Search results for: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 123

Search results for: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

123 The Determination of Aflatoxins in Paddy and Milled Fractions of Rice in Guyana: Preliminary Results

Authors: Donna M. Morrison, Lambert Chester, Coretta A. N. Samuels, David R. Ledoux

Abstract:

A survey was conducted in the five rice-growing regions in Guyana to determine the presence of aflatoxins in multiple fractions of rice in June/October 2015 growing season. The fractions were paddy, steamed paddy, cargo rice, white rice and parboiled rice. Samples were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A subset of the samples was further analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for concurrence. All analyses were conducted at the University of Missouri, USA. Of the 186 samples tested, 16 had aflatoxin concentrations greater than 20 ppb the recommended limit for aflatoxins in food according to the United States Food and Drug Administration. An additional three samples had aflatoxin B1 concentrations greater than the European Union Commission maximum levels for aflatoxin B1 in rice at 5 µg/kg and total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) at 10 µg/kg. The survey indicates that there is no widespread aflatoxin problem in rice in Guyana. The incidence of aflatoxins appears to be localized.

Keywords: Aflatoxins, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, high-performance liquid chromatography, rice fractions.

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122 Fluorometric Aptasensor: Evaluation of Stability and Comparison to Standard ELISA Assay

Authors: J. Carlos Kuri, Varun Vij, Raymond J. Turner, Orly Yadid-Pecht

Abstract:

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune system disorder that is related to eating gluten. As gluten-free (GF) diet has become a concern of many people for health reasons, a gold standard had to be nominated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has taken the seat of this role. However, multiple limitations were discovered, and with that, the desire for an alternative method now exists. Nucleic acid based aptamers have become of great interest due to their selectivity, specificity, simplicity, and rapid-testing advantages. However, fluorescence-based aptasensors have been tagged as unstable, but lifespan details are rarely stated. In this work, the lifespan stability of a fluorescence-based aptasensor is shown over a 8-week long study displaying the accuracy of the sensor and false negatives. This study follows 22 different samples, including GF and gluten-rich (GR) and soy sauce products, off-the-shelf products, and reference material from laboratories; giving a total of 836 tests. The analysis shows an accuracy of correctly classifying GF and GR products of 96.30% and 100%, respectively, when the protocol is augmented with molecular sieves. The overall accuracy remains around 94% within the first 4 weeks and then decays to 63%.

Keywords: Aptasensor, PEG, rGO, FAM, RM, ELISA.

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121 Performance of the Aptima® HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay on the Panther System

Authors: Siobhan O’Shea, Sangeetha Vijaysri Nair, Hee Cheol Kim, Charles Thomas Nugent, Cheuk Yan William Tong, Sam Douthwaite, Andrew Worlock

Abstract:

The Aptima® HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay is a fully automated assay on the Panther system. It is based on Transcription- Mediated Amplification and real time detection technologies. This assay is intended for monitoring HIV-1 viral load in plasma specimens and for the detection of HIV-1 in plasma and serum specimens. Nine-hundred and seventy nine specimens selected at random from routine testing at St Thomas’ Hospital, London were anonymised and used to compare the performance of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay and Roche COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® HIV-1 Test, v2.0. Two-hundred and thirty four specimens gave quantitative HIV-1 viral load results in both assays. The quantitative results reported by the Aptima Assay were comparable to those reported by the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test, v2.0 with a linear regression slope of 1.04 and an intercept on -0.097. The Aptima assay detected HIV-1 in more samples than the COBAS assay. This was not due to lack of specificity of the Aptima assay because this assay gave 99.83% specificity on testing plasma specimens from 600 HIV-1 negative individuals. To understand the reason for this higher detection rate a side-by-side comparison of low level panels made from the HIV-1 3rd international standard (NIBSC10/152) and clinical samples of various subtypes were tested in both assays. The Aptima assay was more sensitive than the COBAS assay. The good sensitivity, specificity and agreement with other commercial assays make the HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay appropriate for both viral load monitoring and detection of HIV-1 infections.

Keywords: HIV viral load, Aptima, Roche, Panther system.

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120 Evaluation of the Hepatitis C Virus and Classical and Modern Immunoassays Used Nowadays to Diagnose It in Tirana

Authors: Stela Papa, Klementina Puto, Migena Pllaha

Abstract:

HCV is a hepatotropic RNA virus, transmitted primarily via the blood route, which causes progressive disease such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV nowadays is a global healthcare problem. A variety of immunoassays including old and new technologies are being applied to detect HCV in our country. These methods include Immunochromatography assays (ICA), Fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), Enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect HCV antibodies in blood serum, which lately is being slowly replaced by more sensitive methods such as rapid automated analyzer chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). The aim of this study is to estimate HCV infection in carriers and chronic acute patients and to evaluate the use of new diagnostic methods. This study was realized from September 2016 to May 2018. During this study period, 2913 patients were analyzed for the presence of HCV by taking samples from their blood serum. The immunoassays performed were ICA, FIA, ELFA, ELISA, and CLIA assays. Concluding, 82% of patients taken in this study, resulted infected with HCV. Diagnostic methods in clinical laboratories are crucial in the early stages of infection, in the management of chronic hepatitis and in the treatment of patients during their disease.

