Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9253

Search results for: finite element analysis

9013 Analysis of Rail Ends under Wheel Contact Loading

Authors: Nannan Zong, Manicka Dhanasekar

Abstract:

The effect of the discontinuity of the rail ends and the presence of lower modulus insulation material at the gap to the variations of stresses in the insulated rail joint (IRJ) is presented. A three-dimensional wheel – rail contact model in the finite element framework is used for the analysis. It is shown that the maximum stress occurs in the subsurface of the railhead when the wheel contact occurs far away from the rail end and migrates to the railhead surface as the wheel approaches the rail end; under this condition, the interface between the rail ends and the insulation material has suffered significantly increased levels of stress concentration. The ratio of the elastic modulus of the railhead and insulation material is found to alter the levels of stress concentration. Numerical result indicates that a higher elastic modulus insulating material can reduce the stress concentration in the railhead but will generate higher stresses in the insulation material, leading to earlier failure of the insulation material

Keywords: Rail end, material interface, wheel-rail contact, stress, finite element method

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9012 Temperature Distribution in Friction Stir Welding Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Armansyah, I. P. Almanar, M. Saiful Bahari Shaari, M. Shamil Jaffarullah, Nur’amirah Busu, M. Arif Fadzleen Zainal Abidin, M. Amlie A. Kasim

Abstract:

During welding, the amount of heat present in weld zones determines the quality of weldment produced. Thus, the heat distribution characteristics and its magnitude in weld zones with respect to process variables such as tool pin-shoulder rotational and traveling speed during welding is analyzed using thermal finite element analyses method. For this purpose, transient thermal finite element analyses are performed to model the temperatures distribution and its quantities in weld-zones with respect to process variables such as rotational speed and traveling speed during welding. Commercially available software Altair HyperWork is used to model three-dimensional tool pin-shoulder vs. workpieces and to simulate the friction stir process. The results show that increasing tool rotational speed, at a constant traveling speed, will increase the amount of heat generated in weld-zones. In contrary, increasing traveling speed, at constant tool pin-shoulder rotational speeds, will reduce the amount of heat generated in weld zones.

Keywords: Frictions Stir Welding, Temperature Distribution, Finite Element Method, Altair Hyperwork.

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9011 Optimization of Car Seat Considering Whiplash Injury

Authors: Wookyung Baik, Seungchan Lee, Choongmin Jeong, Siwoo Kim, Myungwon Suh

Abstract:

Development of motor car safety devices has reduced fatality rates in car accidents. Yet despite this increase in car safety, neck injuries resulting from rear impact collisions, particularly at low speed, remain a primary concern. In this study, FEA(Finite Element Analysis) of seat was performed to evaluate neck injuries in rear impact. And the FEA result was verified by comparison with the actual test results. The dummy used in FE model and actual test is BioRID II which is regarded suitable for rear impact collision analysis. A threshold of the BioRID II neck injury indicators was also proposed to upgrade seat performance in order to reduce whiplash injury. To optimize the seat for a low-speed rear impact collision, a method was proposed, which is multi-objective optimization idea using DOE (Design of Experiments) results.

Keywords: Whiplash injury, Dynamic assessment, Finite element method, Optimization, DOE (Design of Experiments), WSM (Weighed Sum Method).

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9010 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Deep Beam Resting on Linear and Nonlinear Random Soil

Authors: M. Seguini, D. Nedjar

Abstract:

An accuracy nonlinear analysis of a deep beam resting on elastic perfectly plastic soil is carried out in this study. In fact, a nonlinear finite element modeling for large deflection and moderate rotation of Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on linear and nonlinear random soil is investigated. The geometric nonlinear analysis of the beam is based on the theory of von Kàrmàn, where the Newton-Raphson incremental iteration method is implemented in a Matlab code to solve the nonlinear equation of the soil-beam interaction system. However, two analyses (deterministic and probabilistic) are proposed to verify the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed model where the theory of the local average based on the Monte Carlo approach is used to analyze the effect of the spatial variability of the soil properties on the nonlinear beam response. The effect of six main parameters are investigated: the external load, the length of a beam, the coefficient of subgrade reaction of the soil, the Young’s modulus of the beam, the coefficient of variation and the correlation length of the soil’s coefficient of subgrade reaction. A comparison between the beam resting on linear and nonlinear soil models is presented for different beam’s length and external load. Numerical results have been obtained for the combination of the geometric nonlinearity of beam and material nonlinearity of random soil. This comparison highlighted the need of including the material nonlinearity and spatial variability of the soil in the geometric nonlinear analysis, when the beam undergoes large deflections.

