Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Deep drawing

16 Finite Element Simulation of Deep Drawing Process to Minimize Earing

Authors: Pawan S. Nagda, Purnank S. Bhatt, Mit K. Shah

Abstract:

Earing defect in drawing process is highly undesirable not only because it adds on an additional trimming operation but also because the uneven material flow demands extra care. The objective of this work is to study the earing problem in the Deep Drawing of circular cup and to optimize the blank shape to reduce the earing. A finite element model is developed for 3-D numerical simulation of cup forming process in ABAQUS. Extra-deep-drawing (EDD) steel sheet has been used for simulation. Properties and tool design parameters were used as input for simulation. Earing was observed in the simulated cup and it was measured at various angles with respect to rolling direction. To reduce the earing defect initial blank shape was modified with the help of anisotropy coefficient. Modified blanks showed notable reduction in earing.

Keywords: Finite element simulation, deep drawing, earing, anisotropy.

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15 Construction of Strain Distribution Profiles of EDD Steel at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Eshwara K. Prasad, Raman R. Goud, Swadesh Kumar Singh, N. Sateesh

Abstract:

In the present work, forming limit diagrams and strain distribution profile diagrams for extra deep drawing steel at room and elevated temperatures have been determined experimentally by conducting stretch forming experiments by using designed and fabricated warm stretchforming tooling setup. With the help of forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) and strain, distribution profile diagrams the formability of Extra Deep Drawing steel has been analyzed and co-related with mechanical properties like strain hardening COEFFICIENT (n) and normal anisotropy (r−). Mechanical properties of EDD steel from room temperature to 4500C were determined and discussed the impact of temperature on the properties like work hardening exponent (n) anisotropy (r-) and strength coefficient of the material. In addition, the fractured surfaces after stretching have undergone the some metallurgical investigations and attempt has been made to co-relate with the formability of EDD steel sheets. They are co-related and good agreement with FLDs at various temperatures.

Keywords: FLD, microhardness, strain distribution profile, stretch forming.

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14 A Detailed Experimental Study and Evaluation of Springback under Stretch Bending Process

Authors: A. Soualem

Abstract:

The design of multi stage deep drawing processes requires the evaluation of many process parameters such as the intermediate die geometry, the blank shape, the sheet thickness, the blank holder force, friction, lubrication etc..These process parameters have to be determined for the optimum forming conditions before the process design. In general sheet metal forming may involve stretching drawing or various combinations of these basic modes of deformation. It is important to determine the influence of the process variables in the design of sheet metal working process. Especially, the punch and die corner for deep drawing will affect the formability. At the same time the prediction of sheet metals springback after deep drawing is an important issue to solve for the control of manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the importance of this problem increases because of the use of steel sheeting with high stress and also aluminum alloys.

The aim of this paper is to give a better understanding of the springback and its effect in various sheet metals forming process such as expansion and restreint deep drawing in the cup drawing process, by varying radius die, lubricant for two commercially available materials e.g. galvanized steel and Aluminum sheet. To achieve these goals experiments were carried out and compared with other results. The original of our purpose consist on tests which are ensured by adapting a U-type stretching-bending device on a tensile testing machine, where we studied and quantified the variation of the springback.

Keywords: Deep drawing, Expansion, Restreint deep drawing, Springback.

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13 Factors Affecting Weld Line Movement in Tailor Welded Blank

Authors: Shakil A. Kagzi, Sanjay Patil, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) are utilized in automotive industries widely because of their advantage of weight and cost reduction and maintaining required strength and structural integrity. TWB consist of two or more sheet having dissimilar or similar material and thickness; welded together to form a single sheet before forming it to desired shape. Forming of the tailor welded blank is affected by ratio of thickness of blanks, ratio of their strength, etc. mainly due to in-homogeneity of material. In the present work the relative effect of these parameters on weld line movement is studied during deep drawing of TWB using FE simulation using HYPERWORKS. The simulation is validated with results from the literature. Simulations were than performed based on Taguchi orthogonal array followed by the ANOVA analysis to determine the significance of these parameters on forming of TWB.