Keywords: CLIA, ELISA, hepatitis C virus, immunoassay.

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119 Overview of CARDIOSENSOR Project on the Development of a Nanosensor for Assessing the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Authors: A.C. Duarte, C.I.L. Justino, K. Duarte, A.C. Freitas, R. Pereira, P. Chaves, P. Bettencourt, S. Cardoso, T.A.P. Rocha-Santos

Abstract:

This paper aims at overviewing the topics of a research project (CARDIOSENSOR) on the field of health sciences (biomaterials and biomedical engineering). The project has focused on the development of a nanosensor for the assessment of the risk of cardiovascular diseases by the monitoring of C-reactive protein (CRP), which has been currently considered as the best validated inflammatory biomarker associated to cardiovascular diseases. The project involves tasks such as: 1) the development of sensor devices based on field effect transistors (FET): assembly, optimization and validation; 2) application of sensors to the detection of CRP in standard solutions and comparison with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and 3) application of sensors to real samples such as blood and saliva and evaluation of their ability to predict the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes field effect transistors, cardiovascular diseases, C-reactive protein, sensor.

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118 Detection of Oxidative Stress Induced by Mobile Phone Radiation in Tissues of Mice using 8-Oxo-7, 8-Dihydro-2'-Deoxyguanosine as a Biomarker

Authors: Ahmad M. Khalil, Ahmad M. Alshamali, Marwan H. Gagaa

Abstract:

We investigated oxidative DNA damage caused by radio frequency radiation using 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'- deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) generated in mice tissues after exposure to 900 MHz mobile phone radio frequency in three independent experiments. The RF was generated by a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signal generator. The radio frequency field was adjusted to 25 V/m. The whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) was 1.0 W/kg. Animals were exposed to this field for 30 min daily for 30 days. 24 h post-exposure, blood serum, brain and spleen were removed and DNA was isolated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure 8-oxodG concentration. All animals survived the whole experimental period. The body weight of animals did not change significantly at the end of the experiment. No statistically significant differences observed in the levels of oxidative stress. Our results are not in favor of the hypothesis that 900 MHz RF induces oxidative damage.

Keywords: Mice, Mobile phone radiation, oxidative stress, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine

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117 Novel Nanomagnetic Beads Based - Latex Agglutination Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis Haematobium

Authors: Ibrahim Aly , Rabab Zalat, Bahaa EL Deen W. El Aswad, Ismail M. Moharm , Basam M. Masoud, Tarek Diab

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay (NMB-LAT) as a simple test for diagnosis of S. haematobium as well as standardize the novel nanomagnetic beads based –ELISA (NMB-ELISA). According to urine examination this study included 85 S. haematobium infected patients, 30 other parasites infected patients and 25 negative control samples. The sensitivity of novel NMB-LAT was 82.4% versus 96.5% and 88.2% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. The specificity of NMB-LAT was 83.6% versus 96.3% and 87.3% for NMB-ELISA and currently used sandwich ELISA respectively. In conclusion, the novel NMB-ELISA is a valuable applicable diagnostic technique for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium. The novel NMB-ELISA assay is a suitable applicable diagnostic method in field survey especially when followed by ELISA as a confirmatory test in query false negative results. Trials are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of NMB-ELISA assay.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Latex agglutination, Nanomagnetic beads, Sandwich ELISA.

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116 Evaluation of the Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay Drugs Concentration for Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

Authors: Anita, Sari Septiani Tangke, Rusdina Bte Ladju, Nasrum Massi

Abstract:

New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to interrupt the transmission of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) assay is a rapid, accurate and simple liquid culture method to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). MODS were evaluated to determine a lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin for detection of MDR-TB. Direct drug-susceptibility testing was performed with the use of the MODS assay. Drug-sensitive control strains were tested daily. The drug concentrations that used for both isoniazid and rifampin were at the same concentration: 0.16, 0.08 and 0.04μg per milliliter. We tested 56 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates and the control strains M. tuberculosis H37RV. All concentration showed same result. Of 53 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, 14 were MDR-TB, 38 were susceptible with isoniazid and rifampin, 1 was resistant with isoniazid only. Drug-susceptibility testing was performed with the use of the proportion method using Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system as reference. The result of MODS assay using lower concentration was significance (P<0.001) compare with the reference methods.

A lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin can be used to detect MDR-TB. Operational cost and application can be more efficient and easier in resource-limited environments. However, additional studies evaluating the MODS using lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin must be conducted with a larger number of clinical isolates.

Keywords: Isoniazid, MODS assay, MDR-TB, Rifampin.