Keywords: Finite element method, geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity, soil-structure interaction, spatial variability.

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9009 Analytical Study on a Longitudinal Joints of the Slab-Type Modular Bridges

Authors: Sang-Yoon Lee, Jung-Mi Lee, Hyeong-Yeol Kim, Jae-Joon Song

Abstract:

In this study, a longitudinal joint connection was proposed for the short-span slab-type modular bridges with rapid construction. The slab-type modular bridge consists of a number of precast slab modules and has the joint connection between the modules in the longitudinal direction of the bridge. A finite element based parameter analysis was conducted to design the shape and the dimensions of the longitudinal joint connection. Numbers of shear keys within the joint, height and depth of the shear key, tooth angle, and the spacing were considered as the design parameters. Using the local cracking load at the corner of the shear key and the cross-sectional area of the joint, an efficiency factor was proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of the longitudinal joint connection. The dimensions of shear key were determined by comparing the cracking loads and the efficiency factors obtained from the finite element analysis.

Keywords: precast, slab bridge, modular bridge, shear key

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9008 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Equations in 2D by Finite Difference Method

Authors: N. Fusun Oyman Serteller

Abstract:

In this paper, the techniques to solve time dependent electromagnetic wave propagation equations based on the Finite Difference Method (FDM) are proposed by comparing the results with Finite Element Method (FEM) in 2D while discussing some special simulation examples.  Here, 2D dynamical wave equations for lossy media, even with a constant source, are discussed for establishing symbolic manipulation of wave propagation problems. The main objective of this contribution is to introduce a comparative study of two suitable numerical methods and to show that both methods can be applied effectively and efficiently to all types of wave propagation problems, both linear and nonlinear cases, by using symbolic computation. However, the results show that the FDM is more appropriate for solving the nonlinear cases in the symbolic solution. Furthermore, some specific complex domain examples of the comparison of electromagnetic waves equations are considered. Calculations are performed through Mathematica software by making some useful contribution to the programme and leveraging symbolic evaluations of FEM and FDM.

Keywords: Finite difference method, finite element method, linear-nonlinear PDEs, symbolic computation, wave propagation equations.

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9007 Fixture Layout Optimization for Large Metal Sheets Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Zeshan Ahmad, Matteo Zoppi, Rezia Molfino

Abstract:

The geometric errors in the manufacturing process can be reduced by optimal positioning of the fixture elements in the fixture to make the workpiece stiff. We propose a new fixture layout optimization method N-3-2-1 for large metal sheets in this paper that combines the genetic algorithm and finite element analysis. The objective function in this method is to minimize the sum of the nodal deflection normal to the surface of the workpiece. Two different kinds of case studies are presented, and optimal position of the fixturing element is obtained for different cases.

Keywords: Fixture layout, optimization, fixturing element, genetic algorithm.

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9006 Theoretical Modal Analysis of Freely and Simply Supported RC Slabs

Authors: M. S. Ahmed, F. A. Mohammad

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs. Therefore, the theoretical modal analysis was performed using two different types of boundary conditions. Modal analysis method is the most important dynamic analyses. The analysis would be modal case when there is no external force on the structure. By using this method in this paper, the effects of freely and simply supported boundary conditions on the frequencies and mode shapes of RC square slabs are studied. ANSYS software was employed to derive the finite element model to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the slabs. Then, the obtained results through numerical analysis (finite element analysis) would be compared with the exact solution. The main goal of the research study is to predict how the boundary conditions change the behavior of the slab structures prior to performing experimental modal analysis. Based on the results, it is concluded that simply support boundary condition has obvious influence to increase the natural frequencies and change the shape of the mode when it is compared with freely supported boundary condition of slabs. This means that such support conditions have the direct influence on the dynamic behavior of the slabs. Thus, it is suggested to use free-free boundary condition in experimental modal analysis to precisely reflect the properties of the structure. By using free-free boundary conditions, the influence of poorly defined supports is interrupted.

Keywords: Natural frequencies, Mode shapes, Modal analysis, ANSYS software, RC slabs.