Keywords: ANOVA, Deep drawing, Tailor Welded Blank, TWB, Weld line movement.

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12 Analytical and Finite Element Analysis of Hydroforming Deep Drawing Process

Authors: Maziar Ramezani, Thomas Neitzert

Abstract:

This paper gives an overview of a deep drawing process by pressurized liquid medium separated from the sheet by a rubber diaphragm. Hydroforming deep drawing processing of sheet metal parts provides a number of advantages over conventional techniques. It generally increases the depth to diameter ratio possible in cup drawing and minimizes the thickness variation of the drawn cup. To explore the deformation mechanism, analytical and numerical simulations are used for analyzing the drawing process of an AA6061-T4 blank. The effects of key process parameters such as coefficient of friction, initial thickness of the blank and radius between cup wall and flange are investigated analytically and numerically. The simulated results were in good agreement with the results of the analytical model. According to finite element simulations, the hydroforming deep drawing method provides a more uniform thickness distribution compared to conventional deep drawing and decreases the risk of tearing during the process.

Keywords: Deep drawing, Hydroforming, Rubber diaphragm

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11 An Experimental Study and Influence of BHF and Die Radius in Deep Drawing Process on the Springback

Authors: A. Soualem

Abstract:

A lot of research made during these last 15 years showed that the quantification of the springback has a significant role in the industry of sheet metal forming. These studies were made with the objective of finding techniques and methods to minimize or completely avoid this permanent physical variation. Moreover, the use of steel and aluminum alloys in the car industry and aviation poses every day the problem of the springback. The determination in advance of the quantity of the springback allows consequently the design and manufacture of the tool. The aim of this paper is to study experimentally the influence of the blank holder force BHF and the radius of curvature of the die on the springback and their influence on the strain in various zone of specimen. The original of our purpose consist on tests which are ensured by adapting a U-type stretching-bending device on a tensile testing machine, where we studied and quantified the variation of the springback according to displacement.

Keywords: Blank holder force, Deep-Drawing, Die radius, Forming, Springback.

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10 A Detailed Experimental Study of the Springback Anisotropy of Three Metals using the Stretching-Bending Process

Authors: A. Soualem

Abstract:

Springback is a significant problem in the sheet metal forming process. When the tools are released after the stage of forming, the product springs out, because of the action of the internal stresses. In many cases the deviation of form is too large and the compensation of the springback is necessary. The precise prediction of the springback of product is increasingly significant for the design of the tools and for compensation because of the higher ratio of the yield stress to the elastic modulus. The main object in this paper was to study the effect of the anisotropy on the springback for three directions of rolling: 0°, 45° and 90°. At the same time, we highlighted the influence of three different metallic materials: Aluminum, Steel and Galvanized steel. The original of our purpose consist on tests which are ensured by adapting a U-type stretching-bending device on a tensile testing machine, where we studied and quantified the variation of the springback according to the direction of rolling. We also showed the role of lubrication in the reduction of the springback. Moreover, in this work, we have studied important characteristics in deep drawing process which is a springback. We have presented defaults that are showed in this process and many parameters influenced a springback. Finally, our results works lead us to understand the influence of grains orientation with different metallic materials on the springback and drawing some conclusions how to concept deep drawing tools. In addition, the conducted work represents a fundamental contribution in the discussion the industry application.

Keywords: Deep-Drawing, Grains orientation, Laminate Tool, Springback.