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115 Glucose-dependent Functional Heterogeneity In β-TC-6 Murine Insulinoma

Authors: Darren C-W. Tan, Partha Roy

Abstract:

To determine if the murine insulinoma, β-TC-6, is a suitable substitute for primary pancreatic β-cells in the study of β- cell functional heterogeneity, we used three distinct functional assays to ascertain the cell line-s response to glucose or a glucose analog. These assays include: (i) a 2-NBDG uptake assay; (ii) a calcium influx assay, and; (iii) a quinacrine secretion assay. We show that a population of β-TC-6 cells endocytoses the glucose analog, 2- NBDG, at different rates, has non-uniform intracellular calcium ion concentrations and releases quinacrine at different rates when challenged with glucose. We also measured the Km for β-TC-6 glucose uptake to be 46.9 mM and the Vm to be 8.36 x 10-5 mmole/million cells/min. These data suggest that β-TC-6 might be used as an alternative to primary pancreatic β-cells for the study of glucose-dependent β-cell functional heterogeneity.

Keywords: 2-NBDG, Fura-2/AM, functional heterogeneity, quinacrine.

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114 Soybean and Fermented Soybean Extract Antioxidant Activities

Authors: W. Samruan, A. Oonsivilai, R. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

Today, people are more interested in the foods beneficial on their health. However, there are still lacks of accurate knowledge in the field of biological properties, functional properties, including the application of legume in foods. This study focused on antioxidant activity of soybean (SB) and fermented soybean (FSB) crude extracts evaluating to have more information in fortification SB and FSB crude extracts in food products and/or dietary supplement. SB and FSB crude extracts were prepared by infusion with water and ethanol. The antioxidant activity of crude extracts was studied with DPPH and ABTS assay including commercial standard. From both DPPH and ABTS assay, the antioxidant activity of SB and FSB water crude extract showed higher antioxidant activity than ethanol crude extract, and FSB crude extract showed higher antioxidant activity than SB crude extract. In DPPH assay, BHT and vitamin C showed IC50 values at 0.241, 0.039 mg/ml, in ABTS assay. In addition, Trolox showed IC50 at 0.058 mg/ml respectively. FSB water crude extract showed high antioxidant activity. Finally, the functional properties study of both water and ethanol crude extracts should be done for beneficial in application of these extracts in food products and dietary supplement in the near future.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Fermented soybean (FSB) crude extracts, soybean (SB) crude extracts.

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113 Origanum vulgare as a Possible Modulator of Testicular Endocrine Function in Mice

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Barbora Babečková, Michal Ďuračka, Róbert Kirchner, Július Árvay

Abstract:

This study was designed to assess the in vitro effects of Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) extract on the testicular steroidogenesis. We focused on identifying major biomolecules present in the oregano extract, as well as to investigate its in vitro impact on the secretion of cholesterol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione by murine testicular fragments. The extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which identified cyranosid, daidzein, thymol, rosmarinic and trans-caffeic acid among the predominant biochemical components of oregano. For the in vitro experiments, testicular fragments from 20 sexually mature Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were incubated in the absence (control group) or presence of the oregano extract at selected concentrations (10, 100 and 1000 μg/mL) for 24 h. Cholesterol levels were quantified using photometry and the hormones were assessed by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Our data revealed that the release of cholesterol and androstenedione (but not dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone) by the testicular fragments was significantly impacted by the oregano extract in a dose-dependent fashion. Supplementation of the extract resulted in a significant decline of cholesterol (P < 0.05 in case of 100 μg/mL; P < 0.01 with respect 100 μg/mL extract), as well as androstenedione (P < 0.01 with respect to 100 and 1000 μg/mL extract). Our results suggest that the biomolecules present in Origanum vulgare L. could exhibit a dose-dependent impact on the secretion of male steroids, playing a role in the regulation of testicular steroidogenesis.

Keywords: Mice, Origanum vulgare L., steroidogenesis, testes.

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112 A Novel Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay Using TaqMan MGB Probes for Rapid Detection of Trisomy 21

Authors: Mehrdad Hashemi, Mitra Behrooz Aghdam, Reza Mahdian, Ahmad Reza Kamyab

Abstract:

Cytogenetic analysis still remains the gold standard method for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome, DS). Nevertheless, the conventional cytogenetic analysis needs live cultured cells and is too time-consuming for clinical application. In contrast, molecular methods such as FISH, QF-PCR, MLPA and quantitative Real-time PCR are rapid assays with results available in 24h. In the present study, we have successfully used a novel MGB TaqMan probe-based real time PCR assay for rapid diagnosis of trisomy 21 status in Down syndrome samples. We have also compared the results of this molecular method with corresponding results obtained by the cytogenetic analysis. Blood samples obtained from DS patients (n=25) and normal controls (n=20) were tested by quantitative Real-time PCR in parallel to standard G-banding analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. A high precision TaqMan probe quantitative Real-time PCR assay was developed to determine the gene dosage of DSCAM (target gene on 21q22.2) relative to PMP22 (reference gene on 17p11.2). The DSCAM/PMP22 ratio was calculated according to the formula; ratio=2 -ΔΔCT. The quantitative Real-time PCR was able to distinguish between trisomy 21 samples and normal controls with the gene ratios of 1.49±0.13 and 1.03±0.04 respectively (p value <0.001). These results represent the presence of 3 copies of target gene in DS samples Vs 2 copies in normal controls. The results of quantitative Real-time PCR were in complete agreement with results of cytogenetic analysis. This study confirms previous reports regarding successful implementation of quantitative Real-time PCR for detection of trisomy 21. However, the assay has been improved by using MGB probes and more accurate data analysis. This assay, in particular, when performed in combination with another molecular assay such as QF-PCR or MLPA, can be used as a reliable technique for rapid prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21.