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9005 Numerical Analyze of Corona Discharge on HVDC Transmission Lines

Authors: H. Nouri, A. Tabbel, N. Douib, H. Aitsaid, Y. Zebboudj

Abstract:

This study and the field test comparisons were carried out on the Algerian Derguna – Setif transmission systems. The transmission line of normal voltage 225 kV is 65 km long, transported and uses twin bundle conductors protected with two shield wires of transposed galvanized steel. An iterative finite-element method is used to solve Poisons equation. Two algorithms are proposed for satisfying the current continuity condition and updating the space-charge density. A new approach to the problem of corona discharge in transmission system has been described in this paper. The effect of varying the configurations and wires number is also investigated. The analysis of this steady is important in the design of HVDC transmission lines. The potential and electric field have been calculating in locations singular points of the system.

Keywords: Corona discharge, Electric field, Finite element method, HVDC.

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9004 Two Dimensionnal Model for Extraction Packed Column Simulation using Finite Element Method

Authors: N. Outili, A-H. Meniai

Abstract:

Modeling transfer phenomena in several chemical engineering operations leads to the resolution of partial differential equations systems. According to the complexity of the operations mechanisms, the equations present a nonlinear form and analytical solution became difficult, we have then to use numerical methods which are based on approximations in order to transform a differential system to an algebraic one.Finite element method is one of numerical methods which can be used to obtain an accurate solution in many complex cases of chemical engineering.The packed columns find a large application like contactor for liquid-liquid systems such solvent extraction. In the literature, the modeling of this type of equipment received less attention in comparison with the plate columns.A mathematical bidimensionnal model with radial and axial dispersion, simulating packed tower extraction behavior was developed and a partial differential equation was solved using the finite element method by adopting the Galerkine model. We developed a Mathcad program, which can be used for a similar equations and concentration profiles are obtained along the column. The influence of radial dispersion was prooved and it can-t be neglected, the results were compared with experimental concentration at the top of the column in the extraction system: acetone/toluene/water.

Keywords: finite element method, Galerkine method, liquidliquid extraction modelling, packed column simulation, two dimensional model

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9003 Experimental and Finite Element Study of Bending Fatigue Failure: A Case Study on Main Shaft of a Gyrator Crusher

Authors: Rahim Sotoudeh Bahreini, Alireza Foroughi Nematollahi, Akbar Jafari

Abstract:

This study investigates the mechanism of a Gyratory crusher-located in Golgohar mining and industrial Co. specifically with a focus on stresses distribution and fatigue failure of its main shaft. At first step, the cross section of the fractured shaft is studied, and the crack growth is analyzed. Then, the rotational motion of the shaft and the oil temperature of oil circuit of equipment are monitored. Condition monitoring is used to help finding a better modification. Based on the results of this study, the main causes of shaft failure are identified, and corrective solution is offered to increase crusher performance, especially its main shaft life. To predict the efficiency of the proposed modification, finite element simulation is performed, and its results are compared with the similar modified cases. The comparison and interpretation of simulation results confirm the efficiency of proposed corrective method.

Keywords: Fatigue failure, finite element method, gyratory crusher, condition monitoring.

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9002 Constitutive Modeling of Different Types of Concrete under Uniaxial Compression

Authors: Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Khashayar Jafari, Vahab Toufigh

Abstract:

The cost of experiments on different types of concrete has raised the demand for prediction of their behavior with numerical analysis. In this research, an advanced numerical model has been presented to predict the complete elastic-plastic behavior of polymer concrete (PC), high-strength concrete (HSC), high performance concrete (HPC) along with different steel fiber contents under uniaxial compression. The accuracy of the numerical response was satisfactory as compared to other conventional simple models such as Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager. In order to predict the complete elastic-plastic behavior of specimens including softening behavior, disturbed state concept (DSC) was implemented by nonlinear finite element analysis (NFEA) and hierarchical single surface (HISS) failure criterion, which is a failure surface without any singularity.

Keywords: Disturbed state concept, hierarchical single surface, failure criterion, high performance concrete, high-strength concrete, nonlinear finite element analysis, polymer concrete, steel fibers, uniaxial compression test.