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9 The Influence of Surface Roughness of Drawbead on Non-Symmetry Deep Drawing Cold Rolled Steel Sheet

Authors: A. Watanapa, S. Torsakul

Abstract:

This study was aimed to explain the influence of surface roughness of the drawbead on non-symmetry deep drawing cold rolled steel sheet to improve the drawability of cold rolled steel sheet. The variables used in this study included semi-circle drawbead with 3 levels of surface roughness which are 6.127 mm Ra, 0.963 mm Ra and 0.152 mm Ra and cold rolled steel sheet according to 3 grades of the JIS standards which are SPCC, SPCE and SPCD with the thickness of 1.0 mm and the blankholder force which is 50% of the drawing force and the depth of 50 mm. According to the test results, when there was the increase in the surface roughness of drawbead, there would be the increase in deep drawing force, especially the SPCC cold rolled steel sheet. This is similar to the increase in the equivalent strain and the wall thickness distribution when the surface roughness of the drawbead increased. It could be concluded that the surface roughness of drawbead has an influence on deep drawing cold rolled steel sheet, especially the drawing force, the equivalent strain and the wall thickness distribution.

Keywords: Drawbead, Deep Drawing, Drawing Force, Equivalent Strain, Surface roughness

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8 Finite Element Simulation of Multi-Stage Deep Drawing Processes and Comparison with Experimental Results

Authors: A. Pourkamali Anaraki, M. Shahabizadeh, B. Babaee

Abstract:

The plastic forming process of sheet plate takes an important place in forming metals. The traditional techniques of tool design for sheet forming operations used in industry are experimental and expensive methods. Prediction of the forming results, determination of the punching force, blank holder forces and the thickness distribution of the sheet metal will decrease the production cost and time of the material to be formed. In this paper, multi-stage deep drawing simulation of an Industrial Part has been presented with finite element method. The entire production steps with additional operations such as intermediate annealing and springback has been simulated by ABAQUS software under axisymmetric conditions. The simulation results such as sheet thickness distribution, Punch force and residual stresses have been extracted in any stages and sheet thickness distribution was compared with experimental results. It was found through comparison of results, the FE model have proven to be in close agreement with those of experiment.

Keywords: Deep drawing, Finite element method, Simulation.

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7 Identification of Optimum Parameters of Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Workpiece using Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: D. Singh, R. Yousefi, M. Boroushaki

Abstract:

Intelligent deep-drawing is an instrumental research field in sheet metal forming. A set of 28 different experimental data have been employed in this paper, investigating the roles of die radius, punch radius, friction coefficients and drawing ratios for axisymmetric workpieces deep drawing. This paper focuses an evolutionary neural network, specifically, error back propagation in collaboration with genetic algorithm. The neural network encompasses a number of different functional nodes defined through the established principles. The input parameters, i.e., punch radii, die radii, friction coefficients and drawing ratios are set to the network; thereafter, the material outputs at two critical points are accurately calculated. The output of the network is used to establish the best parameters leading to the most uniform thickness in the product via the genetic algorithm. This research achieved satisfactory results based on demonstration of neural networks.

Keywords: Deep-drawing, Neural network, Genetic algorithm, Sheet metal forming.

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6 Prediction the Limiting Drawing Ratio in Deep Drawing Process by Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network

Authors: H.Mohammadi Majd, M.Jalali Azizpour, M. Goodarzi

Abstract:

In this paper back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is employed to predict the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of the deep drawing process. To prepare a training set for BPANN, some finite element simulations were carried out. die and punch radius, die arc radius, friction coefficient, thickness, yield strength of sheet and strain hardening exponent were used as the input data and the LDR as the specified output used in the training of neural network. As a result of the specified parameters, the program will be able to estimate the LDR for any new given condition. Comparing FEM and BPANN results, an acceptable correlation was found.