Keywords: Trisomy 21, Real-time PCR, MGB-TaqMan Probes, Gene Dosage.

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111 Surveillance for African Swine Fever and Classical Swine Fever in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Asambe, A. K. B. Sackey, L. B. Tekdek

Abstract:

A serosurveillance study was conducted to detect the presence of antibodies to African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Classical swine fever virus in pigs sampled from piggeries and Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, Nigeria. 416 pigs from 74 piggeries across 12 LGAs and 44 pigs at the Makurdi central slaughter slab were sampled for serum. The sera collected were analysed using Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit to test for antibodies to ASFV, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to test for antibodies to CSFV. Of the 416 pigs from piggeries and 44 pigs sampled from the slaughter slab, seven (1.7%) and six (13.6%), respectively, tested positive to ASFV antibodies and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). Out of the 12 LGAs sampled, Obi LGA had the highest ASFV antibody detection rate of (4.8%) and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). None of the samples tested positive to CSFV antibodies. The study concluded that antibodies to CSFV were absent in the sampled pigs in piggeries and at the Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, while antibodies to ASFV were present in both locations; hence, the need to keep an eye open for CSF too since both diseases may pose great risk in the study area. Further studies to characterise the ASFV circulating in Benue State and investigate the possible sources is recommended. Routine surveillance to provide a comprehensive and readily accessible data base to plan for the prevention of any fulminating outbreak is also recommended.

Keywords: African swine fever, classical swine fever, piggery, slaughter slab, surveillance.

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110 Host Responses in Peri-Implant Tissue in Comparison to Periodontal Tissue

Authors: Raviporn Madarasmi, Anjalee Vacharaksa, Pravej Serichetaphongse

Abstract:

The host response in peri-implant tissue may differ from that in periodontal tissue in a healthy individual. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) from single implant with different abutment types in comparison to healthy periodontal tissue. 19 participants with healthy implants and teeth were recruited according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. PICF and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected using sterile paper points. The expression level of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Paired t test was used to compare the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines around natural teeth and peri-implant in PICF and GCF of the same individual. The Independent t-test was used to compare the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in PICF from titanium and UCLA abutment. Expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in PICF was not statistically different from GCF among titanium and UCLA abutment group. However, the level of IL-1α in the PICF from the implants with UCLA abutment was significantly higher than GCF (P=0.030). In addition, the level of IL-1β in PICF from the implants with titanium abutment was significantly higher than GCF (P=0.032). When different abutment types was compared, IL-8 expression in PICF from implants with UCLA abutment was significantly higher than titanium abutment (P=0.003).

Keywords: Abutment, dental implant, gingival crevicular fluid and peri-implant crevicular fluid.

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109 Role of Pro-Inflammatory and Regulatory Cytokines in Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease in Association with Autoantibody Thyroid and Regulatory FoxP3 T-Cells

Authors: Dwitya Elvira, Eryati Darwin

Abstract:

Background: Graves’ disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disease. Imbalance of Th1/Th2 cells and T-regulatory (Treg)/Th17 cells was thought to play pivotal role in the pathogenesis of GD. Treg FoxP3 produced TGF-β to maintain regulatory function, and Th17 cells produced IL-17 as cytokines that were thought in mediating several autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the role of IL-17 and TGF-β in the pathogenesis of GD and to investigate its correlation with Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody (TRAb) and Treg FoxP3 expression. Method: 30 GD patients and 27 age and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. Diagnosis of GD was based on clinical and biochemical of GD. Serum IL-17, TGF-β, TRAb, and FoxP3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 21.0 (SPSS Inc.). Spearman rank correlation test was used for assessment of correlation. The statistical significance was accepted as P<0.05. Result: There was no significant correlation between IL-17 and TGF-β serum with expression of FoxP3 level in GD, but there was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb serum level (P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-17 and TGF-β were found to be elevated in patient group compared to control, where mean values of IL-17 were 14.43±2.15 pg/mL and TGF-β were 10.44±3.19 pg/mL in patients group; and in control group, level of IL-17 were 7.1±1.45 pg/mL and TGF-β were 4.95±1.35 pg/mL. Conclusion: Serum Il-17 and TGF-β were elevated in GD patients that reflect the role of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines activation in pathogenesis of GD. There was significant correlation between TGF-β and TRAb, revealing that Treg cytokines may play a role in pathogenesis of GD.

Keywords: IL-17, TGF-β, FoxP3, Graves’ disease.