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9001 Springback Simulations of Monolithic and Layered Steels Used for Pressure Equipment

Authors: Anish H. Gandhi, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

Carbon steel is used in boilers, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, piping, structural elements and other moderatetemperature service systems in which good strength and ductility are desired. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II Part A (2004) provides specifications of ferrous materials for construction of pressure equipment, covering wide range of mechanical properties including high strength materials for power plants application. However, increased level of springback is one of the major problems in fabricating components of high strength steel using bending. Presented work discuss the springback simulations for five different steels (i.e. SA-36, SA-299, SA-515 grade 70, SA-612 and SA-724 grade B) using finite element analysis of air V-bending. Analytical springback simulations of hypothetical layered materials are presented. Result shows that; (i) combination of the material property parameters controls the springback, (ii) layer of the high ductility steel on the high strength steel greatly suppresses the springback.

Keywords: Carbon steel, Finite element analysis, Layeredmaterial, Springback

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9000 Nonlinear Impact Responses for a Damped Frame Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis Using Fast FEA

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, M. Watanabe, M. Sasajima, C. Yuan, S. Maruyama, T. B. Ibrahim, H. Tomita

Abstract:

This paper deals with nonlinear vibration analysis using finite element method for frame structures consisting of elastic and viscoelastic damping layers supported by multiple nonlinear concentrated springs with hysteresis damping. The frame is supported by four nonlinear concentrated springs near the four corners. The restoring forces of the springs have cubic non-linearity and linear component of the nonlinear springs has complex quantity to represent linear hysteresis damping. The damping layer of the frame structures has complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinate corresponding to linear natural modes. Comparing shares of strain energy of the elastic frame, the damping layer and the springs, we evaluate the influences of the damping couplings on the linear and nonlinear impact responses. We also investigate influences of damping changed by stiffness of the elastic frame on the nonlinear coupling in the damped impact responses.

Keywords: Dynamic response, Nonlinear impact response, Finite Element analysis, Numerical analysis.

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8999 Peridynamic Modeling of an Isotropic Plate under Tensile and Flexural Loading

Authors: Eda Gök

Abstract:

Peridynamics is a new modeling concept of non-local interactions for solid structures. The formulations of Peridynamic (PD) theory are based on integral equations rather than differential equations. Through, undefined equations of associated problems are avoided. PD theory might be defined as continuum version of molecular dynamics. The medium is usually modeled with mass particles bonded together. Particles interact with each other directly across finite distances through central forces named as bonds. The main assumption of this theory is that the body is composed of material points which interact with other material points within a finite distance. Although, PD theory developed for discontinuities, it gives good results for structures which have no discontinuities. In this paper, displacement control of the isotropic plate under the effect of tensile and bending loading has been investigated by means of PD theory. A MATLAB code is generated to create PD bonds and corresponding surface correction factors. Using generated MATLAB code the geometry of the specimen is generated, and the code is implemented in Finite Element Software. The results obtained from non-local continuum theory are compared with the Finite Element Analysis results and analytical solution. The results show good agreement.

Keywords: Flexural loading, non-local continuum mechanics, Peridynamic theory, solid structures, tensile loading.

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8998 The Effect of Press Fit on Osseointegration of Acetabular Cup

Authors: Nor Azali Azmir, Iskhrizat Taib, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir

Abstract:

The primary cause of Total Hip Replacement (THR) failure for younger patients is aseptic loosening. This complication is twice more likely to happen in acetabular cup than in femoral stem. Excessive micromotion between bone and implant will cause loosening and it depends in patient activities, age and bone. In this project, the effects of different metal back design of press fit on osseointegration of the acetabular cup are carried out. Commercial acetabular cup designs, namely Spiked, Superfix and Quadrafix are modelled and analyzed using commercial finite element software. The diameter of acetabular cup is based on the diameter of acetabular rim to make sure the component fit to the acetabular cavity. A new design of acetabular cup are proposed and analyzed to get better osseointegration between the bones and implant interface. Results shows that the proposed acetabular cup designs are more stable compared to other designs with respect to stress and displacement aspects.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, total hip replacement, acetabular cup, loosening.

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8997 Effects of Opening Shape and Location on the Structural Strength of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings

Authors: Haider M. Alsaeq

Abstract:

This research investigates the effects of the opening shape and location on the structural behavior of reinforced concrete deep beam with openings, while keeping the opening size unchanged. The software ANSYS 12.1 is used to handle the nonlinear finite element analysis. The ultimate strength of reinforced concrete deep beam with opening obtained by ANSYS 12.1 shows fair agreement with the experimental results, with a difference of no more than 20%. The present work concludes that the opening location has much more effect on the structural strength than the opening shape. It was concluded that placing the openings near the upper corners of the deep beam may double the strength, and the use of a rectangular narrow opening, with the long sides in the horizontal direction, can save up to 40% of structural strength of the deep beam.