Keywords: BPANN, deep drawing, prediction, limiting drawingratio (LDR), Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm

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5 Fatigue Properties of Steel Sheets Treated by Nitrooxidation

Authors: M. Maronek, J. Barta, P. Palcek, K. Ulrich

Abstract:

Low carbon deep drawing steel DC 01 according to EN 10130-91 was nitrooxidized in dissociated ammonia at 580°C/45 min and consequently oxidised at 380°C/5 min in vapour of distilled water. Material after nitrooxidation had 54 % increase of yield point, 34 % increase of strength and 10-times increased resistance to atmospheric corrosion in comparison to the material before nitrooxidation. The microstructure of treated material consisted of thin ε-phase layer connected to layer containing precipitated massive needle shaped Fe4N - γ' nitrides. This layer passed to a diffusion layer consisting of fine irregular shaped Fe16N2 - α'' nitrides regularly dispersed in ferritic matrix. Fatigue properties were examined under bending load with frequency of 20 kHz and sinusoidal symmetric cycle. The results confirmed positive influence of nitrooxidation on fatigue properties as fatigue limit of treated material was double in comparison to untreated material.

Keywords: steel sheet, fatigue, nitrooxidation, S-N diagram

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4 Modeling and Investigation of Elongation in Free Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy Plate

Authors: R. Alipour, F.Najarian

Abstract:

Because of high ductility, aluminum alloys, have been widely used as an important base of metal forming industries. But the main week point of these alloys is their low strength so in forming them with conventional methods like deep drawing, hydro forming, etc have been always faced with problems like fracture during of forming process. Because of this, recently using of explosive forming method for forming of these plates has been recommended. In this paper free explosive forming of A2024 aluminum alloy is numerically simulated and during it, explosion wave propagation process is studied. Consequences of this simulation can be effective in prediction of quality of production. These consequences are compared with an experimental test and show the superiority of this method to similar methods like hydro forming and deep drawing.

Keywords: Free explosive forming, CEL, Johnson cook.

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3 Application of Neural Network and Finite Element for Prediction the Limiting Drawing Ratio in Deep Drawing Process

Authors: H.Mohammadi Majd, M.Jalali Azizpour, A.V. Hoseini

Abstract:

In this paper back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) is employed to predict the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of the deep drawing process. To prepare a training set for BPANN, some finite element simulations were carried out. die and punch radius, die arc radius, friction coefficient, thickness, yield strength of sheet and strain hardening exponent were used as the input data and the LDR as the specified output used in the training of neural network. As a result of the specified parameters, the program will be able to estimate the LDR for any new given condition. Comparing FEM and BPANN results, an acceptable correlation was found.

Keywords: Back-propagation artificial neural network(BPANN), deep drawing, prediction, limiting drawing ratio (LDR).

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2 A Low Cost Knowledge Base System Framework for Design of Deep Drawing Die

Authors: Vishal Naranje, S. Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a low cost knowledge base system (KBS) framework is proposed for design of deep drawing die and procedure for developing system modules. The task of building the system is structured into different modules for major activities of design of deep drawing die. A manufacturability assessment module of the proposed framework is developed to check the manufacturability of deep drawn parts. The technological knowledge is represented by using IF- THEN rules and it is coded in AutoLISP language. The module is designed to be loaded into the prompt area of AutoCAD. The cost of implementation of proposed system makes it affordable for small and medium scale sheet metal industries.

Keywords: Knowledge base system, Deep drawing die, Manufacturability, Sheet metal.

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1 Investigation of Tearing in Hydroforming Process with Analytical Equations and Finite Element Method

Authors: H.Seidi, M.Jalali Azizpour, S.A.Zahedi

Abstract:

Today, Hydroforming technology provides an attractive alternative to conventional matched die forming, especially for cost-sensitive, lower volume production, and for parts with irregular contours. In this study the critical fluid pressures which lead to rupture in the workpiece has been investigated by theoretical and finite element methods. The axisymmetric analysis was developed to investigate the tearing phenomenon in cylindrical Hydroforming Deep Drawing (HDD). By use of obtained equations the effect of anisotropy, drawing ratio, sheet thickness and strain hardening exponent on tearing diagram were investigated.

Keywords: Hydroforming deep drawing, Pressure path, Axisymmetric analysis, Finite element simulation.

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