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108 Survey of Potato Viral Infection Using Das-Elisa Method in Georgia

Authors: Maia Kukhaleishvili, Ekaterine Bulauri, Iveta Megrelishvili, Tamar Shamatava, Tamar Chipashvili

Abstract:

Plant viruses can cause loss of yield and quality in a lot of important crops. Symptoms of pathogens are variable depending on the cultivars and virus strain. Selection of resistant potato varieties would reduce the risk of virus transmission and significant economic impact. Other way to avoid reduced harvest yields is regular potato seed production sampling and testing for viral infection. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of viral diseases according potato cultivars for further selection of virus-free material in Georgia. During the summer 2015- 2016, 5 potato cultivars (Sante, Laura, Jelly, Red Sonia, Anushka) at 5 different farms located in Akhalkalaki were tested for 6 different potato viruses: Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll virus (PLRV). A serological method, Double Antibody Sandwich-Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (DASELISA) was used at the laboratory to analyze the results. The result showed that PVY (21.4%) and PLRV (19.7%) virus presence in collected samples was relatively high compared to others. Researched potato cultivars except Jelly and Laura were infected by PVY with different concentrations. PLRV was found only in three potato cultivars (Sante, Jelly, Red Sonia) and PVM virus (3.12%) was characterized with low prevalence. PVX, PVA and PVS virus infection was not reported. It would be noted that 7.9% of samples were containing PVY/PLRV mix infection. Based on the results it can be concluded that PVY and PLRV infections are dominant in all research cultivars. Therefore significant yield losses are expected. Systematic, long-term control of potato viral infection, especially seed-potatoes, must be regarded as the most important factor to increase seed productivity.

Keywords: Diseases, infection, potato, virus.

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107 Fractal Dimension of Breast Cancer Cell Migration in a Wound Healing Assay

Authors: R. Sullivan, T. Holden, G. Tremberger, Jr, E. Cheung, C. Branch, J. Burrero, G. Surpris, S. Quintana, A. Rameau, N. Gadura, H. Yao, R. Subramaniam, P. Schneider, S. A. Rotenberg, P. Marchese, A. Flamhlolz, D. Lieberman, T. Cheung

Abstract:

Migration in breast cancer cell wound healing assay had been studied using image fractal dimension analysis. The migration of MDA-MB-231 cells (highly motile) in a wound healing assay was captured using time-lapse phase contrast video microscopy and compared to MDA-MB-468 cell migration (moderately motile). The Higuchi fractal method was used to compute the fractal dimension of the image intensity fluctuation along a single pixel width region parallel to the wound. The near-wound region fractal dimension was found to decrease three times faster in the MDA-MB- 231 cells initially as compared to the less cancerous MDA-MB-468 cells. The inner region fractal dimension was found to be fairly constant for both cell types in time and suggests a wound influence range of about 15 cell layer. The box-counting fractal dimension method was also used to study region of interest (ROI). The MDAMB- 468 ROI area fractal dimension was found to decrease continuously up to 7 hours. The MDA-MB-231 ROI area fractal dimension was found to increase and is consistent with the behavior of a HGF-treated MDA-MB-231 wound healing assay posted in the public domain. A fractal dimension based capacity index has been formulated to quantify the invasiveness of the MDA-MB-231 cells in the perpendicular-to-wound direction. Our results suggest that image intensity fluctuation fractal dimension analysis can be used as a tool to quantify cell migration in terms of cancer severity and treatment responses.

Keywords: Higuchi fractal dimension, box-counting fractal dimension, cancer cell migration, wound healing.

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106 In vitro Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Human Keratinocytes

Authors: H. Bouaziz, M. Sefi, J. de Lapuente, M. Borras, N. Zeghal

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Although, arsenic trioxide has been the subject of toxicological research, in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies using relevant cell models and uniform methodology are not well elucidated. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by arsenic trioxide in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) using the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assays, respectively. Human keratinocytes were treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide for 4 h prior to cytogenetic assessment. Data obtained from the MTT assay indicated that arsenic trioxide significantly reduced the viability of HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner, showing an IC50 value of 34.18 ± 0.6 μM. Data generated from the comet assay also indicated a significant dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in HaCaT cells associated with arsenic trioxide exposure. We observed a significant increase in comet tail length and tail moment, showing an evidence of arsenic trioxide -induced genotoxic damage in HaCaT cells. This study confirms that the comet assay is a sensitive and effective method to detect DNA damage caused by arsenic.

Keywords: Arsenic trioxide, cytotoxixity, genotoxicity, HaCaT.

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105 Detection of Salmonella in Egg Shell and Egg Content from Different Housing Systems for Laying Hens

Authors: Wiriya Loongyai, Kiettisak Promphet, Nilubol Kangsukul, Ratchawat Noppha

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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and conventional microbiological methods were used to detect bacterial contamination of egg shells and egg content in different commercial housing systems, open house system and evaporative cooling system. A PCR assay was developed for direct detection using a set of primers specific for the invasion by A gene (invA) of Salmonella spp. PCR detected the presence of Salmonella in 2 samples of shell egg from the evaporative cooling system, while conventional cultural methods detected no Salmonella from the same samples.

Keywords: egg content, egg shell, invA gene, PCR, Salmonellaspp.