Keywords: Deep Beams, Finite Element, Opening, Reinforced Concrete.

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8996 Research of the Behavior of Solar Module Frame Installed by Solar Clamping System by Finite Element Method

Authors: Li-Chung Su, Chia-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yuan Lai, Sheng-Jye Hwang

Abstract:

Mechanical design of the thin-film solar framed module and mounting system is important to enhance module reliability and to increase areas of applications. The stress induced by different mounting positions played a main role controlling the stability of the whole mechanical structure. From the finite element method, under the pressure from the back of module, the stress at Lc (center point of the Long frame) increased and the stresses at Center, Corner and Sc (center point of the Short frame) decreased while the mounting position was away from the center of the module. In addition, not only the stress of the glass but also the stress of the frame decreased. Accordingly it was safer to mount in the position away from the center of the module. The emphasis of designing frame system of the module was on the upper support of the Short frame. Strength of the overall structure and design of the corner were also important due to the complexity of the stress in the Long frame.

Keywords: Finite element method, Framed module, Mountingposition

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8995 Design a single-phase BLDC Motor and Finite- Element Analysis of Stator Slots Structure Effects on the Efficiency

Authors: Abdolamir Nekoubin

Abstract:

In this paper effect of stator slots structure and switching angle on a cylindrical single-phase brushless direct current motor (BLDC) is analyzed. BLDC motor with three different structures for stator slots is designed by using RMxprt software and efficiency of BLDC motor for different structures in full-load condition has been presented. Then the BLDC motor in different conditions by using Maxwell 3D software is designed and with finite element method is analyzed electromagnetically. At the end with the use of MATLAB software influence of switching angle on motor performance investigated and optimal angle has been determined. The results indicate that with correct choosing of stator slots structure and switching angle, maximum efficiency can be found.

Keywords: Permanent magnets, Switching angle, BLDC motor

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8994 Assessment of Slope Stability by Continuum and Discontinuum Methods

Authors: Taleb Hosni Abderrahmane, Berga Abdelmadjid

Abstract:

The development of numerical analysis and its application to geomechanics problems have provided geotechnical engineers with extremely powerful tools. One of the most important problems in geotechnical engineering is the slope stability assessment. It is a very difficult task due to several aspects such the nature of the problem, experimental consideration, monitoring, controlling, and assessment. The main objective of this paper is to perform a comparative numerical study between the following methods: The Limit Equilibrium (LEM), Finite Element (FEM), Limit Analysis (LAM) and Distinct Element (DEM). The comparison is conducted in terms of the safety factors and the critical slip surfaces. Through the results, we see the feasibility to analyse slope stability by many methods.

Keywords: Comparison, factor of safety, geomechanics, numerical methods, slope analysis, slip surfaces.

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8993 A Parametric Study of an Inverse Electrostatics Problem (IESP) Using Simulated Annealing, Hooke & Jeeves and Sequential Quadratic Programming in Conjunction with Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods

Authors: Ioannis N. Koukoulis, Clio G. Vossou, Christopher G. Provatidis

Abstract:

The aim of the current work is to present a comparison among three popular optimization methods in the inverse elastostatics problem (IESP) of flaw detection within a solid. In more details, the performance of a simulated annealing, a Hooke & Jeeves and a sequential quadratic programming algorithm was studied in the test case of one circular flaw in a plate solved by both the boundary element (BEM) and the finite element method (FEM). The proposed optimization methods use a cost function that utilizes the displacements of the static response. The methods were ranked according to the required number of iterations to converge and to their ability to locate the global optimum. Hence, a clear impression regarding the performance of the aforementioned algorithms in flaw identification problems was obtained. Furthermore, the coupling of BEM or FEM with these optimization methods was investigated in order to track differences in their performance.

Keywords: Elastostatic, inverse problem, optimization.

