated using both PARET and RELAP5 at steady state. Results from the two codes are compared.
REALP5 code succeeded in solving the complex fuel geometry. The PARET code needed some calculations to obtain the final result. Although the final results from the PARET are more accurate, the small differences in both results makes using RELAP5 code recommended in case of complex fuel assemblies.
Keywords: Complex fuel geometry, PARET, RELAP5, WWR-SM reactor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2119
1067 Food Safety Culture Paramount Than Traditional Food Safety System and Food Safety Culture in South African Food Industries
Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi
Abstract:The fact that traditional food safety system in the absence of food safety culture is inadequate has recently become a cause of concern for food safety professionals and other stakeholders. Focusing on implementation of traditional food safety system i.e HACCP prerequisite program and HACCP without the presence of food safety culture in the food industry has led to the processing, marketing and distribution of contaminated foods. The results of this are regular out breaks of food borne illnesses and recalls of foods from retail outlets with serious consequences to the consumers and manufacturers alike. This article will consider the importance of food safety culture, the cases of outbreaks and recalls that occurred when companies did not make food safety culture a priority. Most importantly, the food safety cultures of some food industries in South Africa were assessed from responses to questionnaires from food safety/food industry professionals in Durban South Africa. The article was concluded by recommending that both food industry employees and employers alike take food safety culture seriously.
Keywords: Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), food borne illnesses, food safety culture, food safety system, HACCP.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2980