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104 Statistical Analysis of Interferon-γ for the Effectiveness of an Anti-Tuberculous Treatment

Authors: Shishen Xie, Yingda L. Xie

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially serious infectious disease that remains a health concern. The Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) is a blood test to find out if an individual is tuberculous positive or negative. This study applies statistical analysis to the clinical data of interferon-gamma levels of seventy-three subjects who diagnosed pulmonary TB in an anti-tuberculous treatment. Data analysis is performed to determine if there is a significant decline in interferon-gamma levels for the subjects during a period of six months, and to infer if the anti-tuberculous treatment is effective.

Keywords: Data analysis, interferon gamma release assay, statistical methods, tuberculosis infection.

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103 Molecular and Serological Diagnosis of Newcastle and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Broiler in Chicken in Fars Province, Iran

Authors: Mohammadjavad Mehrabanpour, Maryam Ranjbar Bushehri, Dorsa Mehrabanpour

Abstract:

Respiratory diseases are the most important problems in the country’s poultry industry, particularly when it comes to broiler flocks. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a species that causes poor performance in growth rate, egg production, and mortality. This pathogen causes a respiratory infection including pulmonary alveolar inflammation, and pneumonia of birds throughout the world. Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease in poultry, and also, it causes considerable losses to the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous occurrence of ORT and ND and NDV isolation by inoculation in embryonated eggs and confirmed by RT-PCR in broiler chicken flocks in Fars province. In this study, 318 blood and 85 tissue samples (brain, trachea, liver, and cecal tonsils) were collected from 15 broiler chicken farms. Survey serum antibody titers against ORT by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit performed. Evaluation of antibody titer against ND virus is performed by hemagglutination inhibition test. Virus isolation with chick embryo eggs 9-11 and RT-PCR method were carried out. A total of 318 serum samples, 135 samples (42.5%) were positive for antibodies to ORT and titer of HI antibodies against NDV in 122 serum samples (38/4%) were 7-10 (log2) and 61 serum samples (19/2%) had occurrence antibody titer against Newcastle virus and ORT. Results of the present study indicated that 20 tissue samples were positive in embryonated egg and in rapid hemagglutination (HA) test. HI test with specific ND positive serum confirmed that 6 of 20 samples. PCR confirmed that all six samples were positive and PCR products of samples indicated 535-base pair fragments in electrophrosis. Due to the great economic importance of these two diseases in the poultry industry, it is necessary to design and implement a comprehensive plan for prevention and control of these diseases.

Keywords: ELISA, Newcastle disease, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, seroprevalence.

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102 Polyphenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activities of Nigella Sativa Seed Extracts In Vitro and In Vivo

Authors: Asma Meziti, Hicham Meziti, Kaouthar Boudiaf, Benboubetra Mustapha, Hemama Bouriche.

Abstract:

Nigella sativa L. is an aromatic plant belonging to the family Ranunculaceae. It has been used traditionally, especially in the middle East and India, for the treatment of asthma, cough, bronchitis, headache, rheumatism, fever, influenza and eczema. Several biological activities have been reported in Nigella sativa seeds, including antioxidant. In this context we tried to estimate the antioxidant activity of various extracts prepared from Nigella sativa seeds, methanolic extract (ME), chloroformic extract (CE), hexanic extract (HE : fixed oil), ethyl acetate extract (EAE) water extract (WE). The Folin-Ciocalteu assay showed that CE and EAE contained high level of phenolic compounds 81.31 and 72.43μg GAE/mg of extract respectively. Similarly, the CE and EAE exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 106.56μg/ml and 121.62μg/ml respectively. In addition, CE and HE showed the most scavenging activity against superoxide radical generated in the PMS-NADH-NBT system with respective IC50 values of 361.86 μg/ml and 371.80 μg/ml, which is comparable to the activity of the standard antioxidant BHT (344.59 μg/ml). Ferrous ion chelating capacity assay showed that WE, EAE and ME are the most active with 40.57, 39.70 and 22.02 mg EDTA-E/g of extract. The inhibition of linoleic acid/ß-carotene coupled oxidation was estimated by ßcarotene bleaching assay, this showed a highest relative antioxidant activity with CE and EAE (69.82% of inhibition). The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract and the fixed oil are confirmed by an in vivo assay in mice, the daily oral administration of methanolic extract (500 and 800 mg/kg/day) and fixed oil (2 and 4 ml/kg/day) during 21 days, resulted in a significant enhancement of the blood total antioxidant capacity (measured by KRL test) and the plasmatic antioxidant capacity towards DPPH radical.

Keywords: Antioxidant Capacity, Chelating, Phenolic Compounds, Nigella Sativa, Scavenger

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101 An Alternative Antimicrobial Approach to Fight Bacterial Pathogens from Phellinus linteus

Authors: S. Techaoei, K. Jarmkom, P. Eakwaropas, W. Khobjai

Abstract:

The objective of this research was focused on investigating in vitro antimicrobial activity of Phellinus linteus fruiting body extracts on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phellinus linteus fruiting body was extracted with ethanol and ethyl acetate and was vaporized. The disc diffusion assay was used to assess antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial strains. Primary screening of chemical profile of crude extract was determined by using thin layer chromatography. The positive control and the negative control were used as erythromycin and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively. Initial screening of Phellinus linteus crude extract with the disc diffusion assay demonstrated that only ethanol had greater antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC assay showed that the lower MIC was observed with 0.5 mg/ml of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 0.25 mg/ml. of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. TLC chemical profile of extract was represented at Rf ≈ 0.71-0.76.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Phellinus linteus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial activity, Escherichia coli.