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8992 Study on Two Way Reinforced Concrete Slab Using ANSYS with Different Boundary Conditions and Loading

Authors: A. Gherbi, L. Dahmani, A. Boudjemia

Abstract:

This paper presents the Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the failure pattern of rectangular slab with various edge conditions. Non-Linear static analysis is carried out using ANSYS 15 Software. Using SOLID65 solid elements, the compressive crushing of concrete is facilitated using plasticity algorithm, while the concrete cracking in tension zone is accommodated by the nonlinear material model. Smeared reinforcement is used and introduced as a percentage of steel embedded in concrete slab. The behavior of the analyzed concrete slab has been observed in terms of the crack pattern and displacement for various loading and boundary conditions. The finite element results are also compared with the experimental data. One of the other objectives of the present study is to show how similar the crack path found by ANSYS program to those observed for the yield line analysis. The smeared reinforcement method is found to be more practical especially for the layered elements like concrete slabs. The value of this method is that it does not require explicit modeling of the rebar, and thus a much coarser mesh can be defined.

Keywords: ANSYS, cracking pattern, displacements, RC Slab, smeared reinforcement.

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8991 Finite Element Modeling and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Proceed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing Process

Authors: F. Al-Mufadi, F. Djavanroodi

Abstract:

During the last decade ultrafine grained (UFG) and nano-structured (NS) materials have experienced a rapid development. In this research work finite element analysis has been carried out to investigate the plastic strain distribution in equal channel angular process (ECAP). The magnitudes of Standard deviation (S. D.) and inhomogeneity index (Ci) were compared for different ECAP passes. Verification of a three-dimensional finite element model was performed with experimental tests. Finally the mechanical property including impact energy of ultrafine grained pure commercially pure Aluminum produced by severe plastic deformation method has been examined. For this aim, equal channel angular pressing die with the channel angle, outer corner angle and channel diameter of 90°, 20° and 20mm had been designed and manufactured. Commercial pure Aluminum billets were ECAPed up to four passes by route BC at the ambient temperature. The results indicated that there is a great improvement at the hardness measurement, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength after ECAP process. It is found that the magnitudes of HV reach 67HV from 21HV after the final stage of process. Also, about 330% and 285% enhancement at the YS and UTS values have been obtained after the fourth pass as compared to the as-received conditions, respectively. On the other hand, the elongation to failure and impact energy have been reduced by 23% and 50% after imposing four passes of ECAP process, respectively.

Keywords: SPD, ECAP, FEM, Pure Al, Mechanical properties.

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8990 An H1-Galerkin Mixed Method for the Coupled Burgers Equation

Authors: Xianbiao Jia, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Zhichao Fang

Abstract:

In this paper, an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method is discussed for the coupled Burgers equations. The optimal error estimates of the semi-discrete and fully discrete schemes of the coupled Burgers equation are derived.

Keywords: The coupled Burgers equation, H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method, Backward Euler's method, Optimal error estimates.

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8989 Finite Element Assessment on Bond Behavior of FRP-to-Concrete Joints under Cyclic Loading

Authors: F. Atheer, Al-Saoudi, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

Over the last two decades, externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites bonded to concrete substrates has become a popular method for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) highway and railway bridges. Such structures are exposed to severe cyclic loading throughout their lifetime often resulting in fatigue damage to structural components and a reduction in the service life of the structure. Since experimental and numerical results on the fatigue performance of FRP-to-concrete joints are still limited, the current research focuses on assessing the fatigue performance of externally bonded FRP-to-concrete joints using a direct shear test. Some early results indicate that the stress ratio and the applied cyclic stress level have a direct influence on the fatigue life of the externally bonded FRP. In addition, a calibrated finite element model is developed to provide further insight into the influence of certain parameters such as: concrete strength, FRP thickness, number of cycles, frequency, and stiffness on the fatigue life of the FRP-toconcrete joints.

Keywords: FRP, concrete bond, control, fatigue, finite element model.

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8988 Stress Analysis of Hexagonal Element for Precast Concrete Pavements

Authors: J. Novak, A. Kohoutkova, V. Kristek, J. Vodicka, M. Sramek

Abstract:

While the use of cast-in-place concrete for an airfield and highway pavement overlay is very common, the application of precast concrete elements is very limited today. The main reasons consist of high production costs and complex structural behavior. Despite that, several precast concrete systems have been developed and tested with the aim to provide a system with rapid construction. The contribution deals with the reinforcement design of a hexagonal element developed for a proposed airfield pavement system. The sub-base course of the system is composed of compacted recycled concrete aggregates and fiber reinforced concrete with recycled aggregates place on top of it. The selected element belongs to a group of precast concrete elements which are being considered for the construction of a surface course. Both high costs of full-scale experiments and the need to investigate various elements force to simulate their behavior in a numerical analysis software by using finite element method instead of performing expensive experiments. The simulation of the selected element was conducted on a nonlinear model in order to obtain such results which could fully compensate results from experiments. The main objective was to design reinforcement of the precast concrete element subject to quasi-static loading from airplanes with respect to geometrical imperfections, manufacturing imperfections, tensile stress in reinforcement, compressive stress in concrete and crack width. The obtained findings demonstrate that the position and the presence of imperfection in a pavement highly affect the stress distribution in the precast concrete element. The precast concrete element should be heavily reinforced to fulfill all the demands. Using under-reinforced concrete elements would lead to the formation of wide cracks and cracks permanently open.

Keywords: Imperfection, numerical simulation, pavement, precast concrete element, reinforcement design, stress analysis.

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8987 Finite Element Modeling for Clamping Stresses Developed in Hot-Driven Steel Structural Riveted Connections

Authors: Jackeline Kafie-Martinez, Peter B. Keating

Abstract:

A three-dimensional finite element model is developed to capture the stress field generated in connected plates during the installation of hot-driven rivets. Clamping stress is generated when a steel rivet heated to approximately 1000 °C comes in contact with the material to be fastened at ambient temperature. As the rivet cools, thermal contraction subjects the rivet into tensile stress, while the material being fastened is subjected to compressive stress. Model characteristics and assumptions, as well as steel properties variation with respect to temperature are discussed. The thermal stresses developed around the rivet hole are assessed and reported. Results from the analysis are utilized to detect possible regions for fatigue crack propagation under cyclic loads.

Keywords: Jackeline Kafie-Martinez, Peter B. Keating.

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8986 An Investigation on Electric Field Distribution around 380 kV Transmission Line for Various Pylon Models

Authors: C. F. Kumru, C. Kocatepe, O. Arikan

Abstract:

In this study, electric field distribution analyses for three pylon models are carried out by a Finite Element Method (FEM) based software. Analyses are performed in both stationary and time domains to observe instantaneous values along with the effective ones. Considering the results of the study, different line geometries is considerably affecting the magnitude and distribution of electric field although the line voltages are the same. Furthermore, it is observed that maximum values of instantaneous electric field obtained in time domain analysis are quite higher than the effective ones in stationary mode. In consequence, electric field distribution analyses should be individually made for each different line model and the limit exposure values or distances to residential buildings should be defined according to the results obtained.

Keywords: Electric field, energy transmission line, finite element method, pylon.

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8985 Comparative Finite Element Simulation of Nonlinear Vibrations and Sensor Output Voltage of Smart Piezolaminated Structures

Authors: Ruediger Schmidt, Thang Duy Vu

Abstract:

Two geometrically nonlinear plate theories, based either on first- or third-order transverse shear deformation theory are used for finite element modeling and simulation of the transient response of smart structures incorporating piezoelectric layers. In particular the time histories of nonlinear vibrations and sensor voltage output of a thin beam with a piezoelectric patch bonded to the surface due to an applied step force are studied.

Keywords: Nonlinear vibrations, piezoelectric patches, sensor voltage output, smart structures.

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8984 Buckling Performance of Irregular Section Cold-Formed Steel Columns under Axially Concentric Loading

Authors: Chayanon Hansapinyo

Abstract:

This paper presents experimental investigation and finite element analysis on buckling behavior of irregular section coldformed steel columns under axially concentric loading. For the experimental study, four different sections of columns were tested to investigate effect of stiffening and width-to-thickness ratio on buckling behavior. For each of the section, three lengths of 230, 950 and 1900 mm. were studied representing short, intermediate long and long columns, respectively. Then, nonlinear finite element analyses of the tested columns were performed. The comparisons in terms of load-deformation response and buckling mode show good agreement and hence the FEM models were validated. Parametric study of stiffening element and thickness of 1.0, 1.15, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.0 mm. was analyzed. The test results showed that stiffening effect pays a large contribution to prevent distortional mode. The increase in wall thickness enhanced buckling stress beyond the yielding strength in short and intermediate columns, but not for the long columns.

Keywords: Buckling behavior, Irregular section, Cold-formed steel, Concentric loading.

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