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100 A Study on Physicochemical Analysis of Road and Railway Track Side Soil Samples of Amritsar (Punjab) and Their Genotoxic Effects

Authors: R. Kaur, Y. B. Pakade, J. K. Katnoria

Abstract:

Considering the serious health hazards of air pollutants from automobiles, the present study was aimed to estimate the genotoxic/tumor inducing potential of three soil samples collected from junctions of Bus stand (BS), Crystal (CT) and Railway station (RS) of Amritsar, Punjab (India) using Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay (AlRCAA) and potato disc tumor assay (PDTA). The genotoxic potential in AlRCAA was 41.27% and 41.26% for BS; 37.89% and 43.38% for RS and 33.76% and 37.83% for CT during in situ and root dip treatments, respectively. The maximum number of tumors were induced in RS sample (64) followed by BS (21) and CT (9) during PDTA. The physicochemical parameters of soil sample were also studied and the concentration of lead was found to be 95.21 mg/Kg in RS, 35.30 mg/Kg in BS and 24.59 mg/Kg in CT samples.

Keywords: Automobiles, genotoxicity, Physicochemical parameters, pollutants.

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99 Investigation of Cytotoxic Compounds in Ethyl Acetate and Chloroform Extracts of Nigella sativa by Sulforhodamine-B Assay-Guided Fractionation

Authors: Harshani Uggallage, Kapila D. Dissanayaka

Abstract:

A Sulforhodamine-B assay-guided fractionation on Nigella sativa seeds was conducted to determine the presence of cytotoxic compounds against human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Initially, a freeze-dried sample of Nigella sativa seeds was sequentially extracted into solvents of increasing polarities. Crude extracts from the sequential extraction of Nigella sativa seeds in chloroform and ethyl acetate showed the highest cytotoxicity. The combined mixture of these two extracts was subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using a modified Kupchan method of partitioning, followed by Sephadex® LH-20 chromatography. This chromatographic separation process resulted in a column fraction with a convincing IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value of 13.07 µg/ml, which is considerable for developing therapeutic drug leads against human hepatoma. Reversed phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was finally conducted for the same column fraction and the result indicates the presence of one or several main cytotoxic compounds against human HepG2 cells.

Keywords: Cytotoxic compounds, half-maximal inhibitory concentration, high-performance liquid chromatography, human HepG2 cells, Nigella sativa seeds, Sulforhodamine-B assay-guided fractionation.

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98 A Risk Assessment Tool for the Contamination of Aflatoxins on Dried Figs based on Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Kottaridi Klimentia, Demopoulos Vasilis, Sidiropoulos Anastasios, Ihara Diego, Nikolaidis Vasileios, Antonopoulos Dimitrios

Abstract:

Aflatoxins are highly poisonous and carcinogenic compounds produced by species of the genus Aspergillus spp. that can infect a variety of agricultural foods, including dried figs. Biological and environmental factors, such as population, pathogenicity and aflatoxinogenic capacity of the strains, topography, soil and climate parameters of the fig orchards are believed to have a strong effect on aflatoxin levels. Existing methods for aflatoxin detection and measurement, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), can provide accurate results, but the procedures are usually time-consuming, sample-destructive and expensive. Predicting aflatoxin levels prior to crop harvest is useful for minimizing the health and financial impact of a contaminated crop. Consequently, there is interest in developing a tool that predicts aflatoxin levels based on topography and soil analysis data of fig orchards. This paper describes the development of a risk assessment tool for the contamination of aflatoxin on dried figs, based on the location and altitude of the fig orchards, the population of the fungus Aspergillus spp. in the soil, and soil parameters such as pH, saturation percentage (SP), electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter, particle size analysis (sand, silt, clay), concentration of the exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na), extractable P and trace of elements (B, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu), by employing machine learning methods. In particular, our proposed method integrates three machine learning techniques i.e., dimensionality reduction on the original dataset (Principal Component Analysis), metric learning (Mahalanobis Metric for Clustering) and K-nearest Neighbors learning algorithm (KNN), into an enhanced model, with mean performance equal to 85% by terms of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) between observed and predicted values.

Keywords: aflatoxins, Aspergillus spp., dried figs, k-nearest neighbors, machine learning, prediction

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97 An Effort at Improving Reliability of Laboratory Data in Titrimetric Analysis for Zinc Sulphate Tablets Using Validated Spreadsheet Calculators

Authors: M. A. Okezue, K. L. Clase, S. R. Byrn

Abstract:

The requirement for maintaining data integrity in laboratory operations is critical for regulatory compliance. Automation of procedures reduces incidence of human errors. Quality control laboratories located in low-income economies may face some barriers in attempts to automate their processes. Since data from quality control tests on pharmaceutical products are used in making regulatory decisions, it is important that laboratory reports are accurate and reliable. Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO4) tablets is used in treatment of diarrhea in pediatric population, and as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19 regimen. Unfortunately, zinc content in these formulations is determined titrimetrically; a manual analytical procedure. The assay for ZnSO4 tablets involves time-consuming steps that contain mathematical formulae prone to calculation errors. To achieve consistency, save costs, and improve data integrity, validated spreadsheets were developed to simplify the two critical steps in the analysis of ZnSO4 tablets: standardization of 0.1M Sodium Edetate (EDTA) solution, and the complexometric titration assay procedure. The assay method in the United States Pharmacopoeia was used to create a process flow for ZnSO4 tablets. For each step in the process, different formulae were input into two spreadsheets to automate calculations. Further checks were created within the automated system to ensure validity of replicate analysis in titrimetric procedures. Validations were conducted using five data sets of manually computed assay results. The acceptance criteria set for the protocol were met. Significant p-values (p < 0.05, α = 0.05, at 95% Confidence Interval) were obtained from students’ t-test evaluation of the mean values for manual-calculated and spreadsheet results at all levels of the analysis flow. Right-first-time analysis and principles of data integrity were enhanced by use of the validated spreadsheet calculators in titrimetric evaluations of ZnSO4 tablets. Human errors were minimized in calculations when procedures were automated in quality control laboratories. The assay procedure for the formulation was achieved in a time-efficient manner with greater level of accuracy. This project is expected to promote cost savings for laboratory business models.

Keywords: Data integrity, spreadsheets, titrimetry, validation, zinc sulphate tablets.

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96 Plaque Formation of Toxoplasma gondii in Vero Cells using Carboxymethylcellulose

Authors: L. Fonseca-Géigel, M. Alvarez, G. García, R. Cox, L. Morier, L. Fonte, M. G. Guzmán

Abstract:

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite capable of infecting all nucleated cells in a diverse array of species. Toxoplasma plaque assay have been described using Bacto Agar. Because of its experimental advantages carboxymethyl cellulose overlay, medium viscosity was choosing and the aim of this work was to develop alternative method for formation of T. gondii plaques. Tachyzoites were inoculated onto monolayers of Vero cells and cultured at 37° C under 5 % CO2. The cultures were followed up by microscopy inspection. Small plaques were visible by naphtol blue stain 4 days after infection. Larger plaques could be observed by day 10 of culture. The carboxymethyl cellulose is a cheap reagent and the methodology is easier, faster than assays under agar overlay. This is the first description of the carboxymethyl cellulose overlay use for obtaining the formation of T. gondii plaques and may be useful in consequent obtaining tachyzoites for detailed studies.

Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cell culture, Plaque assay, Toxoplasma gondii.

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95 Cellolytic Activity of Bacteria of the Bacillus Genus Isolated from the Soil of Zailiskiy Alatau Slopes

Authors: I. Savitskaya, A. Kistaubayeva, A. Zhubanova, I. Blavachinskaiya, D. Ibrayeva, M. Abdulzhanova, A. Otarbay, A.Isabekova

Abstract:

This study was conducted for the investigation of number of cellulolytic bacteria and their ability in decomposition. Seven samples surface soil were collected on cellulose Zailiskii Alatau slopes. Cellulolitic activity of new strains of Bacillus, isolated from soil is determined. Isolated cellulose degrading bacteria were screened for determination of the highest cellulose activity by quantitative assay using Congo red, gravimetric assay and colorimetric DNS method trough of the determination of the parameters of sugar reduction. Strains are assigned to: B.subtilis, B.licheniformis, B. cereus and, В. megaterium. Bacillus strains consisting of several different types of cellulases have broad substrate specificity of cellulase complexes formed by them. Cellulolitic bacteria were recorded to have highest cellulase activity and selected for optimization of cellulase enzyme production.

Keywords: Cellulose-degrading bacteria, cellulase complex, foothills soil, screening.

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94 miR-200c as a Biomarker for 5-FU Chemosensitivity in Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Rezvan Najafi, Korosh Heydari, Massoud Saidijam

Abstract:

5-FU is a chemotherapeutic agent that has been used in colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. However, it is usually associated with the acquired resistance, which decreases the therapeutic effects of 5-FU. miR-200c is involved in chemotherapeutic drug resistance, but its mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, the effect of inhibition of miR-200c in sensitivity of HCT-116 CRC cells to 5-FU was evaluated. HCT-116 cells were transfected with LNA-anti- miR-200c for 48 h. mRNA expression of miR-200c was evaluated using quantitative real- time PCR. The protein expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and E-cadherin were analyzed by western blotting. Annexin V and propidium iodide staining assay were applied for apoptosis detection. The caspase-3 activation was evaluated by an enzymatic assay. The results showed LNA-anti-miR-200c inhibited the expression of PTEN and E-cadherin protein, apoptosis and activation of caspase 3 compared with control cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that miR-200c as a prognostic marker can overcome to 5-FU chemoresistance in CRC.

Keywords: Colorectal cancer, miR-200c, 5-FU resistance, E-cadherin, PTEN.

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